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OEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

II 

THEMISTOCLES AND CAMILLUS 

ARISTIDES AND CATO MAJOR 

CIMON AND LUCULLUS 




Translated by 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 



.00 



Complete list of Loeb titles can be 
found at the end of each volume 



PLUTARCH (Plutarchus, c. A.D. 45- 
iio, was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia 
in central Greece, studied philosophy at 
Athens, and, after coming to Rome as a 
teacher in philosophy, was given consular 
rank by the emperor Trajan and a procura- 
torship in Greece by Hadrian. Married 
and father of one daughter and four sons, 
he appears as a man of kindly character 
and independent thought. Studious and 
learned, he wrote on many subjects. Most 
popular have always been the 46 Parallel 
Lives, biographies planned to be ethical 
examples in pairs (in each pair one Greek 
person and one similar Roman), though 
the last four lives are single. All are in- 
valuable sources of our knowledge of the 
lives and characters of Greek and Roman 
statesmen or soldiers or orators. Plutarch's 
many other varied extant works, about 
60 in number, are known as 'Moral 
Essays' or 'Moral Works'. They are of 
high literary value, besides being of great 
use to people interested in philosophy, 
ethics and religion. 



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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 
EDITED BY 

* 

E. H. WARMINGTON, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC. 

FORMER EDITORS 

fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. |E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. 

fW. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D. L. A. POST, L.H.D. 



PLUTAKCH'S LIVES 

II 



47 



PLUTARCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
II 



THEMISTOCLES AND CAMILLUS 

ARISTIDES AND CATO MAJOR 

CIMON AND LUCULLUS 



;f> ri^fi^iar- i VI 

H ''.',-... : 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MOMLXVIII 



First printed 1914 
Reprinted 192S, 1948, 1959, 1968 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFATORY NOTE vii 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . ix 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES .... x 

THEMISTOCLES 1 

CAMILLUS 93 

ARISTIDES 209 

MARCUS CATO 301 

COMPARISON OF ARISTIDES AND CATO 384 

CIMON 403 

LCCULLUS 469 

COMPARISON OF CIMON AND LUCULLUS 610 

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES , 623 



PREFATORY NOTE 

As in the first volume of this series, agreement 
between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) and 
Bekker (Tauclmitz, 1855-1857) texts of the Parallel 
Lives has been taken as the basis for the text. 
Any preference of one to the other where they 
differ, and any departure from both, have been in- 
dicated. The more important ameliorations of the 
text which have been secured by collations of Codex 
Parisinus 1676 (F a ) and Codex Seitenstettensis (S), 
have been introduced. The relative importance of 
these MSS. is explained in the Introduction to the 
first volume. No attempt has been made, naturally, 
to furnish either a diplomatic text or a full critical 
apparatus. The reading which follows the colon in 
the critical notes is that of the Teubner Sintenis, 
and also, unless otherwise stated in the note, of 
the Tauchnitz Bekker. 

Among editions of special Lives included in this 
volume should be noted that of Fuhr, Thendstokles 
und Perikles, Berlin, 1880, in the Haupt-Sauppe 

vii 



PREFATORY NOTE 

series of annotated texts ; that of Blass, Thennstokles 
und Perikles, Leipzig, 1883, in the Teubner series of 
annotated texts ; and the same editor's Aristides und 
Cato, Leipzig, 1898, in the same series. All these 
editions bring F a and S into rightful prominence as 
a basis for the text. This has been done also by 
Holden, in his edition of the Themistocles (Macmillan, 
1892). 

The translations of the Themistocles, Aristides, and 
Cimon have already appeared in my " Plutarch's 
Themistocles and Aristides" (New York, 1901), and 
"Plutarch's Cimon and Pericles " (New York, 1910), 
and are reproduced here (with only slight changes) 
by the generous consent of the publishers, the 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The translations 
of the Camillus, Cato, and Lucullus appear here for 
the first time. All the standard translations of the 
Lives have been carefully compared aud utilised, 
including that of the Lucullus by Professor Long. 



B. PERRIN. 



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A. 
February, 1914. 



Vlll 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



VOLUME I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillus. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 

Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

imus. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 

nus. 

Comparison. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

Comparison. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellua. 
Comparison. 



VOLUME VI. 
(22) Dion and Brutus. 

Comparison. 
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 

Paulus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME VII. 
(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

Comparison. 

(17) Alexander and Julius 
Caesar. 



VOLUME VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 
Comparison. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the 

Younger. 



VOLUME IX. 
(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. 



VOLUME X. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 

Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus. 
Comparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 

ininus. 
Comparison. 

VOLUME XI. 

(24) Aratus. 
(23) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



IX 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulua. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(23) Artaxerxes. 

(24) Aratus. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



x 



THEMISTOCLES 



0EMI2TOKAH2 



I. e/ucrro/eXet 5e TO. fiev K yevov<s d/mavporepa 



bs So^av V7rf)p%' Trarpo? jap rjv Neo/eXeou? ov 
TU>V ayav eTrupavcov 'AOrjvvj&i, Qpeappiov 
etc T^? AeovTt8o9 >i/X^?, ^0^05 Be 



'Afiporovov typrjlcraa yvvr) ryeiw a\\a TKecr0ai 



TOV 



2 <&avia<; /JLCVTOI rrjv firjrepa TOV e/ua-ro/cXeoL'? ov 
parrav, aXXa Kapivrjv, ov& 'Aftporovov ovopa, p a r 
ure/JTT^i/ avaypd(f>i. Nea^^^9 8e tcai a . i^ 
at>r^ T?;? Ka/ota? ' AXucapvacrcrov TT/OOCT- 11 



Ato 

(rovro S* eVrlz^ e^a) TTV\WV <yv/j,vd<Ti,ov ' 
K\eov 9, 7T6t KaiceLvos ov/c r)V jvrjcrio^ ev 6eol<$, aXX* 
vodeLa Sia rrjv ^repa OvijTrjv ovaav) 
e nva^ o 6/xi<jTO/cX?5? TWZ/ eu yeyovortov 
Karafiaivovras et? TO Kwocrapyes 
yuer' avrov. /ecu rovrov 



THEMISTOCLES 



I. In the case of Themistocles, 1 his family was too 
obscure to further his reputation. His father was 
Neocles, no very conspicuous man at Athens, a 
Phrearrhian by deme, of the tribe Leontis ; and 
on his mother's side he was an alien, as her epitaph 
testifies : 

" Abrotonon was I, and a woman of Thrace, yet 1 

brought forth 

That great light of the Greeks, know ! 'twas 
Themistocles." 2 

Phanias, however, writes that the mother of 
Themistocles was not a Thracian, but a Carian 
woman, -and that her name was not Abrotonon, but 
Euterpe. And Neanthes actually adds the name of 
her city in Caria, Halicarnassus. 

It was for the reason given, and because the aliens 
were wont to frequent Cynosarges, this is a place 
outside the gates, a gymnasium of Heracles ; for he 
too was not a legitimate god, but had something 
alien about him, from the fact that his mother was a 
mortal, that Themistocles sought to induce certain 
well-born youths to go out to Cynosarges and exercise 
with him ; and by his success in this bit of cunning 

1 It is probable that one or more introductory paragraphs 
of this biography have been lost. 2 Athenaeus, xiii. p. 576. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

l Travovpyw? TOV T&V voOwv KOI yvtjaimv 

ibv dveXelv. 

3 "Or i fJLeinoi TOV A.v/co/juSa)v yevovs /-terete 
o? ecrTi' TO yap <&\vr]cri TeX.eaTrjpiOv, owep 
AvKOfj,(,$a)v KOIVOV, e/JL7rpija0v VTTO TWV j3ap- 
dpwv auro? eirecTKevacre /cat 



II. "Ert Se TTCU? wv 6/j,o\oyeiTat, 
elvai, teal TTJ fiev ^ixret crurero?, TTJ be Trpoaipecrei 

LLya\07rpayfJi(i)V KCLL TToXtTt/CO?. V y&P Tfltt? 

dvecrecri /cal cr^oXat? aTro TWV /jLaOij/jLarajv yivo- 
yLte^o? ov/c eTrai^ev oi)S' eppaOv^ei, KaOdjrep ol 
XotTrol TratSe?, aXX' evpio~K6TO Xoyof? Tivds /u-eXe- 

TWy /Cat <TVVTCLTTQH,.VQ<$ 7T/00? eaVTOV. r)(J(lV 8' Ot 

\6yoL KaTrjyopia rtz/o? r/ avvrjyopia TWV Trai&wv. 

2 o^ei/ elajQei \eyeiv TT/^O? avTov 6 StSacr/caXo? a>? 
" 01)^6^ ecrr/, Trat, crt> fjLi/cpov, aXXa /jieya 7rdvTQ)<; 
ayaOov rj /cafcov." evret /cat TOW TraiSevcrecov ra? 

yLteZ/ ^OTTOfOU? ^ 7T/30? rjSoVIJV TWO, KOi ^dplV 
\V0plOV CTTTOVOa^OfJiGVa^ OAT^T^yOft)? /CO-t aTTpO- 

0vfjL(i)<$ e^e/ndvdave, TWV 8e et? crvveaiv rj irpdu> 

\yo/uLVU)V 0^X09 T^y vTrepopcov Trap rjXtKiai', to? 
* -i f ' 

TV] (buffet 7TIO~TVO)V. 

3 "Q0v v<TTpov ev rat? eXef^ep/ot? :at dcrTelais 
\6yojiievais SiaTyO//3at? UTTO TW^ 7re7raiBev<T@ai 

Tepov ufJbvveaOai,, \eywv, OTL \vpav fjiev dp/jiocra- 

1 virepopuv Sintenis 2 with the best MSS. ; Sintenis 1 and 
Bekkcr have oi>x virfpopwv, shcnved atttntiveness. 

4 



THEMISTOCLES, i. a-n. 3 

he is thought to have removed the distinction 
between aliens and legitimates. 

However, it is clear that he was connected with 
the family of the Lycomidae, for he caused the 
chapel shrine at Phlya, which belonged to the 
Lycomidae, and had been burned by the Barba- 
rians, to be restored at his own costs and adorned 
with frescoes, as Simonides has stated. 

II. However lowly his birth, it is agreed on all 
hands that while yet a boy he was impetuous, by 
nature sagacious, and by election enterprising and 
prone to public life. In times of relaxation and 
leisure, when absolved from his lessons, he would 
not play nor indulge his ease, as the rest of the boys 
did, but would be found composing and rehearsing 
to himself mock speeches. These speeches would be 
in accusation or defence of some boy or other. 
Wherefore his teacher was wont to say to him : "My 
boy, thou wilt be nothing insignificant, but some- 
thing great, of a surety, either for good or evil." 
Moreover, when he was set to study, those branches 
which aimed at the formation of character, or 
ministered to any gratification or grace of a liberal 
sort, he would learn reluctantly and sluggishly ; and 
to all that was said for the cultivation of sagacity or 
practical efficiency, he clearly showed an indifference 
far beyond his years, as though he put his confidence 
in his natural gifts alone. 

Thus it came about that, in after life, at entertain- 
ments of a so-called liberal and polite nature, when 
he was taunted by men of reputed culture, he was 
forced to defend himself rather rudely, saying that 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



<r9ai KOI /j,Taxipio-a(T0ai ^a\T^piov OVK enrl- 
i, 7ro\iv Be /jLiKpav Kal aBo^ov 
Kal /j,eydX.r}v dTrepydaaa-Qai. 

? 'Ava^ayopov re BiaKovaai rbv 
fjucrTOK\ea (frrjal real Trepl MeXicrcroz/ cnrovBda'ai, 
TOV (frvaiKov, OVK ev TWV xpovav aTTTo/Aevos' 
TlpiK\el yap, o? TTO\V vecorepos r)V e/itcrro- 
, MeXtcrcro? JJLCV avrecrr parrfy ei 7ro\iop/covvTt 

, 'Ava^ayopas Be (rvvbierpilSe. 
4 MaXXoi/ ovv av TLS Trpoae^oi rot? 

TOP fJLl(TTOK\.a TOU <&pappiov 

\eyovcriv, ovre ptyropos 6Vro? cure TWV 
iQkvTwv <f)i\ocr6<f)(t)v, aXXa rrjv Tore 1 
cro(f)iav, ov<rav Be Betvorrjra TTO\I- 
Kal Spacmjpiov crvve&w, eiriTijBev/jLa TTC- 
Kal Bta<r(i>ovTo<; wcnrep cupeffiv CK 
airo SoXcoz/o?' fjv ol fiera ravra 



OLTTO rcov Trpd^ecov Tr)v adKricriv eirl TOV<? \6yov<s, 
<ro(f)i>o-Tal 7rpoa"r)yopev0ria-av. Tovrtp pJev ovv 



'Ei> Be rat? irp^rai^ TT}? z/eor^ro? oo/xat? 
r)V Kal d<rTd0/jLrjTO<$, are ry fy'jcret, 
avrrjv %PW>IJLGVO<S avev \6yov Kal iraiBeias eV 
a^orepa /AeydXas iroiovfjievr) yu-era/^oXa? TWV 
eTTirrj^evudrayv Kal 7roXXa/a9 e^i^ra^evr) TT^O? TO 

yelpov, a>? varepov auro? a)uo\6yei, Kal TOU? 
^ / /C / r/ 'a 

rpa^vrarovs TrcoXou? apiarov^ ITTTTOI/? yivecruai 

(frdcTKCdv, orav 179 TrpocrtjKei, rv^wcn 7raiBeia<; Kal 
6 KaTapTvaecos. a Be rovrwv e^aprajaiv evioi 
TrXarTOi/re?, dTTOKtjpv^iv /JLCV VTTO rov 
r6rf Fuhr and Blass with S : T^V. 



THEMISTOCLES, n. 3-6 

tuning the lyre and handling the harp were no accom- 
plishments of his, but rather taking in hand a city that 
was small and inglorious and making it glorious and 
great. And yet Stesimbrotus says that Themistocles 
was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and a disciple of Melissus 
the physicist ; but he is careless in his chronology. 
It was Pericles, a much younger man than 
Themistocles, whom Melissus opposed at the siege 
of Samos, 1 and with whom Anaxagoras was intimate. 

Rather, then, might one side with those who say 
that Themistocles was a disciple of Mnesiphilus the 
Phrearrhian, a man who was neither a rhetorician 
nor one of the so-called physical philosophers, but a 
cultivator of what was then called " sophia " or wisdom, 
although it was really nothing more than cleverness 
in politics and practical sagacity. Mnesiphilus 
received this " sophia," and handed it down, as though 
it were the doctrine of a sect, in unbroken tradition 
from Solon. His successors blended it with forensic 
arts, and shifted its application from public affairs to 
language, and were dubbed " sophists." It was this 
man, then, to whom Themistocles resorted at the 
very beginning of his public life. 

But in the first essays of his youth he was uneven 
and unstable, since he gave his natural impulses free 
course, which, without due address and training, rush 
to violent extremes in the objects of their pursuit, 
and often degenerate ; as he himself in later life con- 
fessed, when he said that even the wildest colts 
made very good horses, if only they got the proper 
breaking and training. What some story-makers 
add to this, however, to the effect that his 
father disinherited him, and his mother took her 

1 440 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



/rar/309 avrov, OdvaTOV & TT}? /I^T/OO? ercovcnov 

7TL rfj TOV TTfliSo? CLTL/JLia TTepl^VTTOV yVOfJL6VT]<;, 

&OKi KaretyevcrOai' KCU rovvavrlov elcriv ol 

\yOVT$, OTl TOV TO, 1 KOLVO, TTpaTTClV CLTTOTpeTTWV 

avTOV o Trarrjp eireSei/evve TT/SO? TTJ da\drrp ra? 



eppififievas KOI 



co? Srj KOL Trpo? TOU9 Brj/JLoywyovs, orav a 

iVWVTCLi, TWV 7TO\\(i)V OfJLOlWS % 

III. Ta%i> /uevToi, Kol veaviKcos eoiKev a 
TOV J,io-TOK\eovs TO, 7ro\iTifca Trdj/^aTa KOI 



" 



6% apx^ rov TrpMTZvew (f)iejji6vo$ tVa/aw? 113 
v<pL(TTaTO ra<? TT^O? rou? Swa/jievovs ev TJJ TroXet 
KOL TrwTevovras aTre^OeLa^, fjKi\i(TTa 5e 'Apt- 
TOV Avcrt/j,dxov, Ti]v evavTiav del Tropevo- 
avru). KCLITOL So/eel TravTaTracriv 77 
TOVTOV e'xOpa fJietpa/cLdoSTj \a(3elv apyj)V i}p 
aav yap ajjifyoTepoi TOV fcaXov ^TT]crL\ew, Keiov 
TO 76^09 6Vro9, ft)? ^ApiCTTaiv o ^>fXocro^)09 taro- 
2 prjfcev. etc $e TOVTOV SieTeXovv KCU Trepl ra 

ov ^v aXX' 7; rw^ ftiwv 



ical TWV TpoTrwv dvo/JiOioTrjs eoi/cev civ^f/crai, TTJ 
Trpao<$ yap wv (pixrei /cal /ca\OKa<ya- 

OS TOV TpOTTOV 6 'Apt <7TiBr)<?, Kttl 7TO\iTv6- 

ov 7T/9O9 'X.dpiv ov&e 7T/309 So^av, aXX 
TOV 



* 



TOV 



Kal peydXas etrtfyipowri 
evavTiovcrOai 7roXXa/a9, Ivia-rdfjLevos avTOv 7rpo<; 



1 rov TO. Fuhr and Blass with F a S : ret. 

2 Trope vo^tvov with Bekker and the MSS. : nopv6/.(.(vos. 

8 



THEMISTOCLES, 11. 6-m. 2 

own life for very grief at her son's ill-fame, this 
I think is false. And, in just the opposite vein,, 
there are some who say that his father fondly tried 
to divert him from public life, pointing out to him 
old triremes on the sea-shore, all wrecked and 
neglected, and intimating that the people treated 
their leaders in like fashion when these were past 
service. 

III. Speedily, however, as it seems, and while he 
was still in all the ardour of youth, public affairs 
laid their grasp upon Themistocles, and his 
impulse to win reputation got strong mastery 
over him. Wherefore, from the very beginning, in 
his desire to be first, he boldly encountered the 
enmity of men who had power and were already first 
in the city, especially that of Aristides the son of 
Lysimachus, who was always his opponent. And 
yet it is thought that his enmity with this man 
had an altogether puerile beginning They were 
both lovers of the beautiful Stesilaiis, a native 
of Ceos, as Ariston the philosopher has recorded, and 
thenceforward they continued to be rivals in public 
life also. However, the dissimilarity in their lives 
and characters is likely to have increased their 
variance. Aristides was gentle by nature, and a 
conservative in character. He engaged in public 
life, not to win favour or reputation, but to secure 
the best results consistent with safety and righteous- 
ness, and so he was compelled, since Themistocles 
stirred the people up to many novel enterprises and 
introduced great innovations, to oppose him often, 
and to take a firm stand against his increasing 
influence. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Aeyerai yap ovrto 7rapd<f)0po<; rrpb^ 

elvai Kal irpd^ewv fj,eyd\wv VTTO <f\oT/ua? epa- 
T??, ware veos wv eri rrjs ev MapaOwvi ^d^r)? 
TOU9 /3ap/3dpov<; yeuofAevqs ical TJ)? M.i\rid- 
Bov (TTpaTrjyias Sia/3oi]0eicrr)s (rvvvovs opacrOcu 
TO, 7ro\\a 7T/909 eavTO) Kal ra? VVKTCIS dypvirvelv 

4 /cat TOU? TTOTOU? 7rapaiTLcr0ai roi"? crvv^det,^, KOI 
\eyeiv Trpb? TOL/? eptoT&VTas Kal Oavfjid^ovras rrjv 
Trepl rbv jSiov /jieTa/3o\tfv, &>? KaOevSziv avrbv OVK 
a>rj TO rov MtXriaSof rpoTraiov. 01 p^ev yap 



d\\oi 7T/oa? WOVTO rov TroXe/LLov ir)v ev 

apftdpwv rjrrav elvai, SejMcrroK\ij<f Be 
dywvaiv, e^)' ou? eavrov virep T?}? 
]\L(j}e xal rrjv Tr6\iv ij(TKt irop- 
pwOev eri 1 7rpoG$oKwv TO //.eXXoz/. 

IV. Kat Trpwrov [lev rrjv AavpecoriKrjv 
rwv dpyvpetwv ^erdXXwv e^o? 
e/jbecrOai, fjiovos elireiv 
rrapekOwv et? TOP Srj/yLOV, a>5 %/o^ rrjv Siavo/Jirjv 



e/c TWV rjidrcov TOVTWV Karaa-Kevd- 



rjpeis eirl rbv TT/OO? Aiyivijras 7ro\/J-ov. 
yap OUTO9 ev rfj 'EXXa&t fjidXicrra Kal 
01 vrjcna>rai 2 ir\r)6ei vewv rrjv OaXacr- 
2 uav. $ Kal paov e/j,icrTOK\rjs crvveTreicrev, ov 
Aapeiov ovSe TLepcras (fJiaKpav yap rjaav ovroi 

1 n Fuhr and Blass with FS : ijSr,. 

8 pTjfTjoJTcu Fuhr and Blass with F a S : A.lytvrJT<u. 

TO 



THEMISTOCLES, HI. 3-iv. 2 

It is said, indeed, that Themistocles was so carried 
away by his desire for reputation, and such an 
ambitious lover of great deeds, that though he was 
still a young man when the battle with the Barbar- 
ians at Marathon x was fought and the generalship of 
Miltiades was in everybody's mouth, he was seen 
thereafter to be wrapped in his own thoughts for 
the most part, and was sleepless o' nights, and 
refused invitations to his customary drinking parties, 
and said to those who put wondering questions to 
him concerning his change of life that the trophy of 
Miltiades would not suffer him to sleep. Now the 
rest of his countrymen thought that the defeat of 
the Barbarians at Marathon was the end of the 
war ; but Themistocles thought it to be only the 
beginning of greater contests, and for these he 
anointed himself, as it were, to be the champion of 
all Hellas, and put his city into training, because, 
while it was yet afar off, he expected the evil that 
was to come. 

IV. And so, in the first place, whereas the Athe- 
nians were wont to divide up among themselves the 
revenue coming from the silver mines at Laureium, 
he, and he alone, dared to come before the people 
with a motion that this division be given up, and 
that with these moneys triremes be constructed for 
the war against Aegina. 2 This was the fiercest war 
then troubling Hellas, and the islanders controlled 
the sea, owing to the number of their ships. 
Wherefore all the more easily did Themistocles 
carry his point, not by trying to terrify the citizens 
with dreadful pictures of Darius or the Persians 

1 490 B. a 2 484-483 B.a 

ii 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOI Seo? ov TTCLVV fiefiaiov eo? d(f>i};6/jLvoi 

Xov) eTTtaeitov, dXXa rfj TT/OO? Alyivrjras opyfj /cal 

<pL\oi>et,/cia TWV TroXiTcwy dTTOXpijcr 

e7rl rrjv irapaaKev^v. e/carov yap CLTTO TWV 

fjidrcov KLvo)v 7roirjd7jcrav rpiripeL^, at? l /ecu 

7T/909 Hep^y evavfjud^rjarav. 

e rovrov Kara /ju/epov vird^wv /ecu /cara- 
v rrjv 7r6\u> TT/JO? rrjv Oa^acraav, a>? ra 
[j,ev ov$e rot? 



a?ro TO>Z/ i/ewi^ d\fcf) /ecu TOU? /3ap/3dpov<? 



teal T% 'EXXaSo? ap^eiv 
dvrl fjiovi/JLcnv OTrXtrcor, w? (f>rj(Ttv 6 TlXdrcov, vav- 



KOL aarrov(f eTrorore, KCLI 



avrov irapecr^evy a>? dpa Sep-icrTo/eXfj? TO 



t9 VTrrjpeaiov Kal KCOTTYJV crvvecrreiKe rov ' 
valwv &>jiov. eirae Be ravra M.i\TidSov 



laropei 

/3/50T09. 

4 Ei fjiev Br) TTJV d/cpi/3eiav Kal TO KaOapov rov 



r) yu-r; Taura Trpd^as, ecrrw 



<pi\o(7o<f)(t)Tpov eTTiGKOTreiv on Be r) rore 

pia Tot? f EXX?7<7^ etc TT)? Oakdaorris V7rf)p%e /cal 



rrjv A.07ji>aia)v iroX-iv avQis dveaTrja-av ai 
e/ceivai, rd r aXXa /cal 

701/3 7reV/c?}? Bvvd/jiecos aOpavcrrov Biap,6vov- 



vewv 

/cat MapSowoy e/jLiro^v elvai 
1 ols Fuhr and Blass with S : at. 

12 



THEMISTOCLES, iv. 2-4 

these were too far away and inspired no verj 
serious fear of their coming, but by making 
opportune use of the bitter jealousy which they 
cherished toward Aegina in order to secure the 
armament he desired. The result was that with 
those moneys they built a hundred triremes, with 
which they actually fought at Salamis 1 against 
Xerxes. 

And after this, by luring the city on gradually and 
turning its progress toward the sea, urging that 
with their infantry they were no match even for 
their nearest neighbours, but that with the power 
they would get from their ships they could not only 
repel the Barbarians but also take the lead in Hellas, 
he made them, instead of " steadfast hoplites " to 
quote Plato's words, 2 sea-tossed mariners, and brought 
down upon himself this accusation : <e Themistocles 
robbed his fellow-citizens of spear and shield, and 
degraded the people of Athens to the rowing- 
pad and the oar." And this he accomplished in 
triumph over the public opposition of Miltiades, as 
Stesimbrotus relates. 

Now, whether by accomplishing this he did injury 
to the integrity and purity of public life or not, let 
the philosopher rather investigate. But that the 
salvation which the Hellenes achieved at that time 
came from the sea, and that it was those very tri- 
remes which restored again the fallen city of Athens, 
Xerxes himself bore witness, not to speak of other 
proofs. For though his infantry remained intact, he 
took to flight after the defeat of his ships, because 
he thought he was not a match for the Hellenes, 
and he left Mardonius behind, as it seems to me, 

1 480 B.C. Law# t iv. p. 706. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rfjs Stco^eo)? [Jia\\ov 
avroix;, &>? jj,ol SoKel, KareXiTrev. 

V. ^VVTOVOV Be avrbv yeyovevai ^prj^anarr]^ 114 
ol fjiiv Tives (paat, Si? eXevQepiorviTa' Kal yap 
<f)t,\odvrrjv ovra fcal \a/j,7rpov ev rat? ire pi rou? 
^ez^ou? SaTra^ai? afyOovov belaOat, %opr)yi,a$' ol Be 
TOVVCLVTIOV yXia^porrjTa 7ro\\rjv Kal fJU,Kpo\o'yiav 
Karrjyopovcnv, w? ical TO, 7re/x7ro//,e^a TWV e 
2 IAWV TTwXoi'^TO?. eVel Se <>i\i,8r)s 6 i 
alrrjOels VTT avrov irw\ov OVK eSat/cev, rj 
rr)v olfciav avrov ra%v Troirfa-eiv Sovpeiov ITTTTOV, 
alvi^d/jLevos ey/c^rj/jLara (Twyyeviica Kal St/ta? T&> 
av0pu>7rq) TT^OO? OiVetou? nvas rapd^eiv. 

Tfj Se (j)L\ori/jLia Trdvras VTrepe/BdXev, a)<rr' en, 
z^eo? wv KO,\ dfyav^s 'Evr^/cXea rov e<~ ' 
a7rovBa^6/^ei>ov VTTO TWV ' 
i /jLeXerdv Trap* avrw, 
Tr]v ouKiav fyreiv Kal (froirav Trpos avrov. 



irepl BeiTrva Kal aKrjva^ Kal rrfv aXXrjv 



jra Ka TrapaffKevyv, OVK pecrKe 
eKelvw fiev yap QVTI vea> Kal 
/uieya\rj<; MOVTO Sew ra roiavra 



oe jLuJTro) yvoopijjios yeyovws, aXXa SOKWV e 

vTrap-^ovTCOv Kal Trap' d^iav eTraipecrOai 
4 7rpoora)(f)\ia-Kav6V aka^oveiav. eviKvjcre Se Kal 
%opr)ya)v rpayyo'oLS, /Aeyd'Xrjv ijSr) rare cnrovBrjv 
Kai <iXori/uai> TOV dy&vos e%ovTOS, Kal 

M 



THEMISTOCLES, iv. 4 -v. 4 

rather to obstruct their pursuit than to subdue 
them. 

V. Some say that Themistocles was an eager 
money-maker because of his liberality ; for since he 
was fond of entertaining, and lavished money 
splendidly on his guests, he required a generous 
budget. Others, on the contrary, denounce his 
great stinginess and parsimony, claiming that he 
used to sell the very food sent in to him as a gift. 
When Philides the horse-breeder was asked by him 
for a colt and would not give it, Themistocles threat- 
ened speedily to make his house a wooden horse ; 
thereby darkly intimating that he would stir up 
accusations against him in his own family, and 
lawsuits between the man and those of his own 
household. 

In his ambition he surpassed all men. For instance, 
while he was still young and obscure, he prevailed 
upon Epicles of Hermione, a harpist who was eagerly 
sought after by the Athenians, to practise at his 
house, because he was ambitious that many should 
seek out his dwelling and come often to see him. 
Again, on going to Olympia, he tried to rival Cimon 
in his banquets and booths and other brilliant 
appointments, so that he displeased the Hellenes. 
For Cimon was young and of a great house, and 
they thought they must allow him in such extrava- 
gances ; but Themistocles had not yet become 
famous, and was thought to be seeking to elevate 
himself unduly without adequate means, and so 
was charged with ostentation. And still again, as 
choregus, or theatrical manager, he won a victory 
with tragedies, although even at that early time this 
contest was conducted with great eagerness and 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvedrjKe TOtavTrfv e 



Ov yu.7)i> aXXa rot? TroXXofc eitijpfJLOTTe, TOVTO 
eKuarov TMV TroXtrw^ Tovvofjia \ejwv OLTTO 

, TOVTO & KplTT)V d(T<pa\f] 7T6pl TO, 

crv^/36\aia Trape^wv eavTov, coo-re TTOV KOI TT/SO? 
^ifjbwvl^v TQV Keto^ eiTrelv, alTOVfievoy TI> TWV 
ov fjLTpia)v Trap 1 avrov crTpaTrjyoin'Tos, &>9 OVT 
av JGVOITO TTO^T^? dya@bs a^wv irapa 



OVT avTO? acrreto? ap^wv irapa 
5 %api%6/nevos. Trd\iv Se TTOTC rot' S 

crKti>7TT(i)v eXeye vovv OVK %eii>, Kopw&iovq /.iev 
\oi$opovvTa /jiyd\r)v olKovvTas rroKiv, avTov Be 
TTOtov/uevov euKovas OVTMS 6Wo? al<r%pov TIJV 
aL^o/^ei/o? Se /cal TO?? TroXXo?? apea/ccov 
KaT6o-TacrLacre Kal /u,ercrr>;<Tei' 
TQV 



VI. "PIS?; Se TOV M?;Sou KaTafiaivovTOS eirl T 
'EXXaSa Kal TMV 'A0rivaiwv Bov\evojjiev(i)v Trepl 
ffrpaTTjyov, TOU? JJLZV aXXou? eKovTas e/co~Tr/vai 
rT/9 crTpaTijyLas \iyovaw eK7T67r\r)y[>L6Povs TOI 

KlvbvVOV, ^TTlKV^riV O~ TOV ^V(j)^f.iiBoV, $7)- 

/naya)ybv ovTa beivov fjiev elireiv, /jLaXatcov $e 



Kal 



e(f)ia-dai Kal KpctTijcreiv eTribo^ov elvai TTJ 
porovla. TOV ovv /M<TTOKXea tieicravTa, p,rf TCL 
dy/jLara Bta(j)0ap<: LTJ TruvTairaai rT/9 






irapa TOV 
16 



THEMISTOCLES, v. 4 -vi. i 

ambition, and set up a tablet commemorating his 
victory with the following inscription : " Themis- 
tocles the Phrearrhian was Choregus ; Phrynichus 
was Poet ; Adeimantus was Archon." l 

However, he was on good terms with the common 
folk, partly because he could call off-hand the name 
of every citizen, and partly because he rendered the 
service of a safe and impartial arbitrator in cases of 
private obligation and settlement out of court ; and 
so he once said to Simonides of Ceos, who had made 
an improper request from him when he was magis- 
trate : " You would not be a good poet if you should 
sing contrary to the measure ; nor I a clever magis- 
trate if I should show favour contrary to the law." 
And once again he banteringly said to Simonides 
that it was nonsense for him to abuse the Corinthians, 
who dwelt in a great and fair city, while he had 
portrait figures made of himself, who was of such an 
ugly countenance. And so he grew in power, and 
pleased the common folk, and finally headed a success- 
ful faction and got Aristides removed by ostracism. 2 

VI. At last, when the Mede was descending 
upon Hellas and the Athenians were deliberating 
who should be their general, all the rest, they say, 
voluntarily renounced their claims to the generalship, 
so panic-stricken were they at the danger; but 
Epicydes, the son of Euphemides, a popular leader 
who was powerful in speech but effeminate in spirit 
and open to bribes, set out to get the office, 
and was likely to prevail in the election ; so Themis- 
tocles, fearing lest matters should go to utter ruin in 
case the leadership fell to such a man, bribed and 
bought off the ambition of Epicydes. 

1 476 B.a a 483-482 u.a 

1? 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 'EiTTCuveircu 8* avTOV real TO Trepl TOV 

epyov ev rot? Tre^delav VTTO /3ao-Xe&>9 eVt 
KCLI vBaTO? aiTi]<Jiv. ep/jLrjvea yap ovra <rv\\a- 



aireKreivev ori 




dpois 7rpo(TTd<y/j,acrtv 
6Ti Be /cat TO irepl "ApOfJLiov TOV 
eyLtto-TOArXeou? yap eiTrovros /cal rov- 

TOV 6t? TOL/5 ttTt/XOU9 KCU TTalSdS (IVTOV KOi 761/0? 

eveypatyav, OTL rov eic MijScov %pvabv et? TOU? 
"EXXTyi/a? KOfJLio-e. /jLeyicrrov Be irdwrwv TO /cara- 
\vo~ai TOU? c EX\^w/cou? TToXeyLtou? /cal SmXXa^at 
TO.? TroXei? aXX^Xat?, Treiaavra ra? e^Opas Sia 
rov 7roXe//,oi/ avaftakecrOai' TT/DO? o /cal XetXecoz/ 
TOZ/ 'Ap/caSa yLtaXicrra avi'aycovia'aadai \e<yovo~i. 
VII. Tlapa\.a{3(i)v Be Trjv ap^v evOvs fJiev 
TOU? TroXtVa? e/jiftifid^eiv et? Ta? Tpiij- 
J)I^ irb\iv eireiOev e/cXtTrcW 
<7&)TaTO) TT}? 'EXXaSo? airavTav TW 
Kara Qd\a,TTav. evia-TafJLevutv Be TroXXwv e 
7a76 TroXX^ aTpaTiav 6t? Ta 'Ye/mri /zeTa Aa/ce- 
Baijuoviajv, <o? avroOi Trpo/cwBvvevaovTWV rij<i 
2 eTTaXta? oviro) TOTe jJL7)$L^eiv Bo/coixrrjs' 
S* dv%(t>pr]<rav eiceWev airpaKTOi /cal 



, fjia\\ov rjBij T efJU,<TTOK\ei Trpocrei^ov ol 
aloi jrepl T^? 0a\dcra"r)s, Kal Tre/^TreTai /JLCTO, 
vea>v eV 'ApTe/jLLaiov Ta crTeva <j>v\da)v. 

"ILvOa Brj TWV /JLv 'EXXryi/wi/ RvpvjSidBjjv xa\ 
iS 



THEMISTOCLES, vi. 2-vn. 2 

Praise is given to his treatment of the linguist in 
the company of those who were sent by the King to 
demand earth and water as tokens of submission : 
this interpreter he caused to be arrested, and had 
him put to death by special decree, because he 
dared to prostitute the speech of Hellas to Barbarian 
stipulations. Also to his treatment of Arthmius of 
Zeleia : on motion of Themistocles this man was 
entered on the list of the disfranchised, with his 
children and his family, because he brought the gold 
of the Medes and offered it to the Hellenes. But 
the greatest of all his achievements was his putting 
a stop to Hellenic wars, and reconciling Hellenic 
cities with one another, persuading them to postpone 
their mutual hatreds because of the foreign war. 
To which end, they say, Cheileos the Arcadian most 
seconded his efforts. 

VII. On assuming the command, he straightway 
went to work to embark the citizens on their tri- 
remes, and tried to persuade them to leave their city 
behind them and go as far as possible away from 
Hellas to meet the Barbarians by sea. But many 
opposed this plan, and so he led forth a large army to 
the vale of Tempe, along with the Lacedaemonians, 
in order to make a stand there in defence of Thessaly, 
which was not yet at that time supposed to be medis- 
ing. But soon the army came back from this position 
without accomplishing anything, the Thessalians 
went over to the side of the King, and everything 
was medising as far as Boeotia, so that at last the 
Athenians were more kindly disposed to the naval 
policy of Themistocles, and he was sent with a fleet 
to Artemisium, to watch the narrows. 

It was at this place that the Hellenes urged 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fpyeiaQui /ceXevovrwv, T&V 
y or i, irijdei, r&v vewv <rv/j,7ravTa<; 
TI Toi>9 aXXoi/9 i>7repeHa\\ov, ov/c d 
3 erepot? eirecrOai,, avvibajv TOV KIVOVVOV o 
o-TOX\rj<? at'TO? re rrjv ap^rjv ra> 
7rapr)K Kol /careTrpavve TOVS 'A.0r)vaiov<;, V 

CLV aVSyoe? ayaOol yevcovrai TT/JO? TOV 
auroi? irapej;iv et? ra \OLTTCL 
TOL? " E,X\,rjva<>. StoTrep So/eel 






amcoraro? ^/evaai r at /ca 

' 



a>9 av&peia /jiev rwv 7ro\/jiia)V, ev'yvwfJLO^vvr) Be 
rayv avfjifjid'^wv Trepiyevo/nevovs. 
4 'ETrel Se rat9 'A^erai? TOU /3ap{3apt/cov cno\ov 



TO 7r\,rjQo$, aXXa? Se 
vjrep HtcidOov 7rpnr\eiv, @OV\TO rrjv 
eicrco TT)? 'EXXaSo? tco/AiaOels a^aadai 
teal TOV Tre^ov cnpaTov rat? vava~l 
7rpoo-7Tpi{3a\ecr0ai ) iravraTracnv air poa /Jia^ov 
rjyovtievos TTjV KCITO, Odkar-rav aXfcrjv fiacriXews, 
Setcra^re? ot Ej)/9oet9, fjurf afyas oi "EXX>7z/e9 TT/OO- 
WVTCLL, Kpix^a Tfo efjiio'TOK\i Si\yovTO, IleXa- 
5 yovra y^era ^prj/jbdrcov TToXXwi^ 7re/A-v^a^T9. a 



TOI> ILvpvfiid&ijv e 

*E*vavTLovfjLevov 8' aurco /jLaXtarra TCOV 



, 09 

vat/rats 

aTTOTrXeucra/, irapw^vvGV Ti 

eV avTov, 



20 



THEMISTOCLES, vn. 2-5 

Eurybiades and the Lacedaemonians to take the lead, 
but the Athenians, since in the number of their ships 
they surpassed all the rest put together, disdained 
to follow others, a peril which Themistocles at once 
comprehended. He surrendered his own command 
to Eurybiades, and tried to mollify the Athenians 
with the promise that if they would show themselves 
brave men in the war, he would induce the Hellenes 
to yield a willing obedience to them thereafter. 
Wherefore he is thought to have been the man most 
instrumental in achieving the salvation of Hellas, 
and foremost in leading the Athenians up to the 
high repute of surpassing their foes in valour and 
their allies in magnanimity. 

Now Eurybiades, on the arrival of the Barbarian 
armament at Aphetae, was terrified at the number of 
ships that faced him, and, learning that two hundred 
ships more were sailing around above Sciathus to cut 
off his retreat, desired to proceed by the shortest 
route down into Hellas, to get into touch with Pelo- 
ponnesus and encompass his fleet with his infantry 
forces there, because he thought the pow r er of the 
King altogether invincible by sea. Therefore the 
Euboeans, fearing lest the Hellenes abandon them 
to their fate, held secret conference with Themisto- 
cles, and sent Pelagon to him with large sums of 
money. This money he took, as Herodotus relates, 1 
and gave to Eurybiades. 

Meeting with most opposition among his fellow- 
citizens from Architeles, who was captain on the 
saered state galley, and who, because he had no 
money to pay the wages of his sailors, was eager to 
sail off home, Themistocles incited his crew all the 

1 viii. 5. 

21 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 uxrre TO Seirrvov dprrdaai (rvv^pafjibvras. rov 8* 
dOvpovvros errl rovrw /cal /3a/jeo>9 



o e^ucrro/cX^ Trpbs avrov 
ev Kiarr) Selrrvov dprwv /cal fcpewv, vrroQels Kara) 
rdkavrov dpyvpiov KOI /ceXeucra? avrov re Bei- 
rrvelv ev rw rrapbvri /cal fJL0* rjfiepav 7ri/jL\r)0f)vai 
rwv rpiripirwv el Se JJLTJ, Karaftorjaew avrov 
Trpbs TOU? rrapbvras 1 a>? e^oi'TO? dpyvpiov rrapa 
rwv 7ro\e/jiLO)v. ravra p,ev ovv Qavias b Aec7/3io? 
elprjrcev. 

VIII. At* 8e >y6v6/j(,i>ai Tore TT/^O? ra? rwv 
/3ap/3dpwi> vavs rrepl ra o~reva ytta^at Kpiaiv /j,ev 
et? ra o\a [JL6^/d\r)v ov/c erroirfa-av, rfi 8e rreipa 



^ >, vrro rwv 



rrapa roi><s /civBvvov? &L$a*)(6evra<i, 009 ovre rr\rj0rj 
vewv ovre KOCTJJLOI /cal \afjirr po-r^res emirrifJLWv 
ovre /cpavyal /vo/XTrcoSet? r) (Bdpftapoi rraidves 
ri Seivbv dp^pdtnv emara^evQis 649 



/cal jL(6(7aL roJLW(TLv, a e rwv 



roiovrwv Karafypovovvras err aura ra 
<f)epe(T0ai /cal rrpos e/ceiva 8Lay(i)i>ie 
2 rrXafcevras. o Srj /cal IItVSa/30? ov 
eoi/ce a-vviSwv errl r^? ev y Apr6/.Liaifo 
elrreiv 

'AOavaicov e{3d\ovro fyaevvav 



rov VLKCLV TO Oappelv. 

"Ecrrt Se r^? Eu/Sota? TO 'Apre/jiicriov vrrep 
rfv 'Eidriaiav alyiaXos et? ftopeav avarrerrra- 
dvnreivei S' avr& fidXiarra TT}? urrb 
Fuhr and Blass with F a t> : 



22 



THEMISTOCLES, vn. 6-vin. a 

more against him, so that they made a rush upon 
him and snatched away his dinner. Then, while 
Architeles was feeling dejected and indignant over 
this, Themistocles sent him a dinner of bread and 
meat in a box at the bottom of which he had put a 
talent of silver, and bade him dine without delay, 
and on the morrow satisfy his crew ; otherwise he 
said he would denounce him publicly as the receiver 
of money from the enemy. At any rate, such is the 
story of Phanias the Lesbian. 

VI 11. The battles which were fought at that time 
with the ships of the Barbarians in the narrows were 
not decisive of the main issue, it is true, but they 
were of the greatest service to the Hellenes in giving 
them experience, since they were thus taught by 
actual achievements in the face of danger that nei- 
ther multitudes of ships nor brilliantly decorated 
figure-heads nor boastful shouts or barbarous battle- 
hymns have any terror for men who know how to 
come to close quarters and dare to fight there ; but 
that they must despise all such things, rush upon 
the very persons of their foes, grapple with them, 
and fight it out to the bitter end. Of this Pindar 
seems to have been well aware when he said of the 
battle of Artemisium : 

"Where Athenians' valiant sons set in radiance 

eternal 
Liberty's corner-stone." l 

For verily the foundation of victory is courage. 

Artemisium is a part of Euboea above Hestiaea, 
a sea-beach stretching away to the north, and 
just about opposite to it lies Olizon, in the territory 

1 Bergk, Frag. 77. 
VOL. IL 8 3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



77 yevo/jLevrjs ^copa? 'OX/^ooz;. e^et Be 
vaov ov fj.eyav 'A/ore/uSo? eVtVX^er/y IIpocT/coa?, 116 
KOI BevBpa Trepl aviw 7re(^vK KOI 
\L0ov \evicov TreTrijyaffiv 6 
Tpi/36/jbevos real j^poav teal 
3 dvaoiBwa-iv. ei> /ua Se TWI^ <rr?/Xa)y e\eyeiov 






avSpwv yeveas 'Acrta? aTro ^w 
valwv rq>&6 TTOT' eV TreXci 
ir) Sadder avres, eVel arparo^ co 



SeiKvvrai Be r?}? a/rr?}? TOTTO? eV TroXXj} rr} Tre 
KQVIV TeioSr real \aivav GK 



coffTrep Trvpi/cavcrTov, eV co ra vavdyia 
l vefcpovs Kavorai Soxovai. 

IX. Twy yLteWot 776/3t e^OTTuXa? t? TO 

'Apre/jiicriov aTrayyeXXovTcov l irvOop^evoi Aea>- 
i/tSav re Kelcrdai KOI Kparelv 'B-ep^rjv TMV Kara 
Trapo&uiv, eiora) r?}? f EXX'8o? d 



Si dperrjv 

/cal fjiiya rot? TreTrpay^evots <^povovvroyv. rrapa- 
7T\ewv Be rrjv ^copav o e/y^crTo/cX^?, ^7re/3 
arayfcaia? /cal Karad)uya^ ecapa rot? 
oi?, eve^dparTe Kara T&V \iOu>v e 
2 ypd/jL/jLara, TOI)? /*,> vpi<TKO)v diro TV^TJ^, TOI)? 

1 a7ro77tAA({fTaij/ Fuhr and Blasa with F a S : 6 
24 



THEMISTOCLES, vin. a-ix. 2 

once subject to Philoctetes. It has a small temple 
of Artemis surnamed Proseoea, which is surrounded 
by trees and enclosed by upright slabs of white 
marble. This stone, when you rub it with your 
hand, gives off the colour and the odour of saffron. 
On one of these slabs the following elegy was 
inscribed : 

" Nations of all sorts of men from Asia's boundaries 

coming, 
Sons of the Athenians once, here on this arm of 

the sea, 
Whelmed in a battle of ships, and the host of the 

Medes was destroyed ; 

These are the tokens thereof, built for the Maid 
Artemis." 1 

And a place is pointed out on the shore, with sea 
sand all about it, which supplies from its depths a 
dark ashen powder, apparently the product of fire, 
and here they are thought to have burned their 
wrecks and dead bodies. 

IX. However, when they learned by messengers 
from Thermopylae to Artemisium that Leonidas was 
slain and that Xerxes was master of the pass, they 
withdrew further down into Hellas, the Athenians 
bringing up the extreme rear because of their 
valour, and greatly elated by their achievements. 
As Themistocles sailed along the coasts, wherever 
he saw places at which the enemy must necessarily 
put in for shelter and supplies, he inscribed con- 
spicuous writings on stones, some of which he found 
to his hand there by chance, and some he himself 
caused to be set near the inviting anchorages and 

1 Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graeci, in.* p. 4SO. 



PLUTARCFI'S LIVES 

cturo? tVra? Trepl ret vavKo^a /cal ra? ^ 
eTTicTKrjTrrwv "Icocrt $ia TWV ypa/jL/jidTwv, el /jt,ev 
olbv re, fj.eraTa^aa'dai, TT/SO? avrous 



6Wa? *rat TroKivBuvevovras vTre TT}? e/eeivav 



et 5e yu?;, /ca/covv TO j3ap/3api/cbv ev 
rat? ytta^at? at crvvrapdrTeiv. ravra 8' ^\- 
fjberaa-rrjcret.v TOU? "loj^'a? ^ rapdgeiv 
roT? /3ayo/3a/3Oi? 



3 eoou e ta r cuio? avw 






ra 



Trvp7ro\ovvTos ov Trpocrrj/Jivvav ol ''E 
Kaiirep TWV 'A@7fvai(DV &eop,vwv a? T^ 
aTravrfjcrai TTpo rr)? 'ATTI/CT}?, wa-jrep aurol Kara 
Od\arrav eV 'ApT/jiio-iov e^o 
8' vTraxovovTOS avrois, aXXa T?}? 



/cal iracrav eVro? 'laO/nov rrjv 
, ical 



4 rof 'Icrdjjibv e/9 tfaXarrav e/c QaXdrTr)?, 

o/jy?) T?}? TTpoSocrias el^e rou? 'AQrivaiovs, a/xa 
3e Bvcr0v/Aia /cal rcarijtyeia ^e^ovw/Jievov^. pd- 
ev yap ov Sievoovvro /Avpidcri crrparov 
6 8' ^ JJLOVOV dvay/caiov ev rw frapov- 
TI, rrjv TTO\IV a^eVra? epfyvvai rat? vavalv, OL 
TroXXol ^aXevrw? I^KOVOV, a>? yur^re v'iKr)$ 



re 



rjpia 



X. "Rv0a 8rj ejuLt(TTOK\ri<; aTropcov TO?? avOpw- 
26 



TO 



THEMISTOCLES, ix. 2 -x. i 

watering places. In these writings he solemnly 
enjoined upon the lonians, if it were possible, to 
come over to the side of the Athenians, who were 
their ancestors, and who were risking all in behalf 
of their freedom ; but if they could not do this, 
to damage the Barbarian cause in battle, and 
bring confusion among them. By this means he 
hoped either to fetch the lonians over to his side, 
or to confound them by bringing the Barbarians into 
suspicion of them. 

Although Xerxes had made a raid up through 
Doris into Phocis, and was burning the cities of the 
Fhocians, the Hellenes gave them no succour. The 
Athenians, it is true, begged them to go up into 
Boeotia against the enemy, and make a stand there 
in defence of Attica, as they themselves had gone 
up by sea to Artemisium in defence of others. But 
no one listened to their appeals. All clung fast to 
the Peloponnesus, and were eager to collect all the 
forces inside the Isthmus, and were building a 
rampart across the Isthmus from sea to sea. Then 
the Athenians were seized alike with rage at this 
betrayal, and with sullen dejection at their utter 
isolation. Of fighting alone with an army of so 
many myriads they could not seriously think ; and as 
for the only thing left them to do in their emergency, 
namely, to give up their city and stick to their ships, 
most of them were distressed at the thought, saying 
that they neither wanted victory nor understood what 
safety could mean if they abandoned to the enemy 
the shrines of their gods and the sepulchres of their 
fathers. 

X. Then indeed it was that Themistocles, despair- 
ing of bringing the multitude over to his views by 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ev Tpaya)Bia fjLrj^avrjv apa$, a")]^eta Bai/J,6via fcal 
Xpil&jAOVS eirrjyev avTolv (rr^y^lov fj,ev \apftavwv 
TO TOV BpaKovTOS, 05 dtyavijs exeivai? rat? 
e/c TOV O-TJKOV So/eel yeveeQat,- Kal ra? 
' 



/cad' r)fj,epav avTw TrponOe/jievas a7rap)/a$ eupt,- 
<TKOVT<; a-*/rai/(jTou? ol icpels, 

TOU? TTOXXOU?, TOV S[liaTOK\60VS \6yOV 

ft>5 a7ro\e\oi7T6 rrjv iroKtv rj 0eo$ v 
2 7T/905 rr]V 0d\arrav aurot?. TW Sc XP r 1 (T t jl ' < P 
TTuXiv e$r)iuLayd)'yi, \<yc0v p^ev aXXo 
%vXivov ret^o? f) ra? vaO?' Sib KOL ryv 
deiav, ov^l $eu>r)v ov&e a"%T\iav Ka\elv TOV Oeov, 



e rfj <yva>/j.rj 



y ' ' K0r]va ry 'AQ^vdtoV /jLeSeovcry, roi><; 3' ev 
rf\,iKia Trdwras epftaiveiv et? ra? rpujpeis, TrouSa? 
Be teal yvvaifca? Kal avSpaTroSa cra>eiv etcacTrov 
3 &>? Svvarov. KvpwBivTOs Be TOV 
ol 7r\elo~Toi TWV 'AQrjvaiwv vTre 
/cal yvvaiKas et? Tpoiffiva, fyiXoTifLws Trdvv TWV 
Tpoi&viwv vTToBexo/nevcov Kal yap Tpe^eiv eifrr)- 
(fricravTo Brffjioaia, Bvo o/SoXot/? e/cacrro) Bi&ovTes, 
teal TT}? oTTco/ja? \anftdv6iv TOU? TratSa? e^eivai 

1 yeveas Madvig'a correction, adopted by Blass : 
parents. 

28 



THEM1STOCLES, x. 1-3 

any human reasonings, set up machinery, as it were, 
to introduce the gods to them, as a theatrical 
manager would for a tragedy, and brought to bear 
upon them signs from heaven and oracles. As a 
sign from heaven he took the behaviour of the 
serpent, which is held to have disappeared about 
that time from the sacred enclosure on the Acropolis. 
When the priests found that the daily offerings 
made to it were left whole and untouched, they 
proclaimed to the multitude, Themistocles putting 
the story into their mouths, that the goddess 
had abandoned her city and was showing them their 
way to the sea. Moreover, with the well-known 
oracle l he tried again to win the people over to 
his views, saying that its " wooden wall ' meant 
nothing else than their fleet ; and that the god in 
this oracle called Salamis " divine/' not " dreadful " 
nor " cruel," for the very reason that the island 
would sometime give its name to a great piece of 
good fortune for the Hellenes. At last his opinion 
prevailed, and so he introduced a bill providing 
that the city be entrusted for safe keeping " to 
Athena the patroness of Athens/' but that all 
the men of military age embark on the triremes, 
after finding for their children, wives, and servants, 
such safety as each best could. Upon the passage 
of this bill, most of the Athenians bestowed their 
children and wives in Troezen, where the Troe- 
zenians very eagerly welcomed them. They actually 
voted to support them at the public cost, allowing 
two obols daily to each family, and to permit the 
boys to pluck of the vintage fruit everywhere, and 

1 Herod., vii. 141. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



, ert S' uirep CLVT&V 



TO Be tyifyKT/jLa Nitcayopas eypa^rev. 
OVK OVT03V Be &)]jj,oa'i(i)v ^prjfiaTcov roi? *A.0r)- 
, 'Ap/crTOTe'X?79 pev t/^crt Tr)V e^ 'Apeiov 
irdyou fiovXrjv iroplaadav OKTO) Spa^/xa? kKaaiw 
TWV (TrpaTevofie.vwv aiTLwrdrrjv yevecrOat, rou 
TT\ripw6r}vai ra? Tpirjpeis, KXetBrjfioS Be teal 
TOVTO TOV e/Ji!(TTOK\eovs TTotGLTai (Trpar^yrjfjia. 
ivovrwv jap tfi? HeipaLa rwv * KOrjvaiwv, 
aTToXeardai, TO Topyovetov airo T^9 6eov 
TOV dyaX/Aaros' TOV ovv /jii(TTOK\ea TT/OOCT- 
^TLV Kal Biepevvtojuevov 
dvevpia-iceiv TrXry^o? ev Tat? 



V7ropf)o-ai TOVS ejjiftaiVOVTas ei9 Ta? vavs 



5 'E/fTrXeoucTT?? Be TT)? 7roXca>? TO?? /uei/ OLKTOV 
TO Oea/Jia, Tot? Se Oav^a T% TOX/XT?? Trapeze, 
yeveas ftev a\\rj TrpOTrea'novTwv, CLVTWV 5' a/cd/j,- 
TTTWV TT/JO? olfAwyas Kal Bd/cpva yovewv 
7repi/3o\a<; BiairepcovTcov et9 T^ vr\aov. 
7ro\\ol fjiev Bia yT/pa? vTroXenrofjiGvot, TWV 
e\eov el%ov rjv Be TIS Kal OLTTO TWV rjfjLepwv 



Kal TroOov <Tv/jL7rapa0e6vT(0v eju 
6 Tot? eavTwv Tpo<pev(riv. ev ot? la'TOpelTai KVWV 
TOV TlepiK\eov<; Tra-Tpo? OVK dva- 
Trjv CLTT ai'TOV fiovcao'iv va\a6ai TJJ 
6a\aTTr) Kal Ty Tpiijpei 

30 



THEMISTOCLES, x. 3-6 

besides to hire teachers for them. The bill was 
introduced by a man whose name was Nicagoras. 

Since the Athenians had no public moneys in hand, 
it was the Senate of A reiopagus, according to Aristotle, 
which provided each of the men who embarked with 
eight drachmas, and so was most instrumental in man- 

o 

ning the triremes; but Cleidemus represents this too as 
the result of an artifice of Themistocles. He says 
that when the Athenians were going down to the 
Piraeus and abandoning their city, the Gorgon's head 
was lost from the image of the goddess ; and then 
Themistocles, pretending to search for it, and 
ransacking everything, thereby discovered an 
abundance of money hidden away in the baggage, 
which had only to be confiscated, and the crews 
of the ships were well provided with rations and 



wages. 



When the entire city was thus putting out to sea, 
the sight provoked pity in some, and in others 
astonishment at the hardihood of the step ; for they 
were sending off their fancies in one direction, 
while they themselves, unmoved by the lamentations 
and tears and embraces of their loved ones, were 
crossing over to the island where the enemy was to 
be fought. Besides, many who were left behind 
on account of their great age invited pity also, 
and much affecting fondness was shown by the 
tame domestic animals, which ran along with 
yearning cries of distress by the side of their 
masters as they embarked. A story is told of one 
of these, the dog of Xanthippus the father of 
Pericles, how he could not endure to be abandoned 
by his master, and so sprang into the sea, swam 
across the strait by the side of his master's trireme, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

et? rr)v 2,a\afMva, KOI \nro6v [irfcras (nroOavelv 
s" ov Kol rb Seifcvv/Jievov ci^pi vuv KOI /ca\ov- 

crrjf.La rd&ov elvai \eyovcri. 

XI. Tavrd re Brj /jieyd\a rov e/LUcrro/eXeou?, 
/cal roi'9 vroXtra? alcrOo/Aevos TroOovvras 'A/3t- 
/cal SeSiora?, fj,r) Si* opyrjv TM fiap/3dp(t) 
eavrov dvarpe^rj ra Trpdy/jiara TJ}? 
(e^oHTTpdfcicrTO yap rrpo rov TTO\/AOV 
el^ VTTO 6//(7TO/<:Xeou?), ypdtyei 
rot? eVt xpovw p,e6ea"rw(7tv it^elvai, 
KaTe\6ovcri Trpdrreiv /cal \eyeiv ra [Be\riara rfj 
'EXXaSi yitera rwv a\\o>v TroXirwv. 

2 Eupf/3iaSou Be rrjv pev rjye^ovlav rwv veatv 
%ovros Sta TO TT}<? ^Trdprrjs d^Loj/na, fj,a\a/cov 
Be Trepl rov KIV^VVOV ovros, aipetv Se /3ov\ofjLevov 
/cal irXelv 7rl rov 'laO/Jiov, OTTOV /cal TO ire^ov 
ijOpoicrro rwv TLeXoTrovvrjcrLwv, o &6/jiicrroK\f)<; 
avre\eyev ore KOI ra jjii'^fjiovevoi-ieva XeyOrjvai 
(f)a<n,. rov yap RvpufBidBov TT/JO? avrov el- 
irov TO?* " 'H @e/jtiar6/c\i<;, ev Tot? dywa-i, roits 
7rpoei;avicrrafjLevov<; paTrt&vcri" " Nat," eiTrev 6 
e/iicrro/cXj}?, " ciXXa TOU? a7ro\ei<t>0e.vra<s ov 

3 o~recj)avovcriv" eTrapa/^evov Be rr t v fia/crypiav co? 
Trard^ovros, o eyLt^crTO/cX?}? <prj' " fl.draov [lev, 
afcovaov Be" 0av/j,d(ravro<i Be r^v 'jrpaoTtjra 
rov EjVpvfiidBov KOI \eyii> /ceXevcravros, 6 fiev 
ejjLicrroK\fj<; dvfjyev avrov eirl rov \6yov. el- 
TTOZ/TO? Be nvos, a>? dvrjp aTroXt? cvtc op6w<$ 
BiBdefcei TOU? e^ovra^ eyxaraXnTeiv /cal Trpoeadai, 



THEMISTOCLES, x. 6-xi. 3 

and staggered out on Salamis, only to faint and die 
straightway. They say that the spot which is 
pointed out to this day as " Dog's Mound "' is his 
tomb. 

XI. These were surely great achievements of 
Themistocles, but there was a greater still to come. 
When he saAv that the citizens yearned for Aristides, 
and feared lest out of wrath he might join himself to 
the Barbarian and so subvert the cause of Hellas, he 
had been ostracized before the war in consequence of 
political defeat at the hands of Themistocles, 1 he 
introduced a bill providing that those who had been 
removed for a time be permitted to return home and 
devote their best powers to the service of Hellas 
along with the other citizens. 

^^ 

When Eurybiades, who had the command of the 
fleet on account of the superior claims of Sparta, but 
who was faint-hearted in time of danger, washed to 
hoist sail and make for the Isthmus, where the 
infantry also of the Peloponnesians had been assem- 
bled, it was Themistocles who spoke against it, and 
it was then, they say, that these memorable sayings 
of his were uttered. When Eurybiades said to him, 
" Themistocles, at the games those who start too 
soon get a caning," "Yes," said Themistocles, "but 
those who lag behind get no crown." And when 
Eurybiades lifted up his staff as though to smite him, 
Themistocles said : " Smite, but hear me." Then 
Eurybiades was struck with admiration at his calm- 
ness, and bade him speak, and Themistocles tried to 
bring him back to his own position. But on a 
certain one saying that a man without a city had no 
business to advise men who still had cities of their own 

1 Cf. chap. v. fin. 

33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrarpiBas, 6 SefjLi(TTOK\f)<; emarptyas rov 
4 \6yov "'H/jLets rot," elrrev, " &> fjLo^dtjpe, ra? /j,ev 
olfclas real ra rei^y tcara\e\OL7rafjLev t ovtc dt- 
ouvres d^vwv eveica BovXeveiv, 7r6\i<t 8' 



eari ii(7Tr rwv 'EA.A.7i>/Sct>i>, al 



at vvv fiev vjuv Trapecrracn j3or/0ol 
81 avrwv /3ov\o/jLvois, el 8' aims 

^ t f P>f / / / 'T'-x 

oevrepov 7)/ia? Trpobovres, avriKa irevaerai TIS rL<A,- 

\i]V(av 'A^7;^atou? tcai TTO\IV e\ev6ipav KOI ^copav 

5 ov %6Lpova KKTr)/jLevovs ^9 a7re/3a\oi/." ravra 

rov ( H )fjLiaTOK\6ov<; etVoz^ro? evvoia KOI Seo? e 



rov }Lvv/3id$iv rwv *A.6ri>alwv, r o"<a? arco- 



\L7rovr<; olyovrai. rov 8' 'Eiperpiea)? Treipw- 
fjievov ri Xeyeiv TT/QO? avrov, " 9 H yap" e<f)rj, " KCL\ 

VfMV 7Tpl 7TO\fJLOV Tt? (Tri XoyO?, Oi Ka6o.7Tp al 

/jid^aipav fiev e^ere, icap^iav Be OVK 



XII. Aeyerai S' VTTO nvwv rov fiev 
K\ea rrepi rovrwv drro rov /caracrrpw/jiaros 
TT}? i'ea>9 SiaXeyecrOai, y\av/<a 



airo e/a? ra)v vewv fca rot? 
eTTiicaOl^ovcrav Sto Srj KOL fjid\icrra 
rrpoaeOevro ry yva)/jLrj KOL Trapeaxevd^omo vav- 
2 /jLa^rjaovre^. aXX' eTret rwv TroXe/uaw o re 
oroXo? rfj 'Am/cy Kara ro <&a\ripi/cov rrpocr- 



avros re /SacrtXej;? fjLera rov rre^ov arparov 
Kara/3a<; eVl rr/v Od\arrav aflpovs totydv), rwv 
Be Svvd/jLewv O/JLOV yevo/jievwv, e^eppvrjerav ol rov 

\6yot ruv '^\\^vwv Kal rrd\tv 
ol TLeXoTTOvvijcrioi Trpbs rov 'lo-0/jLov, 

34 



THEMISTOCLES, xi. 3~xn. 2 

to abandon and betray them, Themistocles addressed 
his speech with emphasis to him, saying : " It is true, 
thou wretch, that we have left behind us our houses 
and our city walls, not deeming it meet for the sake 
of such lifeless things to be in subjection ; but 
we still have a city, the greatest in Hellas, our two 
hundred triremes, which now are ready to aid you if 
you choose to be saved by them ; but if you go off 
and betray us for the second time, straightway many 
a Hellene will learn that the Athenians have won for 
themselves a city that is free and a territory that is 
far better than the one they cast aside." When 
Themistocles said this, Eurybiades began to reflect, 
and was seized with fear lest the Athenians go away 
and abandon him. And again, when the Eretrian tried 
to argue somewhat against him, " Indeed!" said he, 
" what argument can ye make about war, who, like 
the cuttle-fish, have a long pouch in the place where 
your heart ought to be ? ' 

XII. Some tell the story that while Themistocles 
was thus speaking from off the deck of his ship, an 
owl was seen to fly through the fleet from the right 
and alight in his rigging ; wherefore his hearers 
espoused his opinion most eagerly and prepared to 
do battle with their ships. But soon the enemy's 
armament beset the coast of Attica down to the 
haven of Phalerum, so as to hide from view the 
neighbouring shores ; then the King in person with 
his infantry came down to the sea, so that he could 
be seen with all his hosts ; and presently, in view of 
this junction of hostile forces, the words of Themis- 
tocles ebbed out of the minds of the Hellenes, and 
the Peloponnesians again turned their eyes wistfully 
towards the Isthmus and were vexed if any one spake 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ei ris aXXo TI \eyot, ^a\erraivovre<j t eBo/cei Be TT}? 
VVKTOS drro^wpelv real 7rapr)yye\\ero TrXoi)? rot? 

3 Kvj3epi>iirai$, evOa Brj fiapews <f>epa)i> 6 @e/u- 
c7TO/cX?7?, el rrjv drrb rov rorrov KOI rwv arevwv 
Trpoe/jievot, fiorjOeiav ol f/ E\\7;^69 ^La\vO^(roi>rai, 
Kara TroAe*?, 6/3ov\Vro ical crvveriOet rrjv irepl 
rov ^LKIVVOV 7rpay/.iaT6iav. 

Be TO> pev <yevei Tleparr)? 6 ^iicivvos, alx/J<d- 
, evi'ovs Be ra> eyu-icrro/cXei /cat rwv TZKVWV 

4 avrov iraiBaywyos. ov etcTre/JLTrei Trpo? rov 
l~.ip%riv Kpvfya, /ceAeutra? \eyLV, on, e/zicrTO^XT}? 
o rwv 'P^Orjvaiwv crrparrjyos alpov/jievos ra /5a- 

eayye\\t> TT^WTO? avru) TOL*? f/ E\X?;i/a? 
crKovras, KOI BiaxeXeverat /-IT) rrapetvai 
aural?, aXX' ev c5 rapdrrovrau ra)v rre^wv 
6We? zmQkcrQai KOI BiaffjQeipai rr/v vavri- 

5 Kr)i> BvvafJiiv. ravra B* o He/?^? a>? ari evvoia? 
\\eyjJLeva Se^a/xei/o? rjcrdr), KOI reXo? evdvs 
%e(f)epe TT/?O? -rot"? ffyejULOvas rwv VGMV, ra? /i6i^ 
aXXa? TrXrjpovv icad* r)crv)/iav, BiaKOcriats S* 
ava'xjdevras ijSTj Trepi(Ba\eaOai, rov rropov ev 
KVK\W Trdvra teal Sia^wcraL ra? vijeovs, OTTO)? 



6 TOUTWI; 8e Trparrofievcov 'ApiareiSr)? 6 Avcri- 
fjud^ov TT/OWTO? alcrOo/nevos TJKGV errl rrjv cricrjvijv 
rov e^tcrroArXeoL'?, ou: WA' <^tXo?, aXXa /cat &' 
CKCLVOV e^aHTrpaKKT/jievos, wcrrrep eipr^rar rrpoe\- 
6uvn Be TO) e/jU(rrofc\L fypd^ei rrjv KVK\wcnv. 
o 5e rtjv re aXXr;y KoXoKayadlav rov d 

36 



THEMISTOCLES, xn. 2-6 

of any other course ; nay, they actually decided to 
withdraw from their position in the night, and orders 
for the voyage were issued to the pilots. Such was 
the crisis when Themistocles, distressed to think that 
the Hellenes should abandon the advantages to be 
had from the narrowness of the straits where they 
lay united, and break up into detachments by cities, 
planned and concocted the famous affair of Sicinnus. 

This Sicinnus was of Persian stock, a prisoner of 
war, but devoted to Themistocles, and the paeda- 
gogue of his children. This man was sent to Xerxes 
secretly with orders to say : " Themistocles the Athe- 
nian general elects the King's cause, and is the first 
one to announce to him that the Hellenes are trying 
to slip away, and urgently bids him not to suffer 
them to escape, but, while they are in confusion and 
separated from their infantry, to set upon them and 
destroy their naval power." Xerxes received this as 
the message of one who wished him well, and was 
delighted, and at once issued positive orders to the 
captains of his ships to man the main body of the 
fleet at their leisure, but with two hundred ships to 
put out to sea at once, and encompass the strait 
round about on every side, including the islands in 
their line of blockade, that not one of the enemy 
might escape. 

While this was going on, Aristides the son of 
Lysimachus, who was the first to perceive it, came to 
the tent of Themistocles, who was no friend of his, 
nav, through whom he had even been ostracized, as 

*f 7 O ^ 

I have said ; and when Themistocles came forth from 
the tent, Aristides told him how the enemy sur- 
rounded them. Themistocles, knowing the tried 
nobility of the man, and filled with admiration for 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Kal 



rore rrapovcnas aydfjuevos Xeyet 

TCL TTCpl TOV ^IXLVVOV CLVTO) Kal TTapeKd\t, TWV 



crdai TricrTiv e^ovra /juaXXov, OTTCO? ev TO?? o-r 
7 vav/jLa^(TW(rii>. 6 pkv ovi> 'A/atcrretS?;? e 

TOV &e/j,tcrTOK\a TOV? d'XXof? eV^et crrpa- 
Kal Tpnjpdpxovs eVt rrjv /JLU^V Trapo- 
en, 8' O/AOJ? airier TOVVTWV e<pdwr) 
ai^TO/AoXo?, ^5 evavdp%ei 
d7rayye\\ovcra rr)V KVK\wcriv, ware Kal 
TOL/? 'EXX?7^a9 6/?f67}<rat /^era rr}? dpuyKt^ TT/OO? 
TOV KLV&VVOV. 

XIII. ''A/xa S' ?)fJ-epa He/3^7? yu-e/' ai'ft) KatfijcrTO 
rbv (TToKov TTO7rT6va)i> Kal Tr)V TTapdra^iv, ft)? 

^? (f)rj(Tt,i>, vTrep TO 'H^a/ 
7TOO&) SieipyeTai Tr}? 'ATT^/C:^? 77 
a)? 8' 'A/cecTToSwpo?, eV ^eOopiw Tr}? 
uvrep Tail/ Ka\ovjuei'(ov Kepdrwv, ^pvcrovv &i<fipov 
Kal ypa/A/jLaTeLS TroXXou? Trapaarr)- 



cra//ei'O?, coz/ epyov TJV array pdifreadai, ra Kara 



Trapa TTJV vavap%i 



i8a 



TTJV o^rtv, e 

KKO<riJir)/j,evoL ^Larrpeirai^. eXeyovro 8e 
TratSe? eli/at Tr}? /9acrtXea)? a 
KTOv. TOUTOU? /8foz/ E 
, ft)? a/tta /tev dveXa^jfev e/c TWV 
fieya Kal Trepi(f)aves irvp, a/j,a 8e 

38 



THEMISTOCLES, xn. 6-xni. a 

his coming at that time, told him all about the 
Sicinnus matter, and besought him to join in this 
desperate attempt to keep the Hellenes where the) 7 
were, admitting that he had the greater credit 
with them, in order that they might make their 
sea-fight in the narrows. Aristides, accordingly, 
after bestowing praise upon Themistocles for his 
stratagem, went round to the other generals and 
trierarchs inciting them on to battle. And while 
they were still incredulous in spite of all, a Tenian 
trireme appeared, a deserter from the enemy, in 
command of Panaetius, and told how the enemy 
surrounded them, so that with a courage born of 
necessity the Hellenes set out to confront the danger. 

XI 11. At break of day, Xerxes was seated on a 
high place and overlooking the disposition of his 
armament. This place was, according to Phanode- 
mus, above the Heracleium, where only a narrow 
passage separates the island from Attica ; but accord- 
ing to Acestodorus, it was in the border-land of 
Megara, above the so-called " Horns." Here a 
gilded throne had been set for him at his command, 
and many secretaries stationed near at hand, whose 
task it was to make due record of all that was done 
in the battle. 

But Themistocles was sacrificing alongside the 
admiral's trireme. There three prisoners of war 
were brought to him, of visage most beautiful to 
behold, conspicuously adorned with raiment and with 
gold. They were said to be the sons of Sandauce, 
the King's sister, and Artayctus. When Euphran- 
tides the seer caught sight of them, since at one and 
that same moment a great and glaring flame shot up 
from the sacrificial victims and a sneeze gave forth 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

, rov Qe/jLiarotcXea 



KOL 

pevaai Trvras a)pr)crrp Ato^ucro) Tr 
ovrco yap afjia (rcorrjpiav re KOI vi/crjv eaecrOai 

3 TO4? "EXX77<JI>. KTT\ayei>rO<; B rOV fJHCTTO- 

/cXeou? &)? /^ja TO /jLavrev/jia KOI Seivov, olov 
eia)0v ev /LteyaXoi? ajwari, fcal Trpdy/uao 

rj rcov 

ot TroXXol TOZ^ Oeov afia 
KaTKa\ovvro <<6i>r KOI TOL/? 



T&) (0/jL(p 7rpo(Ta'ya r yvTS vyxacrav, w-? 

eucre, rrjv Qvaiav crvvrekeaOrii'ai, ravra 
ovv avrjp </>tXocrfl<o? KOI rypafjLjmdTWV OVK 

icrropitewv Qavias o Aecr/3^09 etprj/ce. 
XIV. Hepl Be rov TrX^ou? TWV &ap[SapiKMv 
vewv AtV^vXo? o TTQtrjTrjs w? av et'Sft)? KOL &t,a/3e- 
(Baiov[jLvo<; ev rpaywBia Hepcrats Xeyet 

Hep ^77 Se, Kal yap ol&a, p^tXia? fiev rj 
wv rjye l 7rX?}6?o9* al 5' vTrepKOfMirot 

r v C-v T f / /i> ? P-> >/ -v / 

eKaroi> ot? rjcrav evrra C7 coo e%et \oyo<>. 

TWV 6' 'ArriAccoy e/carbv oyBoij/covra TO 7r 
ovawv e/edarTi) TOU? avro TOU 
fjia^o/jLei'OV^ OKTwrcalSeKa el^ev, &v ro^orai recr- 
crape? rj(rav, ol \onrol S' OTrXtTat. 
2 Ao*et 5' oi)/<: r^rrov ev rov fcaipbv 6 
o*TO;Xr}? ^ TOI^ roirov o-vv&tov Kal 
yu,^ TTporepov avrtTrpalpovs tear aarrj <jai Tat? 
ftapfiapi/cals Ta? rpirjpeis, rj Trjv eiwOvlav 

1 wi/ ^> Fuhr and Blass with Aeschylus : 
40 



THEMISTOCLES, xin. 2 -xiv. a 

its good omen on the right, he clasped Themistocles 
by the hand and bade him consecrate the youths, 
and sacrifice them all to Dionysus Carnivorous, with 
prayers of supplication ; for on this wise would the 
Hellenes have a saving victory. Themistocles was 
terrified, feeling that the word of the seer was mon- 
strous and shocking; but the multitude, who, as is 
wont to be the case in great struggles and severe 
crises, looked for safety rather from unreasonable 
than from reasonable measures, invoked the god 
with one voice, dragged the prisoners to the altar, 
and compelled the fulfilment of the sacrifice, as the 
seer commanded. At any rate, this is what Phanias 
the Lesbian says, and he was a philosopher, and well 
acquainted with historical literature. 

XIV. As regards the number of the Barbarian 
ships, Aeschylus the poet, in his tragedy of " The 
Persians," as though from personal and positive 
knowledge, says this : 

o * / 

" But Xerxes, and I surely know, had a thousand 

ships 

In number under him ; those of surpassing speed 
Were twice five score beside and seven ; so stands 

the count." l 

The Attic ships were one hundred and eighty in 
number, and each had eighteen men to fight upon 
the decks, of whom four were archers and the rest 
men-at-arms. 

Themistocles is thought to have divined the best 
time for fighting with no less success than the best 
place, inasmuch as he took care not to send his tri- 
remes bow on against the Barbarian vessels until the 

1 Verses 341-343 (Dindorf). 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

wpav irapayzvecrOai, TO Trvev/na \au7rpbv ex 
7re\dyov<; del KOI Kvaa Bia T&K> <TTGVWV /card- 
yovcrav 6 ra? /xez> f EXX?7z^/ca<? OVK e/3 \aTTTe vavs 
aXtrei/et? oucra? KOL rcnreivoTepas, ra? Se /3ap/3a- 
rat? re Trpvfjivais avecnwva'S teal rot? /cara- 

vtyopcxfyovs Kal ySa/jeta? e 
irpocnrlTrrov Kal TrapeSibov 
rot? f 'l&\\r)criv o^ea)? 7rpO(r<})epofjLevois 
efj,icrTOK\i Trpo (recover iv, co? opwvri /jid\i<TTa 
3 TO crvfji<bipov, Kal OTL /ear* e/celvov o He 
vavapxos 'Apia/jievr)<; vavv eywv /j.eyd'X.'rjv 
CLTTO ret^ou? eVo^eue /cat rjKovrt^ev, dvrjp a 
wv Kal rwv /3aGrt/Ve'ft>? d$e\<fra)v TTO\U 
re /cat SiKaioraTos. TOVTOV pev ovv 'yitema? 
AeAreXeu? /cat Sw/cX?}? o na^az/ieu? ' o/>toD TrXe'oz/re?, 
&)? at ^e? avTiTrpwpOL TrpoaTrecrovcrai Kal crvve- 
rot? ycCkKtopacriv iveayjEQr\Gav, eVt- 
TT}? avrwv Tpu^pov^ vTroGTavres 
rot? bopacri TU7TTOI/T69 et? TT)^ OaXaacrav 
/3a\ov Kal TO (7(o/Aa yu-er* aXA,a>f 
vavayicov 'ApTe/jiicria yvwpicraaa TT/OO? 



XV. 'Ei/ Se TOUT&) TOU dywvos OI/TO? 



KOL (pwi'rjv TO pidcrioi> Kare^eiv Tre&iov a 
$aXaTT?7?, &)? avQfXjJirwv O/JLOU TroXXw^ TOP (JLVCTTI- 
KOV e^ayovTwv "laK^ov. K Se TOV TrX^of? 
rwy ($>6eyyoiJiiv(i)V /cara /JLLKpov O-TTO 7^5 dvafa- 
pofievov i><po<? eBo^ev avOis vTrovocrTelv Kal /cara- 
(TKr)TTTeLv et? ra? Tpnipeis. ere/jot 

1 ncuayieus correction of Blass : 
42 



THEMISTOCLES, xiv. 2 -xv. i 

hour of the day had come which always brought the 
breeze fresh from the sea and a swell rolling 
through the strait. This breeze wrought no harm 
to the Hellenic ships, since they lay low in the 
water and were rather small ; but for the Barbarian 
ships, with their towering sterns and lofty decks and 
sluggish movements in getting under way, it was 
fatal, since it smote them and slewed them round 
broadside to the Hellenes, who set upon them 
sharply, keeping their eyes on Themistocles, because 
they thought he saw best what was to be done, and 
because confronting him was the admiral of Xerxes, 
Ariamenes, who being on a great ship, kept shooting 
arrows and javelins as though from a city wall, 
brave man that he was, by far the strongest and 
most just of the King's brothers. It was upon him 
that Ameinias the Deceleian and Socles the Paeanian 
bore down, they being together on one ship, and 
as the two ships struck each other bow on, crashed 
together, and hung fast by their bronze beaks, he 
tried to board their trireme ; but they faced him, 
smote him with their spears, and hurled him into 
the sea. His body, as it drifted about with other 
wreckage, was recognised by Artemisia, who had it 
carried to Xerxes. 

XV. At this stage of the struggle they say that a 
great light flamed out from Eleusis, and an echoing 
cry filled the Thriasian plain down to the sea, as of 
multitudes of men together conducting the mystic 
lacchus in procession. Then out of the shouting 
throng a cloud seemed to lift itself slowly from the 
earth, pass out seawards, and settle down upon the 
triremes. Others fancied they saw apparitions and 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

teal elBwXa KaOopav eBo^av evo7r\mv dvBpwv air'' 
ra? ^etpa? dve^ovrwv 77750 ra)V 'R'XXijviKwv 
ovs el'/ca^ov Ala/ciBas elvcu 7rapafceK\ri- 
eir^at? nrpo TT}? yua^? eVt rrjv 
2 ri>ft)T05 i-e^ oyy \aj,/3dvei vavv 



* ra 



dveOq/cev 'A-TroXXam 
fjcriv. ol 6' aA.Xot rot? (3ap[Bdpoi<$ e 
TO 7T\rj@o<; ev GTva) Kara 



a)? elprjKe 



/ca\r)v e/celvrjv /cal Trepiftorjrov dpdpevoi VI 

6^ oi5re ftapfidpois evd\iov epyov 
XayLtTT porepov, avBpeia yuez> /cat 7rpo0v/^i'a 
Koivfj TWV vavfjia^ricravTo^v, yi>a)/JLrj Se teal Seivo- 



XVI. MeTa Be rrjv vav^a^lav Hep^/9 fiev eri 120 

V \ >/'<- > t \ 

7T/309 T"i]V (iTTOTev^iv eTre^etpei ota 
eTrd^eiv TO iretpv Tot9 f/ EXX?;<rt^ 

a9 TOI^ Sta fxicrov Tropov 
a7TO7ret/)a>yu,ei>09 'ApiareiBov \6yay 
JVM/JLTJP eVo/etTO X^a^ TO %vy/j,a Tat9 

^Aa'iav ev rfi EypcoTT?/ 

Se TOU 'ApiffreiBou /cat 
yLtei/ rpv<f)(t)VTi, TO) (3ap/3dpq) 
, ai/ 8e KaTaK\ei(Tci)/.iev et9 
t icaraa-rriafOfjiev et9 dvdytcrjv VTTO Beovs avBpa 
rr)\itcovr(i)jf Bvvd/jiecov tcvpiov, ovfceri Ka0ij/M 
1 Scjy^TrjTi rf? Fuhr and Blass with S : 

44 



THEMISTOCLES, xv. i -xvi. 2 

shapes of armed men coming from Aegina with their 
hands stretched out to protect the Hellenic triremes. 
These, they conjectured, were the Aeacidae, who 
had been prayerfully invoked before the battle to 
come to their aid. 1 

Now the first man to capture an enemy's ship was 
Lycomedes, an Athenian captain, who cut off its 
figure-head and dedicated it to Apollo the Laurel- 
bearer at Phlya. Then the rest, put on an equality 
in numbers with their foes, because the Barbarians 
had to attack them by detachments in the narrow 
strait and so ran foul of one another, routed them, 
though they resisted till the evening drew on, and 
thus " bore away," as Simonides says, 2 " that fair and 
notorious victory, than which no more brilliant ex- 
ploit was ever performed upon the sea, either by 
Hellenes or Barbarians, through the manly valour 
and common ardour of all who fought their ships, 
but through the clever judgment of Themistocles." 

XVI. After the sea-fight, Xerxes, still furious at 
his failure, undertook to carry moles out into the sea 
on which he could lead his infantry across to Salamis 
against the Hellenes, damming up the intervening 
strait. But Themistocles, merely by way of sound- 
ing Aristides, proposed, as though he were in 
earnest, to sail with the fleet to the Hellespont and 
break the span of boats there, "in order," said he, 
" that we may capture Asia in Europe." Aristides, 
however, was displeased with the scheme and said : 
" Now indeed the Barbarian with whom we have 
fought consults his ease and pleasure, but should we 
shut up in Hellas and bring under fearful compul- 
sion a man who is lord of such vast forces, he will 

1 Herod, viii. 64. a Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraeci, iii.*p. 423. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VTTO (TKidBi ^pvcrff Oedcrerai rrjv 

t aXXa Travra ToX/ia>y KOI TTCLGIV 
Bia rov KivBvvov eVayop^aWerat ra Trapei- 
teal /3ou\ev(TTaL (3e\nov vTrep rwv o\cov 
3 ov rrjv ovaav ovv" etyrj, " Bel ^e<^vpav t a) e/u- 
(TTO/cXet<?, r)/jid<f dvaipeiv, a\X' erepav, ettrep olov 
re, TTpo(TKaTa<TKevda'avTa<s eV/3aXet^ Sia 
TOV avOpwrrov K T^? EupcoTT^?. 

o Hea/crTOAcXr?, " et BOKCL ravra 



" 






wpa GKOirev tea /jn^avaaai Trvras 






OTTCO? a7raa77;cr6Ta rrjv ra^i(7rrjv etc 



4 'Evret 5e ravra eSo^e, Tre/JLTrei riva TWV (3acn\i- 
KWV evvov^wv ev rot? at'^/zaXajrot? dvevpwv, 
'ApvaMiv oi>o/ua, (frpd^fiv /SaaiXel K6\evaas, on 
rot? fjiGi> "E*\\r)crt BeSoKrai rCo vavTLKct) Ke/cpaTTj- 

dvarr\lv et? TOV 'EXX^'crTro^roi' eVi TO 
ia KOL \veiv TI-JV yetyvpav, Be/ucrro/cX/}? Se 
os /Sacr^Xew? Trapaivei (rirev&eiv em rrjv 
eavrov 6d\arrav teal TrepaiovcrOai, /ze^pi? avro? 
fi7rotel Tivas Siarpifias TO?? ffVfjLfJid^oi^ KOL 

5 eXXcret? TTo? T Biwiv. rav& 6 



dfcovcras teal 



Ara 'jrepav ) 
l 'AptcrTetSou <f>povr](Ti<; ev 
e 7ro\\oaTrifjLopi(p T/}? Hep^ou Svvd- 
Biayo0vi(rdfjLvoi TlKaraiacrtv et? TOV Trept 
o\wv KivSyvov rcareffrrja'av. 
XVII. rioXewi^ fJLVOVvrr)V Alyivr)T&v apicrrev- 
crai (f>r]<Tiv 'HpoSoTO?, @ep,iaroK\el Be, Kaijrep 



46 



THEMISTOCLES, xvi. 2-xvn. i 

no longer sit under a golden parasol to view the 
spectacle of the battle at his ease, but he will dare 
all things, and, superintending everything in person, 
because of his peril, will rectify his previous remiss- 
ness and take better counsel for the highest issues 
thus at stake. We must not, then," said he, " tear 
down the bridge that is already there, Themistocles, 
nay rather, we must build another alongside it, if 
that be possible, and cast the fellow out of Europe 
in a hurry." " Well, then," said Themistocles, " if 
that is what is thought for the best, it is high time 
for us all to be studying and inventing a way to get 
him out of Hellas by the speediest route." 

As soon as this policy had been adopted, he sent a 
certain royal eunuch whom he discovered among the 
prisoners of war, by name Arnaces, with orders to 
tell the King that the Hellenes had decided, since 
their fleet now controlled the sea, to sail up into the 
Hellespont, where the strait was spanned, and 
destroy the bridge ; but that Themistocles, out of 
regard for the King, urged him to hasten into home 
waters and fetch his forces across ; he himself, he 
said, would cause the allies ail sorts of delays and 
postponements in their pursuit. No sooner did the 
Barbarian hear this than he was seized with ex- 
ceeding fear and speedily began his retreat. This 
thoughtful prudence on the part of Themistocles and 
Aristides was afterwards justified by the campaign 
with Mardonius, since, although they fought at 
Plataea with the merest fraction of the armies of 
Xerxes, they yet staked their all upon tiie issue. 

XVII. Among the cities, now, Herodotus 1 says 
that Aegina bore away the prize of valour; but 

1 viii. 93. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

d/covT<} VTTO <f)06vov, TO 7rpa)Teiov aTreBocrav 
errel yap dva%aypijcravT6s els TOV 
ov airo TOV {3ri)fjiov TI~}V fyrffyov efyepov ol 



irpwrov fiev eVacrro? eavTov a-iri- 
fyaivev dpeTr), SevTepov Be ^(f eavrbv ejuucrTO- 
K\a. AaKG^ai/JLOVLOL 8* et? Trjv ^rrdpTrjv CLVTOV 
KciTayayovTes ]&vpv/3itio'r) JJLCV dvSpeias, efceivw 
Be oroifiias dpiarelov eBo&av 6a\\ov 
teal TWV Kara T^V 7ro\tv dp/jLaTwv TO 
e&wpi]<javTQ KOI TpiaKoalovs TWV vewv 
2 a%/3t TWV opwv avve};7re/j,"(lrav. \eyerai S' 
Tia)v TWV <f>ej;f)s dyofj,eva)v Kal irapeX- 
et? TO (TTaBiov TOV e^ucrro/eXecf?, a 



o~avTa<; TWV awviGT&v TOL? 



rjfiepav eicelvov OeacrOaL KOI rot? t~evois e 



Kvvew a/na Oavfjbd^ovTas KOI fCpOTovi'Tas, wcrre 



TT/OO? 
TOV Kapirov aircrew TWV virep TT}? 



XVIII. Kal yap rjv Ty 
el Bel TeK/jbalpecrOaL Bta TCOI/ d 
atpeOels yap vavapy^os VTTO TT)? TroXew? ovBev 

OVT6 TCOV IBitOV OVTe TWV KOil'WV KCLTCL 

fiaTL^ev, aXX' eirave/Sd^XeTO 1 TO 
6t? TIJV rjfjiepav eKeivrjv, KaO* fjv eKTr\elv ef 
r (v 6/uLOV TroXXa TrpaTTwv irpdy^aTa KOI nravTO- 
dv9p(d7rois 6/>uXwy /te^ya? elvai Bo/cfj Kal 
Bvvao-0at. 

' fTrave0ii\\fTO Fuhr and Bla83 with F a S : aXAck -rrav 
every duty. 

48 



THEMISTOCLES, xvn. i-xvm. i 

among individuals, all virtually awarded the first 
place to Themistocles, though their envy made them 
unwilling to do this directly. For when the generals 
withdrew to the Isthmus and solemnly voted on this 
question, taking their ballots from the very altar of 
the god there, each one declared for himself as first 
in valour, but for Themistocles as second after him- 
self. Then the Lacedaemonians brought him down 
to Sparta, and while they gave Eurybiades the prize 
for valour, to him they gave one for wisdom, a 
crown of olive in each case, and they presented 
him with the best chariot there was in the city, and 
sent three hundred picked youth along with him to 
serve as his escort to the boundary. And it is said 
that when the next Olympic festival was celebrated, 
and Themistocles entered the stadium, the audience 
neglected the contestants all day long to gaze on 
him, and pointed him out with admiring applause to 
visiting strangers, so that he too was delighted, and 
confessed to his friends that he was now reaping 
in full measure the harvest of his toils in behalf of 
Hellas. 

XVIII. And indeed he was by nature very fond 
of honour, if we may judge from his memorable 
sayings and doings. When, for example, the city 
had chosen him to be admiral, he would not perform 
any public or private business at its proper time, 
but would postpone the immediate duty to the day 
on which he was to set sail, in order that then, 
because he did many things all at once and had 
meetings with all sorts of men, he might be thought 
to be some great personage and very powerful. 



49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 T(Sz> Be vefcpwv TOU? eKTrecrovras 7rt<rK07rc0v 
rrapd rrjv 6d\arrav, to? elBe TrepifeeifjLevovs 

ical arpeTrrovs, auras pep 

elrrev 12 



cravrw' av yap OVK el 



TT/JO? Se riz'a rayv Ka\cov ryeyovvT&v, ' 
V7repr)(f)dv(o<; avrta Ke^prj^evov TTporepov, vcrrepov 
Be QepaTrevoina Sia r^v &oav, "*fl 

" otye fAev, d^orepoL S' apa vovv 

e\eye Be TOL? 'AOrjvaiovs ov rifiav avrbv 
ouBe 0avfj,deiv, aXX' coairep TrXardvq) 



l avrovs yevofjLevrjs ri\\6iv teal K0\oveiv. TOV 
Be %epi(f)Lov 7T/30? avrbv etTro^TO?, w? ou 8t* avrbv 
Bo^av, d\\a Bia ri-jv 7r6\iv, 

^ r'-\-\ V * 

enrev, a\\ ovr av 



> 

ovre av 



4 'Erepou 6e nvos rwv crrpari^Gyv, co? eBo^e TI 
XptftTifJLOV BiaTreTTpaxGai ry TroXet, Opacrvvofjievov 
TT/OO? TOV @e/JLL(TroK\a xal ra? eavrov rat? 
etceivov irpd^eo'iv dvrnrapajBdkXovros, ecfrr) ry 
eoprfj rqv vcrrepaiav e pier at \eyoucrav, a>? e/ceiwj 
/jLv dcr^oXicov re fjLe&rrj /cat KOTrwBrjs ecrriv, ev 
avry Be Trdvres diro\avovtji rwv Trapeafceva- 
(rjjLV(i)v a"%o\d^ovre$' rrjv 5' eoprrjv Trpo? ravr 
elirelv " 'A\?7^r} Xeyet?* aXX' C/JLOV pr) yevo/Aevr)? 

\ A */l'f' * ' v i it ' 

<rv OVK av tjcrua' xa^ov roivvv, etprj, rare 

5 /t?) yevofiei'ov, irov av fjre vvv u/itet?;" rov Se vlbv 

50 



THEMISTOCLES, xvai. 2-5 

Surveying once the dead bodies of the Barbarians 
which had been cast up along the sea, he saw that 
they were decked with golden bracelets and collars, 
and yet passed on by them himself, while to a friend 
who followed he pointed them out and said : " Help 
thyself, thou art riot Themistocles." Again, to one 
who had once been a beauty, Antiphates, and who 
had at that time treated him disdainfully, but after- 
wards courted him because of the reputation he had 
got, " Young man," said he, " 'tis late, 'tis true, but 
both of us have come to our senses." Also he used 
to say of the Athenians that they did not really 
honour and admire him for himself, but treated him 
for all the world like a plane-tree, running under 
his branches for shelter when it stormed, but when 
they had fair weather all about them, plucking and 
docking him. And when he was told by the 
Seriphian that it was not due to himself that he had 
got reputation, but to his city, " True," said he, 
" but neither should I, had I been a Seriphian, have 
achieved reputation, nor wouldst thou, hadst thou 
been an Athenian." 

Again, when one of his fellow-generals who thought 
he had done some vast service to the city, grew bold 
with Themistocles, and began to compare his own 
services with his, " With the Festival -day," said he, 
" the Day After once began a contention, saying : 
' Thou art full of occupations and wearisome, but 
when I come, all enjoy at their leisure what has 
been richly provided beforehand ' ; to which the 
Festival-day replied : ' True, but had I not come 
first, thou hadst not come at all.' So now," said he, 
t( had I not come at that day of Salamis, where would 
thou and thy colleagues be now ? " Of his son, who 

5' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

evrpv<f)(t)VTa T7? //^rpl /cal Si* efceivrjv avrw 
TTTWV e\eye ir\elcrTov 
TO49 i^ev yap "Fj\\ 

B' avrov, avrw Be ri]V exeivov 



KIVOV. 



elvai ^copiov /JLCV Trnrpda'Kfov e/c\V /crjpvr- 
Tiv, on /cal yeirova ^prjcnov e^et* rcov Be 
p-vw/Jiivfcv avrov rrjv dvyarepa TOV eTnei/cf) TOV 
7T\ovaiov Trpofcpivas (f>rj tyrelv civBpa xprj/naTWV 
v fj,a\\ov r) ^prj/jiara dvBpos. ev ^ikv ovv 



rot? aTTOejiacri TOIOVTOS 



XIX. Yevopevos 8' CLTTO row Trpd^ewv eiceivwv 
vOvs 67r%eLp6i TTJV iroKw dvoi/coBo/jieiv teal 
, o>? fjiev Icrropel eoTroyu-Tro?, 

evavTLwOrjvai TOV? e^opovs, &>? S' 01 
irapaKpovGd/Jievos. fj/ce /J,ei> <yap e/5 
ovo^a Trpea-fieias eTT^/patydfievos' ey/ca- 
\ovvrwv & TWV ^Trapnarcov, on rei^i^ovcn TO 
aarv, Kal Tlo\vdp-^ov Karrfyopovvros eTTt 
2 % Alytvrj? aTTocrraXez'TO?, rjpvelro KOL ircf 



Tft) Ti^l(7/jL %pOVOV K T?? 

afJLa Be /3ov\6/jievo<; avi avTOV TOU? 

virdp^eiv Tot? 'A^/^i^atot?. o Kal <rvve/3?}' yvovres 

yap 01 KaKe^ai/JboviOi, TO d\rj0e<; OVK rfiiK^aav 

y dXX* a8?;X&>9 ^aXeTratVoi/re? direTrefJi-fyav. 
'E/c Be TOVTOV TOV Heipaia Kareo-Keva^e, Tr)v 
ev<pviav 



THEMISTOCLES, xvm. f-xix. 2 

lorded it over his mother, and through her over 
himself, he said, jestingly, that the boy was the most 
powerful of all the Hellenes; for the Hellenes were 
commanded by the Athenians, the Athenians by 
himself, himself by the boy's mother, and the mother 
by her boy. Again, with the desire to be somewhat 
peculiar in all that he did, when he offered a 
certain estate for sale, he bade proclamation to be 
made that it had an excellent neighbour into the 
bargain. Of two suitors for his daughter's hand, he 
chose the likely man in preference to the rich man, 
saying that he wanted a man without money rather 
than money without a man. Such were his striking 
sayings. 

XIX. After the great achievements now described, 
he straightway undertook to rebuild and fortify the 
city, as Theopompus relates, by bribing the 
Spartan Ephors not to oppose the project ; but as 
the majority say, by hoodwinking them. He came 
with this object to Sparta, ostensibly on an embassy, 
and when the Spartans brought up the charge that 
the Athenians were fortifying their city, and Poly- 
arch us was sent expressly from Aegina with the 
same accusation, he denied that it was so, and bade 
them send men to Athens to see for themselves, not 
only because this delay would secure time for the 
building of the wall, but also because he wished the 
Athenians to hold these envoys as hostages for his 
own person. And this was what actually happened. 
When the Lacedaemonians found out the truth they 
did him no harm, but concealed their displeasure and 
sent him away. 

After this he equipped the Piraeus, because he 
had noticed the favourable shape of its harbours, and 

53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TTjV 

Tpotrov TWO. rot? 7raXaioLS /3a(Tt\vcri, TWV ' 

3 vaiwv avTiTroXirevo^evos. eicelvoi fj^ev yap, a>9 
\eyerai, Trpay^arevofJievoL TOL? TroXtra? CLTTO- 

T?}? Ba\drrr}^ Kal (TweOiffau "Cfiv fjirj 
, d\\a rrjv ^pav fywrevovras, rov irepl 
\6yov, a>? epicravra Trepl 
TOI* IlocretSa) Beu^aaa rrjv /Jiopiav rot? 
evifcijcre. e/xicrro/cX^? S* ^% ^ 
o Kcojuifcbs Xeyet, T^ TroXet TOZ; 
Ile^ata Trpocre/Jia^ev, d\\a rrjv TIO\IV e^tj^e 

4 roi) netpaiw? /tal r^y 77)1' r?^? 0a\drrrj(;' 60ev 
Kal TOV SfjjJLOV rjv^rj&e Kara rwv apicrTWv Kal 
Opdaovs ei>Tr\iq<Tv ) et? vavras Kal Ke\eucrra^ 
Kal KV/Sepvijras TT}? $vvd/j.ea)s d(^LKo^evT]^. Bio 



TO firijiia TO eV Tl^L'/crt 7reiTOLrip,ei>ov W<JT* 
TT/SO? T^V Qa^aaaav vcrrepov ol 
TT/OO? T^ %aypav dTrearpe^rai', oloftevoi 
rrjv yikv Kara OdXarrav dp%ijv yevtcriv elvai 

La S' rjrrov 



XX. ezt(TTO/c:X Se :al 



TI Trep 
eVel 7<z/> o TWZ/ 



t? Ilayacra? /cat Ste^i/jia^e, BijfirjyopiaiV ev Tot? 
ois e(^>rj Tiva irpa^iv %iv u><^)i\ifMOv fJiev 
/cat crcortfp'ov, diropptiTOV Be Trpo? TOI)? 



2 

IAQVW KG\evbvT(s)v, KOLV t'/cct^o? BoKi^ido'r} TrepaL- 



54 



THEMISTOCLES, xix. 2-xx 2 

wished to attach the whole city to the sea ; thus in 
a certain manner counteracting the policies of the 
ancient Athenian kings. For they, as it is said, in 
their efforts to draw the citizens away from the sea 
and accustom them to live not by navigation but by 
agriculture, disseminated the story about Athena, 
how when Poseidon was contending with her for 
possession of the country, she displayed the sacred 
olive-tree of the Acropolis to the judges, and so won 
the day. But Themistocles did not, as Aristophanes * 
the comic poet says, " knead the Piraeus on to the 
city," nay, he fastened the city to the Piraeus, 
and the land to the sea. And so it was that he 
increased the privileges of the common people as 
against the nobles, and filled them with boldness, 
since the controlling power came now into the hands 
of skippers and boatswains and pilots. Therefore it 
was, too, that the bema in Pnyx, which had stood so 
as to look off toward the sea, was afterwards turned 
by the thirty tyrants so as to look inland, because 
they thought that maritime empire was the mother of 
democracy, and that oligarchy was less distasteful to 
tillers of the soil. 

XX. But Themistocles cherished yet greater de- 
signs even for securing the naval supremacy. When 
the fleet of the Hellenes, after the departure of 
Xerxes, had put in at Pagasae and was wintering 
there, he made a harangue before the Athenians, in 
which he said that he had a certain scheme in mind 
which would be useful and salutary for them, but 
which could not be broached in public. So the 
Athenians bade him impart it to Aristides alone, and 
if he should approve of it, to put it into execution. 

1 Knights, 815. 
VOL. n. r. 55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Viv, 6 fAv Be/uo-roA-X?}? (>pa(r TM ' 

TO vewpiov e/47r/9>}crat StavoelaOaL TWV ' 

o 3' 'Ay9t<TrGt'S?7? et? TOP Srjjjiov TcapeXOwv ecfrrj r?}? 

7r/3aea>?, rjv Siavoelrai Trpdrreiv 6 

fj,r)&efjiiav elvai firjre \uo-iTe\6arepai' 

Tepav. ol fjikv ovv *A0r)va1oi Sia ravra Travcra- 



TWV 



A.aK&aifj,ovL(0v elcrrjyoujjLevwv, OTTO)? a 
T^? 'Aya^t/CTfOi/ta? at fjirf a-VfjL/j,axrfcracrcu Kara 
TOV MT/SOU 7ro\e9, <j6oy8^^et?, firj eTTaX-oj)? real 
'Apyeiovs, en Se @^/3atof9 
ffvveSpiov 7ravreXw9 TTIK parser o> a 1 
/cat yevrjTai TO &OKOVV e/celvois, crvvelTre rats' 
7r6\(7i fcal /jLTeflt]fce ra? yvoo/jias TMV 7rv\ay6pc0v, 
4 StSci^a?, a>9 TpidxovTa fcal p.la fAovai 7roXei9 
etcrti/ at yLteracr^o{}<Tat roO TroXe/i-ou, /cat TOVTWV 
al 7T\Lov<; Travrairacn futepai' Seivov ovv, t 
n}9 a\Xr^9 'EXXaSo? eKcnrov^ov yevofjievrj? evrl 
rat? /Z67tcrrat9 Si/trlz/ ^ rptcrt TroXeaiv ecrrat ro 
e/e TOVTOV JJLZV ovv /^aXt<rra rot? 
Trpoae/c paver Bib /cat rov Kifjb&va 
rat? rt/^at?, avriirakov ev TTJ TroXtreta 
rou 6/jiicrTOK\i K 
XXI. 'H^ Se /cat 



re ra? vr}(rov<$ KOI 
Tr' avTcov ola /cat TT/OO? *AvS/otou9 apyvpiov 
<f)r)<riv avTov 'HyooSoro? etVeti/ re /cat 
. &vo yap rfKeiv <brj Oeovs KOfjL 
t) /cat Bt'ay o* 8* (f>acrav elvai /cat 



56 



THEMISTOCLES, xx. 2-xxi. i 

Themistocles accordingly told Aristides that he 
purposed to burn the fleet of the Hellenes where it 
lay ; but Aristides addressed the people, and said of 
the scheme which Themistocles purposed to carry 
out, that none could be either more advantageous or 
more iniquitous. The Athenians therefore ordered 
Themistocles to give it up. 

At the Amphictyonic or Holy Alliance conven- 
tions, the Lacedaemonians introduced motions that 
all cities be excluded from the Alliance which had 
not taken part in fighting against the Mede. So 
Themistocles, fearing lest, if they should succeed in 
excluding the Thessalians and the Argives and the 
Thebans too from the convention, they would control 
the votes completely and carry through their own 
wishes, spoke in behalf of the protesting cities, and 
changed the sentiments of the delegates by showing 
that only thirty-one cities had taken part in the war, 
and that the most of these were altogether small ; 
it would be intolerable, then, if the rest of Hellas 
should be excluded and the convention be at the 
mercy of the two or three largest cities. It was for 
this reason particularly that he became obnoxious to 
the Lacedaemonians, and they therefore tried to 
advance Cimon in public favour, making him the 
political rival of Themistocles. 

XXI. He made himself hateful to the allies also, 
by sailing round to the islands and trying to exact 
money from them. When, for instance, he demanded 
money of the Andrians, Herodotus 1 says he made a 
speech to them and got reply as follows : he said he 
came escorting two gods, Persuasion and Compulsion ; 
and they replied that they already had two great 

riii. 111. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



aurot? $eoi/9 /neyd\ov<; $vo, Tleviav teal 'Airopiav, 
2 v<j) wv Kw\vea6ai &OVVCLI ^p> t /j.ara eKeivu). 

8' o 'P68/O9 yLteXoTroio? ev aa^iari 
iritcporepov rov 6/jii(TroK\Ovs, co? 



Ka,Te\Oelv, avrov Se %evov ovra real <$L\ov irpoe- 
fievov &i dpyvpiov. \eyet, 8' OI/TCO?' 

' el TVJ Hav<raviap f) KOL rvye zza 



TTOV alvels 



f) ri/ye Aevrv^iSav, eyco S' 'Apiareibav eiraivea) 
avbp* lepav air * KQavav 
eXOeiv eva \(pa~Tov eVel 

A a TO), 
3 tyevcrrav, a&i/cov, irpoSorav, 09 



eovr 



dpyvpiois cncvftaKiKTolcrL TreiaOels ov Kardyev 

e/9 irdrpav '\a\vcrov, 

\a/3a>v Be rpi dpyvpiov rd\avT* efta ir\iwv et9 

o\eBpov, 
TOi'9 /*ev Kardytov dSifcws, rot/9 5' lic 



TOU9 e KClvWV, 

apyvpiwv 

yeXoLws -^rv^pa Kpea 
ot 8' fj(T0iov /crjv%ovTo /j,rj wpav 

yeveaOai. 

* 



4 TroXu 8* d(T\y(7Tepa /cal dvaTreTrra^vr] /n,d\\oi> 
rov fticrTOic\ea /3Xacr0///ita /te^^rat /xera 



THEMISTOCLES, xxi. 1-4 

gods, Penury and Powerlessness, who hindered them 
from giving him money. 

Timocreon, the lyric poet of Rhodes, assailed 
Themistocles very bitterly in a song, to the effect 
that for bribes he had secured the restoration of 
other exiles, but had abandoned him, though a host 
and a friend, and all for money. The song runs 
thus l : 

"Come, if thou praisest Pausanias, or if Xan- 

thippus, 

Or if Leotychidas, then I shall praise Aristides, 
The one best man of all 

Who came from sacred Athens ; since Leto 
loathes Themistocles, 

"The liar, cheat, and traitor, who, though Timocreon 

was his host, 
By knavish moneys was induced not to bring 

him back 
Into his native lalysus, 

But took three talents of silver and went cruising 
off, to perdition, 

" Restoring some exiles unjustly, chasing some away, 

and slaying some, 

Gorged with moneys ; yet at the Isthmus he 
played ridiculous host with the stale meats 
set before his guests ; 

Who ate thereof and prayed Heaven ' no happy 
return of the day for Themistocles ! ' 

Much more wanton and extravagant was the raillery 
which Timocreon indulged in against Themistocles 

1 No attempt is made in the translations of Timocreon to 
imitate the metre of the original. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rrjv fywyi-jv avrov fcal rqv KaraBiKrjv o 



, ov ecrrtv 



Moutra Tov&e rov /ue 
/eXeo? av "EXXam? ri 

O)? OIKOS Kdi SlKCUOV. 

\eyerai S* o TipoKpewv cVl 
5 avyKaTa^rrifyLcraiJLZVov rov e/Ai(rTOK\eov<s. co? 
ovv o efJLiaToK\i)s airlav ecr^e fjirjSi^etv, ravr 
eiroirjcrev et? avrov 

OVK apa Ti/AO/cpewv povvos MtfSoicriv 6p/cia- 



\X* eVrt KO\\OI Srj iroinjpoi OVK eya) fiova 



evrl KOI aXXat aXco 

XXII. "H&r) Be KOI TWV TTO\ITWV Sict TO <pQo- 12 
velv 7ySea>? ra? 6tay8oXa? irpocriep,va)v tjvayKci&To 
XuTrr/yoo? elvat, TWV avrov irpd^ewv TroXXa/a? eV 
TCO 8r;/i&) fivrjfjiovevwv Kal TT/JO? rov? ^vd^epai- 
vovias " Ti ACOTrmre," elrrev, " VTTO TCOV avrwv 
TroXXa/ft? f5 Trdor^ovre^; ' r)via&e Be TO vs TroX- 
Xoi)? /cat TO T?}? 'ApreyiiiSo? /epoi' elcrdfievos, rjv 



Trpocrrjyopevo-ev, a>? apLcrra 
2 rff TroXei Kal TO?? "EXXT/crj /9oL'Xeuo"a / ctei/o?, TrX^;- 
crtoz^ Se T?}<? otVta? Ka-recfKevaaev ev MeXtT?; TO 
tepov, ov vvv ra aw/jLara r&v davarovfjievwv ol 
7rpo/3d\\ovcrt /cal ra i/jbdria KOI T0i>9 
TWV aTrayxo^evfov /cal KaOaipeOevrwv 

TOI> 
60 



THEMISTOCLES, xxi. 4 -xxn. 2 

after the latter's own exile and condemnation. Then 
he composed the song beginning : 

" O Muse, grant that this song 

Be famed throughout all Hellas, 
As it is meet and just." 

It is said that Timocreon was sent into exile on a 
charge of Medising, and that Themistocles concurred 
in the vote of condemnation. Accordingly, when 
Themistocles also was accused of Medising, Timo- 
creon composed these lines upon him : 

"Not Timocreon alone, then, made compacts with 

the Medes, 
But there are other wretches too ; not I alone am 

brushless, 
There are other foxes too." 

XXII. And at last, when even his fellow-citizens 
were led by their jealousy of his greatness to welcome 
such slanders against him, he was forced to allude 
to his own achievements when he addressed the 
Assembly, till he became tiresome thereby, and he 
once said to the malcontents : " Why are ye vexed 
that the same men should often benefit you ? ' 
He offended the multitude also by building the 
temple of Artemis, whom he surnamed Aristoboule, 
or Best Counsellor, intimating thus that it was he 
who had given the best counsel to the city and to 
the Hellenes. This temple he established near his 
house in Melite, where now the public officers cast 
out the bodies of those who have been put to death, 
and carry forth the garments and the nooses of 
those who have dispatched themselves by hanging. 
A portrait-statue of Themistocles stood in this 

61 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elfcoviov ev rS> vap rrjs 'ApiaroftovXr)? eri 
rjfjbas' fcal fyaiveral n<$ ov r^v ifrv%r]V /JLOVOV, 
ttXXa /col TTJV o^iv rjpwtKOS ryevo/jLevos. 
3 Tov /jiev ovv e^oarrpaKia-fjiov erroirfcravTO KCLT 
avrov KciXovovres TO a%iw[jLa KOL rrjv 
&(T7rep la)0(rav CTTL irdvTwv, ou? (oovro 
8vvd/j,ei /3a/}66? KOI TT/JO? la-orrjra Bij l aoKpariKr]i' 
GLVCLI. AroXacri? jap OVK r]v o e^o- 
Os, aXXa Trapajnvdua <p@6vov real KOV- 
r]8ofjievov TO) raireivovv rou? 
teal TTjV 8va-fjiViav eh ravrrjv rrjv 



XXIII. 'E/e7Tcroi'To? Se TT}? TroXew? avrov KOI 
ev "Apyei ra irepl \\avaavlav 



ireaovra KCLT e/celvov Trapea"%e rot? 
. 6 8e ?aa/,ej'0? avrov 



771* o 'AX/c^atw^o? *A>ypav\r)dV, a/na 
rwv ^Trapriaroyv. 6 yap Ylav- 



rrprrwv efceiva r) ra rrep TIJV 
TTporepov /j,ev direKpvrrrero rov 






2 Kairrep ovra $>\ov &)? eev K7T7rrci)xra 

KOL (pepovra ^aXeTrw? eOdpa-ri&ev errl 
icoivwviav rwv Trparro/jLevwv rrapaKa\elv, 

rov /^arrtXea)? emSeiKvviJievos avr 
KOI Trapo^vvwv eVI TOU? EXX^^a? &>? 
Kal tt^aptcTToL'?. 6 Se TT)^ JJLCV 8erjcrLV d 
rov Tlaucraviov teal r^v Koivwviav oXfW9a7ret7ra.ro, 
ov&eva 5e TOU? Xo^ou? e^vejKev ovBe /care- 
ri]v 7rpaf;ii>, ei're iravaeo'OaL 

1 ypd.fj./j.aTa Fuhr and Blass with F a S : TO 

6a 



THEMISTOCLES, xxn. 2-xxin. 2 

temple of Arislohoule down to my time, from which 
he appears to have been a man not only of heroic 
spirit, but also of heroic presence. 

Well then, they visited him with ostracism, 1 
curtailing his dignity and pre-eminence, as they 
were wont to do in the case of all whom they 
thought to have oppressive power, and to be incom- 
mensurate with true democratic equality. For 
ostracism was not a penalty, but a way of pacifying 
and alleviating that jealousy which delights to 
humble the eminent, breathing out its malice into 
this disfranchisement. 

XX 111. After he had been thus banished from 
the city, and while he was sojourning at Argos, 
circumstances connected with the death of Pausanias 
gave his enemies at Athens ground for proceeding 
against him. The one who actually brought in the 
indictment against him for treason was Leobotes the 
son of Alcmeon, of the deme Agraule, but the 
Spartans supported him in the accusation. Pau- 
sanias, while engaged in his grand scheme of 
treachery, at first kept it concealed from Them- 
istocles ; but when he saw him thus banished from 
his state and in great bitterness of spirit, he made 
bold to invite him into partnership in his own under- 
takings, showing him a letter he had received from 
the King, and inciting him against the Hellenes as 
a base and thankless people. Themistocles rejected 
the solicitation of Pausanias, and utterly refused the 
proffered partnership ; and yet he disclosed the 
propositions to no one, nor did he even give informa- 
tion of the treacherous scheme, because he expected 
either that Pausanias would give it up of his own 

1 About 472 B.O. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avrov, etr' aXXo>? tcaTCKpavr) yev^crecrdai, crvv 
ovo'evl \oyia-fjbw Trpay/judroov droTtwv /cal irapa- 



Ovrw &rj rov Tlavaai'LOV OavarwOevros 
aroXai, rives dvevpeOeLcrai /cal ypd/^fiara 
rovrwv el<; virotylav eve(3a\ov rbv 



KOI fcareotov jikv avrov 



povv o ()oi>ovvTes TGOV iroiTwv, ov Trapovros, 
a\\a Sid, rypafJL/jLdrcov a i rro\o < yov^evov /jLaXiaTa 
4 rat? TrpOTepais KartjyopLaiS' 3ia/3aXXoyLtei/o? <yap 
VTTO TWV fydptov TTpbs Tov$ TToXtra? eypa(f)v, to? 
[lev ael ^rjrwv, ap%ecr9ai Be //.^ 7re<f)VKobs 
ouXo/^e^o?, OVK av irore (BapjBdpois avrov 
ovSe 7ro\jjLiois 1 aTToBocrdai fiera rijs ' 
ov fJir)V d\\a av^TreLaOels VTTO T&V 
6 Sfj/jios eirefji^ev avSpas, ot? e'lpTjro <rv\\a/ji/3dveiv 
Kal dvdyeiv' 2 avrov Kpi0r)cr6p,evov ev Tol^ r 'E t \\7]aiv. 
XXIV. YipoaiffOojjiGvos $ eKelvos etsr Kep/cvpav 
SieTrepacrev, ovatjs av7U> Trpo? rrjv TTO\IV evepyecrias. 
yap avrcov Kpni]? TT/OO? K.opiv0[,ov<; 



CLKOCTL 



rakavra icpivas TOV<$ ^.opivOLov^ Kara(Ba\eZv 
Aev/cdSa tcoivy vepeiv d/jL^orepcov CLTTOIKOV. 
8' els "H.7reipov (j)vye' /cal ^LUKO/JLEVOS virb roov 
1 A.@ijvairov /cal TWV AaKeBat/AOi'iwv eppt^ev avrov 
els \7riSas ^aXevra? fcal drropovs Karafyvywv Trpos 
"ASjjLTjrov, os /3acri\evs f^ev rjr MoXorrw^, SerjOels 
&e n rcov 'AOrjvaiwv /cal 7rpo7r?;Xa/^cr^el? inro rov 

1 avrbv ou5e no\e/j.iois Fuhr and Blass with F a S : /cal 
filois avrbv. 2 avdyeiv Fuhr and Blass with S : &yeiv. 

64 



THEMISTOCLES, xxm. 2 -xxiv. 2 

accord, or that in some other way he would be found 
out, since he was so irrationally grasping after such 
strange and desperate objects. 

And so it was that, when Pausanias had been put 
to death, certain letters and documents regarding 
these matters were discovered which cast suspicion 
on Theinistocles. The Lacedaemonians cried him 
down, and his envious fellow-citizens denounced 
him, though he was not present to plead his cause, 
but defended himself in writing, making particular 
use of earlier accusations brought against him. Since 
he was once slanderously accused by his enemies 
before his fellow-citizens so he wrote, as one who 
ever sought to rule, but had no natural bent nor 
even the desire to be ruled, he could never have 
sold himself with Hellas to Barbarians, much less to 
foemen. The people, however, were overpersuaded 
by his accusers, and sent men with orders to arrest 
him and bring him up in custody to stand trial 
before a Congress of Hellenes. 

XXIV. But he heard of this in advance, and 
crossed over to Corcyra, where he had been recog- 
nized as a public benefactor of the city. For he had 
served as arbiter in a dispute between them and the 
Corinthians, and settled the quarrel by deciding 
that the Corinthians should pay an indemnity of 
twenty talents, and administer Leucas as a common 
colony of both cities. Thence he fled to Epirus, and 
being pursued by theAthenians and Lacedaemonians, 
he threw himself upon grievous and desperate 
chances of escape by taking refuge with Admetus, 
who was king of the Molossians, and who, since he 
had once asked some favour of the Athenians and 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



e/w<TTO/cXeov9, or rjtcfjLa^ev ev rfj rro\i,reta t oY 
opyijs el%ev avrov del KOI ?}Xo9 fjv, el Xa/3ot, 124 
rtfJiwprja-o/Aevos. ev Be rfj rare rv^rj fjid\\ov o 
@e/JLiaroK\rj^ <f>o/3t]0els crvyyevr) Kal rrpbcrfyarov 
6vov 0/377}? vraXam? Kal /SacriXt/c?}?, ravrrj 
VTredrjKev eavrov, l/cerr;*; rov 'AS/x^rou 
I&LOV viva KOL 7rap?]\\ay/jLevov rpoirov. 
3 eywv yap avrov rov vlov ovra rral&a vrpo? rrjv 
eariav rrpoaeTrecre, ravrrjv /jLeyiarr^v teal fiori^v 
cr^e^ov dvavrLpprjrov i]yov^vwv l/cecriav rwv 
MoXocrcraii;. evioi fiev ovv QOiav rrjv yvval/ca rov 
\eyovcriv vrroOecrOai rw Se/jn,(rro/c\el TO 
rovro KOI rov vlov eVl rrjv ecrriav 
tcaOtorai fjuer avrov' rive? 8' avrov rov "ASfMijrov, 
a>5 a^oaiaxrairo TT/OO? TOU? o'iMKOvras ri^v 
avdytcrjv, Si YJV ov/c e/cBi^cocTL rov avSpa, 
/cal crvvrpayw&ricrai, ri]V iKeaiav. 

t 5* avrw rrjv yvvai/ea Kal rovs 

IK rwv *K6r)vwv 'E,rriKpa.rr)s o 
drrecrretXev ov errl rovrw KLJJLWV vcrrepov 
edavdrco<rev, w? icrropei 3<rrj(ri/jL/3poro<;. eZr* OVK 
oI8' OTTO)? e7ri\a06/jivos rovrwv rj rov 
TTOLWV 7rt\ad6/Ai'Ov TrXev&ai (frrjcriv 
Kal rrap* 'lepcovos alreiv rov rvpdvvov rrjv Ovya- 
repa rrpos ydfjiov, vTria")(vov/j,evov avr<p rovs 



TOV 'lepwvos, ovrws et? rrjv 'Acriav drrcipai. 

1 ^TroTpi^a/j,6vov Fuhr and Blass with S : 
66 



THEiMISTOCLES, xxiv. 2-4 

had been insultingly refused it by Themistocles, then 
at the height of his political influence, was angry 
with him ever after, and made it plain that he would 
take vengeance on him if he caught him. But in 
the desperate fortune of that time Themistocles was 
more afraid of kindred and recent jealousy than of 
an anger that was of long standing and royal, and 
promptly cast himself upon the king's mercy, mak- 
ing himself the suppliant of Admetus in a way quite 
peculiar and extraordinary. That is to say, he took 
the young son of the king in his arms and threw him- 
self down at the hearth ; a form of supplication 
which the Molossians regarded as most sacred, and 
as almost the only one that might not be refused. 
Some, it is true, say that it was Phthia, the wife of 
the king, who suggested this form of supplication to 
Themistocles, and that she seated her son on the 
hearth with him ; and certain others that Admetus 
himself, in order that he might give a religious sanc- 
tion to the necessity that was upon him of not 
surrendering the man, arranged beforehand and 
solemnly rehearsed with him the supplication scene. 
Thither his wife and children were privily removed 
from Athens and sent to him by Epicrates of the 
deme Acharnae, who, for this deed, was afterwards 
convicted by Cimon and put to death, as Stesimbro- 
tus relates. Then, somehow or other, Stesimbrotus 
forgets this, or makes Themistocles forget it, and 
says he sailed to Sicily and demanded from Hiero 
the tyrant the hand of his daughter in marriage, 
promising as an incentive that he would make the 
Hellenes subject to his sway ; but that Hiero re- 
pulsed him, and so he set sail for Asia. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



XXV. Tavra 8' OVK elxos e&Tiv ovrco 
e60/oacrro? yap ev TOL<J Tlepl j3aori\das laropel 
TOV e/^crTO/cXeo. Tre/u^a^TO? els 'O\vfiiriav 
*Iep(DVO<s ITTTTOVS dywvicrTas KOI (r/crjvijv Tiva 
KaT6o~Kvacr/j.evT)V TroXirreXw? aTrjcravTO^, eiTrelv 
ev rot? r/ EX.X?7crt \6yov, &)9 %/3^ r^v <TKrjvr]V 
SiapTrdcrat TOV rvpavvov KOI Kw\vcrai rou? WTTTOU? 
2 acovicracrQaL. ovKV$L&r}<$ e faiffi icai 7r\evcrai 
eVl rqv krepav /cara/Savra QaX-aaaav airo 
, ovSevos ei&oros ocrr/-? efr; 
v TTvev/JLan TT)? oX/ca'8o? 



VTTO 



rore </>o/3?7$et? ava^ei^eiev eavTov TM re 
fcal TO) Kv(Bepvr]Trj, KOI TO, fj,ev Seoyttei/o?, ra 8 
a.7rei\Mv Kal \eycov, OTL KaTijyopiicroi, KOI tcaTa- 
fyevcroiTO Trpos TOU? 'A^vatou?, fe>? OL'.V dyvoovv- 
re?, aXXa xpri/jLacn TreiaQevTes ef 'Vx^ ? > avd\dfB- 
oiev avTov, oi>TO)<f avayKaaeie TrapaTrXevcrai 
3 \aftecr6ai T>}<? 'ATta?. rwv 8e Xprj/JL 
TroXXa /zey vTTKK\aTrevTa $ia TWV 

eVXet* rail' 8e fyavepwv yevo/j-evcov /cal 

61? TO Srj/AOCTlOV eOTTO/iTTO? 



TO TrX^o?, oi)8e Tpiwv a^ia Ta\('ivT(ov 

TOV 



XXVI. 'ETret Se KaT7r\V(TV et? KV/JLIJV KCU 
TroXXoi)? y(T0TO TWV rrl Oa\aTTr) Trapa^ 
TOVTCLS avTov \aflelv, yLtaX/crra 8e rou? 

/tat Ilf^oSropoi; (?}i/ 7^/3 17 0>ipa 
^? rot? TO KepSaiveiv airo Trai^ro? dyaTraicri, 



68 



THEMISTOCLES, xxv. i-xxvi. i 

XXV. But it is not likely that this was so. For 

/ 

Theophrastus, in his work " On Royalty/' tells how, 
when Hiero sent horses to compete at Olympia, and 
set up a sort of booth there with very costly decora- 
tions, Themistocles made a speech among the 
assembled Hellenes, urging them to tear down the 
booth of the tyrant and prevent his horses from 
competing. And Thucydides 1 says that he made 
his way across the country to the sea, and set sail 
from Pydna, no one of the passengers knowing who 
he was until, when the vessel had been carried by 
a storm to Naxos, to which the Athenians at that 
time were laying siege, 2 he was terrified, and dis- 
closed himself to the master and the captain of the 
ship, and partly by entreaties, partly by threats, 
actually declaring that he would denounce and vilify 
them to the Athenians as having taken him on 
board at the start in no ignorance but under bribes, 
in this way compelled them to sail by and make 
the coast of Asia. Of his property, much was secretly 
abstracted for him by his friends and sent across the 
sea to Asia ; but the sum total of that which was 
brought to light and confiscated amounted to one 
hundred talents, according to Theopompus, Theo- 
phrastus says eighty, and yet Themistocles did 
not possess the worth of three talents before he 
entered political life. 

XXVI. After landing at Cyme, and learning that 
many people on the coast were watching to seize 
him, and especially Ergoteles and Pythodorus, for 
the chase was a lucrative one to such as were fond 
of getting gain from any and every source, since 

1 i. 137. a About 469 B.C. 

69 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eTTLKeKrjpvyfjLGvwv avrca raXavrMv vrro 
TOV /3acri\e&>?), etyvyev et? Alyds, KLO\LKOV 
r jro\LO'/jidriov, VTTO TCCLVTWV dyvoovfievos ir\^v TOV 
%evov NiKoyevovs, o? AioXeroz; 7r\LO'Tr]v ovalav 



K6KTrjTO KCU TOt? CLVW 



2 Trapa TOVTM Kpvn"TofJLevos ^/jiepa^ o\iyas 
elra yuera TO SeiTrvov etc Overlap r/i/o? " 
o TWV reicvwv TOV NiKoyevovs TraiBaywyos tc<f)pwv 
/cal OeotyoprjTOS dvetywv^crev 



TaVTL' 



NVKT! (wvv, VVKT\ ftovXjV, VVKT\ 



Kal fjL6Ta TavTa KOi/jLrjOels 6 e/Lticrro/cX?;? ovap 
eSo^ev ISelv Spd/covTa KCLTO, rr}? yao~Tpo<; avrov 
Trepie\iTTQ[Jivov KOI TCpocravkpTTOVTa TO) Tpa^rfkw* 

3 yevo/jLevov 8' CLCTOV, w? ijtyaTO TOV 7rpo(rwTTov, 
7T6pi/3a\6vTa ra? TTTepvyas e^apai KCU KO/^L^IV 

6&oi>, elra y^pvcrov TIVOS KrjpVKeiov 
7rl TOVTOV crrrja-ai /3e/9atw? avrov 
Setyu-aro? KOI ra/ja^T;? a7ra\\ayevTa. 
Ile/jL7rTai 8* ovv VTTO TOV Nifcoyevov? /uncivil- 125 
(ra/jievov TI Toiovo'e? TOV /3ap/3apiKOV yevovs TO 
TCO\V KOI p.d\io~Ta TO \\epcnKov et? %r)\oTVTriav 
TTJV Trepl ra? yvvcuKas aypiov fyvcrei KCU ^a\eTr6v 

4 eaTiv. ov yap fjiovov ra? ya/jLerds, d\\a KCU ra? 



ical 



Trara<pv\dTTOVo~Lv, co? VTTO yu.^SeJ'o? opaadai 

ttXX' OLKOi JJLtV &iaiTCiO~6cU fCaraKK\LO~- 

, ev B rat? o&onropiats vrro a-K^va^ KVK\O) 



1 avf(f>u>vr)fftv tv ^fTpy Fuhr and Blass with S 
fj.(Tp(p. a TQiAvbe Fuhr and Blasa with F a S : 

70 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvi. 1-4 

two hundred talents had been publicly set upon his 
head by the King, he fled to Aegae, a little Aeolic 
citadel. Here no one knew him except his host 
Nicogenes, the wealthiest man in Aeolia, and well 
acquainted with the magnates of the interior. With 
him he remained in hiding for a few days. During 
this time, after the dinner which followed a certain 
sacrifice, Olbius, the paedagogue of the children of 
Nicogenes, becoming rapt and inspired, lifted up his 
voice and uttered the following verse : 

" Night shall speak, and night instruct thee, night 
shall give thee victory." 

And in the night that followed, Themistocles, as 
he lay in bed, thought he saw in a dream that 
a serpent wound itself along over his body and 
crept up to his neck, then became an eagle as 
soon as it touched his face, enveloped him with 
its wings and lifted him on high and bore him a 
long distance, when there appeared as it were a 
golden herald's wand, on which it set him securely 
down, freed from helpless terror and distress. 

However that may be, he was sent on his way by 
Nicojrenes, who devised the following scheme for his 

O 

safety. Most barbarous nations, and the Persians in 
particular, are savage and harsh in their jealous 
watchfulness over their women. Not only their 
wedded wives, but also their boughten slaves and 
concubines are strictly guarded, so that they are 
seen by no outsiders, but live at home in complete 
seclusion, and even on their journeys are carried in 
tents closely hung round about with curtains and set 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



errl rwv dpfia/jiatfwv b 
roiavrr)? rrp fjLiaroK\6i Kcnaa- 
aTrrjvr]? /caraSt'? e/co/jLi^ero, rwv rrepl avrov del 
roi$ evrvy^dvovcn Kal Trvv0avo/j,evoi<> \eybvrwv, 
on yvvaiov 'EXXyviKov ayov&iv air ' 



TLVCL TMV eVt Ovpais 

XXVII. ovKv$i8r]s JJL&V ovv Kal Xapwi/ o 
Aa/jLtyaKrjvos icnopovcn Tedi'Tj/coros He/^cu 
TOP vlov avrov TOJ jjLi<TTOK\e2 <yevecr0ai 
evT6viv' 'E<o/30? be Kal Aeti'O)^ Kal 
xal 'HpaK'h.ei&rjs, eri, S' a'XXot TrXe/oi^e?, TT/OO? 
avrov d(j)(,Ke(T0ai TOV ^ep^rjv. roi? Se xpoviKols 
SoKei /jictXXov 6 ov/cuStSry? crv^epeffdaL, Kaircep 
2 ovo* avrols drpe/jia (rvvrarro/j.evoi<;. 6 5' ovv 
@fjiLcr"TOK\ri^ yevofievos Trap 1 avrb rb Seivbv 
vrvy%dvet, irpcorov 'Apraftdvw rq> 
\eywv, f 'Et\\r]v [lev elvai, /3ov\ecrQat, 
(Bacn\el rrepl /jieyia-rwv Trpay/jbdrutv Kal TT/JO? a 
fjLa\iara cnrovSdfav eKeivos. b Se 



d\\a & aXXoi? Ka\d' Ka\bv $e Trdai rd 
3 KocrfAiv Kal (Tdo^eiv. u/j,a? fjiev ovv \ev6epiav 
fjidXiara 0avjj,deiv Kal Icrbrrjra \6yos' rjfjLiv Be 
7ro\\a)v vbfJiwv Kal Ka\wv ovrwv Ka\\,icrro<; ouro? 
ecrrt,, rifjidv /Sacr^Xea, Kal rrpoaKVvelv &)? eiKova 
6eov rov rd rrdvra crw^oi/ro?. el fJiev ovv erraivwv 
ra t'jjaerepa TrpoaKWijcreis, e<m aoi Kal Oedcra&Oai 
Kal Trpoo-enreiv el S* aXXo rt, 



72 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvi. 4-xxvn. 3 

upon four-wheeled waggons. Such a vehicle was 
made ready for Themistocles, and safely ensconced in 
this he made his journey, while his attendants replied 
in every case to those who met them with enquiries, 
that they were conducting a Hellenic woman, fair 
but frail, to one of the King's courtiers. 

XXVII. NowThucydides 1 and Charon of Lam psacus 
relate that Xerxes was dead, and that it was his son 
Artaxerxes with whom Themistocles had his inter- 
view ; but Ephorus and Dinon and Clitarchus and 
Heracleides and yet more besides have it that it was 
Xerxes to whom he came. With the chronological 
data Thucydides seems to me more in accord, 
although these are by no means securely established. 
Be that as it may, Themistocles, thus at the 
threshold of the dreadful ordeal, had audience first 
with Artabanus the Chiliarch, or Grand Vizier, and 
said that he was a Hellene, and that he desired to 
have an audience with the King on matters which 
were of the highest importance and for which the 
monarch entertained the most lively concern. 
Whereupon the Chiliarch replied : " O Stranger, 
men's customs differ ; different people honour differ- 
ent practices ; but all honour the exaltation and 
maintenance of their own peculiar ways. Now you 
Hellenes are said to admire liberty and equality 
above all things ; but in our eyes, among many fail- 
customs, this is the fairest of all, to honour the King, 
and to pay obeisance to him as the image of that 
god who is the preserver of all things. If, then, 
thou approvest our practice and wilt pay obeisance, 
it is in thy power to behold and address the Kin<j ; 
but if thou art otherwise minded, it will be needful 

1 L 137. 

73 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dyye\oi$ erepois Xpfov T/&0S avrov. 
jap ov rrdrpiov dvopos aKpoaaOai fir) 

4 crai/ro?." ravra 6 ("Je/ucrro/cX?}? aKovaas \eyei 
7T/OO? avrov' " 'AXX' eywye rrjv /3ao-Xe&>?, co 
'A/ora/3ai>e, (frrj^v Kal Bvva/j,iv av^^crwv 

KOI auro? re irelaofjiai TO?? vfjierepois 
7rel 6eu> TO) /j.eya\vvovTi Tlepcras ovrw So/eel, 
Si' e/^6 TrXeto^e? TWV vvv fSacn\ea TTpoaKwi^Qvaiv. 
&are rovro /jnjbev e/mirobcov ecrrco roi? Xoyot?, ou? 

5 j3ov\o/jLai, Trpo? e/CLvov etVeti/." " TtVa S' 



o )Ta/a^o?, ?&)^ aai ere ()wjt,ev; ov 



yap l&icoTr) rrjv yvwprjv eot/ca?." Kal 6 



"Tour* ovKer civ" etyrj, " Trvdoiro T/?, 
'Aprdftave, irporepo^ /?ao"tXe'a>?." 

Ovro) /Jiev 6 Qavias fyvjcriv. o 6' ' 
e^ rot? Ilept TT\OVTOV Trpocria-ropijae, Sta 
'E/oerpt/CT}?, ^f o ^tXtap^o? el^e, TW /uu<TTOK\ei 
rrjv TT/OO? avrov evrevgiv ytvecrOai Kal Gvcrracriv. 

XXVIII. 'E-Tret 8* o5z/ elcnj-^Orj TT^OO? fBacn\ea 
Kal TrpocrKWijcras eo~rrj aiwirfj, rrpoo-rd^avros 
TW epjmrjveL rov /3ao-fc\e<u? epfOTrjarai, Tt? ecrrt, 

\ o f / / * ftf/TT 

/cat TOU epjjLrjvews epwrrjcravros, eurrev kiKO) 
<TOI, /SacrtXeO, e/xtcrro^Xr}? o ^A.Orjva'io*; eyoo 
<f>vyas u<* 'EXX^o)^ S^w^^et?, c5 TroXXa yu,*> 
6(j)L\ov<7L Tlepaai KaKa, vrXetw Se dyaOa KW\V- 
rrjv 8icoiv, ore rr}? 'EXXaSo? eV a 



yevofj.evr]<$ rrapea^e ra O'LKOL 
2 rt, Kal tyuv. e/w.ol /^.ev oui^ rrdvra rrpirrovra ra?? 

74 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvn. 3-xxvm. 2 

for thee to employ messengers to him in thy stead, 
for it is not a custom of this country that the King 
give ear to a man who has not paid him obeisance." 
When Themistocles heard this, he said to him : 
" Nay, but 1 am come, Artabanus, to augment the 
King's fame and power, and I will not only myself 
observe your customs, since such is tlje pleasure of 
the god who exalts the Persians, but I will induce 
more men than do so now to pay obeisance to the 
King. Therefore let this matter by no means stand 
in the way of the words I wish to speak to him." 
" And what Hellene," said Artabanus, " shall I say 
thou art who hast thus come ? Verily, thou dost not 
seem to be a man of ordinary understanding." And 
Themistocles said : " This, Artabanus, no one may 
learn before the King." 

So indeed Phanias says, and Eratosthenes, in his 
book " On Wealth," adds the statement that it was 
through a woman of Eretria, whom the Chiliarch 
had to wife, that Themistocles obtained interview 
and conference with him. 

XXVIII. That may or may not be so. But when 
he was led into the presence of the King and had 
made him obeisance, and was standing in silence, 
the King ordered the interpreter to ask him who he 
was, and, on the interpreter's asking, he said : " I 
who thus come to thee, O King, am Themistocles 
the Athenian, an exile, pursued by the Hellenes; 
and to me the Persians are indebted for many ills, 
but for more blessings, since I hindered the pursuit 
of the Hellenes, at a time when Hellas was brought 
into safety, and the salvation of my own home gave 
me an opportunity for showing some favour also to 
you. Now, therefore, I may look for any sequel to 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



fjify opals eo~ri, KOI 

o^aadai re ^dpiv evuevws oia\\arro- 
/jievov real TrapaireiaOai /jLvrjari/caKovvros opyr/v 

(7V Be TO 1/9 e'yU-Ol"? G^dpOV^ fudprvpa? 6efJLVO<$ 0)V 

evepy&r^aa Ilepcra?, vvv drro^prio-ai rals e^iais 
7T/005 eTriBeifyv aperrjs JJLCL\\OV r) TT/OO? 
opyrjs. crcoo-ei? [lev jap iKer^v crov, 
3 aTToXet? S' 'EXX?;fa)z/ 7roXe'//.OZ> yevo/ievov" raOr' 12 
o e/Lii<7TOK\rj$ eTredeiacre ra> Xoyw Trpocr- 



ev ifeoyevovs, KCU TO 



rov kw^wvalov Ato?, 

7T/30? TOV O^WW/JLOV TOl) 0OV 



7T/90? efcdrov 
yap d/jL(j)OTpov<j elvai re ical \eyecrflai 

'A/coucra? 5' o Ilepcrr;?, e/ceivtp fj-ev ovBev dire- 
icplvaro, Kairrep Qav^daa^ ro ^povr^fjia /cal 
4 r6\fjiav avrov" fjbaKapicras Be Trpo? 
eavroVy &>? eV* evrv^ia /jLeyLary, KOI 
del rol<; vroXe/^/oi? roiavras (ppevas Bibovai rov 
J A.pifJidvLOV, OTTO)? e\avv(t)crt, rovs dpiarow? e eav- 
rcov, Ovaai re rot? 6eol<; \eyerat /cal ?rpo? Trocnv 
evOvs rpaTrecrOai KOI vvicrwp viro ^apa? Bid /jieacov 
rwv VTTVCOV /3of)(rai rpiv "'E^a) e/jii(7TOK\ea rov 



XXIX. "A/xa 8' rj/jiepa a-vyKd\eaa<f TOU? <^t 
i(7rjyV avrov ovBev l e\rri^ovra ^p^crrov e 
eojpa TOU? tVl 6vpai<$> w? 7rv@ovro rouvo^a rca- 
povros avrov, ^aXeTrca? BiaKi/j,evovs /cal 
1 ov5b Fuhr and Blass with F a S : 



THEMISTOCLES, xxvm. 2-xxix. i 

my present calamities, and I come prepared to re- 
ceive the favour of one who benevolently offers 
reconciliation, or to deprecate the anger of one who 
cherishes the remembrance of injuries. But do 
thou take my foes to witness for the good I wrought 
the Persians, and now use my misfortunes for the 
display of thy virtue rather than for the satisfaction 
of thine anger. For it is a suppliant of thine whom 
thou wilt save, but an enemy of the Hellenes whom 
thou wilt destroy." After these words Themistocles 
spoke of divine portents in his favour, enlarging 
upon the vision which he saw at the house of 
Nicogenes, and the oracle of Dodonaean Zeus, how 
when he was bidden by it to proceed to the name- 
sake of the god, he had concluded that he was 
thereby sent to him, since both were actually " Great 
Kings," and were so addressed. 

On hearing this the Persian made no direct reply 
to him, although struck with admiration at the bold- 
ness of his spirit ; but in converse with his friends 
it is said that he congratulated himself over what he 
called the greatest good fortune, and prayed Arima- 
nius ever to give his enemies such minds as to drive 
their best men away from them ; and then sacrificed 
to the gods, and straightway betook himself to his 
cups ; and in the night, in the midst of his slumbers, 
for very joy called out thrice : " I have Themistocles 
the Athenian." 

XXIX. At daybreak he called his friends together 
and bade Themistocles to be introduced, who 
expected no favourable outcome, because he saw that 
the guards at the gates, when they learned the name 
of him who was going in, were bitterly disposed and 



77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



eri Se r Pwavr<; o iXia-o^, &><? /car 



avrov rV o 



fcal ra)i> a\\cov GiwTrwvrtov, drpe/j,a 
crrevd^a? elirev ""O(/>t? "Et\\r)v 6 Troj/aXo?, o 
2 /3a<rt\ew? ere Sat/jLcov Sevpo tfyayev" ov n/r}v 
aXX* et9 o^jnv eXOovros avrov KOL iraKiv irpocr- 
acnraaafjievo^ KOL irpocreiTrtov (f)i\o- 
o /3aai\ev<;,ijSii pev efyrjvev avrw 
TaKawra o<j)eL\eiv /co/jLLcravra jap CLVTQV a 

to)? TO 7TLKr}pv^Oev TW ayayovri,' 
&) Se Tr\elw TOVTOJV VTricr^velro KOI Trapeddp- 
pvve KCU \eyeiv e&LSov Trepl TWV 'EXXr^j/i/cwz/, a 



3 'O 8e e/xtcrTO/cX^? aTreKpivaro, TOP \6yov e 
vai rov dvQpa)7rov rot? TTOIKI\OL<; crTpoojjiaa'iv 009 
yap e/celva KCU TOVTOV KT6iv6jj,6vov JJLCV 

(T0ai TO, i$r), (TV(TTe\\OfJL6VOV Se KpVTTTeiV KOI 

fyOetpetv oOev avrw ^povov SCLV. eVet Be, ^ 
rov /3a,(TXe'&>? rfj eiKaala KCU \ap,j3dveiv 

eviavTov alrrja-d /JLCVOS KOI rrjv YlepauSa 



4 <ri\ei 5t* av-Tov, rot? fjiev e/cro? 86av 

Trepl TCOV R\\rjviKcov Trpayfidrcov &iei,\)(6ai,, 
7ru\\(i)V Be fcatvorojjiovfjievw Trepl Tr)V av\i/v 
TGI/? <t'Xof5 VTTO rov ySacT^Xett)? ev eKeivw 
Kdipw, <f>davov ecr%6 Trapa rot? SuvaroLS, co? KOI 
KCUT etceivcav Trapp^cria xpij(raa6ai, vrpo? avrov 

ovbev yap r]crai> at ri/j,al ral<$ 
d\\wv eoiKvlai t;ivwv, aXXa KOI tfvvrjyeaiwv 
nal rwv OLKOL biaTpiffuv, ware 



THEMISTOCLES, xxix. 1-4 

spoke insultingly to him. And besides, Roxanes 
the Cliiliarch, when Themistocles came along opposite 
him, the King being seated and the rest hushed in 
silence, said in an angry undertone : " Thou subtle 
serpent of Hellas, the King's good genius hath 
brought thee hither." However, when he had come 
into the King's presence, and had once more paid 
him obeisance, the King welcomed him and spake 
him kindly, and said he already owed him two hundred 
talents, for since he had delivered himself up it was 
only just that he himself should receive the reward 
proclaimed for his captor. And he promised him 
much more besides, and bade him take heart, and gave 
him leave to say whatever he wished concerning the 
affairs of Hellas, with all frankness of speech. 

But Themistocles made answer that the speech of 
man was like embroidered tapestries, since like them 
this too had to be extended in order to display its 
patterns, but when it was rolled up it concealed and 
distorted them. Wherefore he had need of time. 
The King at once showed his pleasure at this com- 
parison by bidding him take time, and so Themistocles 
asked for a year, and in that time he learned the 
Persian language sufficiently to have interviews with 
the King by himself without interpreters. Outsiders 
thought these conferences concerned Hellenic matters 
merely ; but since about that time many innovations 
were introduced by the King at court and among his 
favourites, the magnates became jealous of The- 
mistocles, on the ground that he had made bold to 
use his freedom of speech with the King to their 
harm. For the honours he enjoyed were far beyond 
those paid to other foreigners ; nay, he actually took 
part in the King's hunts and in his household diver- 

79 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOI fjLtjrpl rfj $a<7Xeo>? ei? O^TLV ekOelv KOI <yeve- 
aOai o~vv>t07]s, BiaKovffat Be real rcov fjLayitcwv 

5 \oyoiv rov /9acrtXea>? xeXevaavros. eVel Be A?;- 

o ^rrapridrr)<$ aljrjaaaOai Bcopedv K6\- 
yrijcraro TT)Z> Kiiapiv, cbcrTrep ol 
elae\dcraL Sia 

^no^ wv (3aan\ews elrre rov 
TOV TT}? rta/oa? a^rdfjievo^' " Avrrj fjiev f) 
ov/c e^et ejfce(f)a\ov, ov eTTiKaXv^rei' <rv S' OVK 

6 eery Zeu? av Xa^?7? icepavvov ' aTrcoaa^evov Be 
TOV kiifjidpaTOv 0/9777 Bta TO atTrjfJLa rov /3ao~i.- 
Xea>? KOI BOKOVVTOS drr 



avrov, o e/^tcrTOAcX*}? Se^^et? eVetcre KOI 



Be KOI TOU? vcrrepov 
fj,a\\ov al Tlep(Ti/cal rrpd^eis rat? 
dve/cpdOrjcrav, ocra/ct? BeijOeiev dvBpbs " E,\\rjvo<i t 
7rayye\\(70ai, KCII ypdtpeiv e/coo'Tov, co? /JLCL^COV 
7 ecroiTO Trap 1 avry e/i.tcrro/fXeoL'?. avrov Be rov 
efjiicrrofc\a (fraalv IjBr) ^eyav ovra KOL Oeparrevo- 
V7TO TroXXaiz/ Xa/ATT/ja? Trore rpaTretys avrw 
1 vrpos TOZ)? TratSa? eiTrelv " 'fl 
fjieOa av, el fir) aTrwXo/AC^a." TroXet? 121 
' avrw rpels fj,ev ol irXeiaroi BoOijvat \eyova-iv 
dprov KOI olvov Kal o^rov, Mayvrjcriav KOL 
/cov /cal Mvovvra' Bvo S' aXXa? irpocrrl- 
6 KvfyKrjvbs NedvO)]? Kal 
Kal Yla\ai(TKrj^riv et? 



XXX. Kara/Baivovri, S' aurw TT/QO? ra? EX- 
\ijviKas rrpd^ei'S eVl 6d\ar~rav Ylepa"r)<? dvrjp 

1 aiTf TraparefltiVij? Bekker, Fuhr with F a S : 
80 



THEMISTOCLES, xxix. 4 -xxx i 

sions, so far that he even had access to the queen- 
mother and became intimate with her, and at the 
King's bidding heard expositions also of the Magian 
lore. And when Demaratus the Spartan, being 
bidden to ask a gift, asked that he might ride in 
state through Sardis, wearing his tiara upright after 
the manner of the Persian kings, Mithropaustes the 
King's cousin said, touching the tiara of Demaratus : 
" This tiara of thine hath no brains to cover ; indeed 
thou wilt not be Zeus merely because thou graspest 
the thunderbolt." The King also repulsed Demaratus 
in anger at his request, and was minded to be in- 
exorable towards him, and yet Themistocles begged 
arid obtained a reconciliation with him. 

And it is said that later kings also, in whose reigns 
Persia and Hellas came into closer relations, as often 
as they asked for a Hellene to advise them, promised 
him in writing, every one, that he should be more 
influential at court than Themistocles. And The- 
mistocles himself, they say, now become great and 
courted by many, said to his children, when a 
splendid table was once set for him : " My children, 
we should now have been undone, had we not been 
undone before." l Three cities, as most writers say, 
were given him for bread, wine, and meat, namely : 
Magnesia, Lampsacus, and Myus ; and two others 
are added by Neanthes of Cyzicus and by Phanias, 
namely : Percote and Palaescepsis ; these for his 
bedding and raiment. 

XXX Now as he was going down to the sea on 
his commission to deal with Hellenic affairs, a 

1 Thuc. i. 13S. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ovofJLa, <Tarpa7rva)v TT}? avco 



7ra/)ecr:ei/a/ca>? 

, orav ev ~rr) Ka\ov/jivrj tcco/jii) 1 



/^ecr77/x/5pta9 r?;^ fJUfrepa 
6ewv ovap fyavelcrav elirelv " T 
vcnepei AT6(/)aX?)? \eovro)v, 'iva i^rj \eovri 
eyw & avrl rovrov ere alrw Oepdrraivav Mt/?;- 
2 criTTToXe/Aa^." Siarapa^^el? oy o 
7rpoaevj;d/j,vo<; rfj dew Tr)V fiev \a) 
erepa Be TrepieXOwv teal TrapaXXa^a? rov TOTTOV 
eicelvov ij&r) VVKTOS OUOT?? Kar^vXiaaTO. 

TwvSe T^ aK?]vr)V K.O^L^OVTWV vTTo^uyiwvevos et? 

TOI^ TTOTCLfJiOV e/XTTeCTOt'TO?, Ot ToO jJLlCTTOK\eOVS 

oltcerat ra? auXata? $ia(3 porous ^/evo^iiva^ eicire- 
T(icravTS dv6\lrv%ov. ol $e Hi.cri8ai, ra i<j)il Xa- 
/36vT<; ev TOVTW 7rpO(T<f)epoi>TO, KOI ra "^r 



OUK 

elvai rrjv GKr\v^v rrjv 
3 evBov evpri&eiv dvcnravoiJievov. a>? 8' 6771)? r yi>6- 
Tr]v av\aiav dvecrreXXov, iircKitrTovGiv 
ol 7rapa<f)v\d(T(TovTes KOL &v\\a/jL/3dvovcrt,. 
cDV Se TOV KLV&VVOV ovrco tcai Oav/jLaa 
rr}? Oeov vaov KaTecrKevacrev ev 



vr)<ria &.LV&V jju'ivris KOL TTJV Ovyarepa 



epeiav 
XXXI. 'II 



1 Kw/xy Fuhr and Blass with F il S : v6\ti city. 
82 



THEMISTOCLES, xxx j-xxxi. i 

Persian, Epixyes by name, satrap of Upper Phrygia, 
plotted against his life, having for a long time kept 
certain Pisiclians in readiness to slay him whenever 
he should reach the village called Lion's Head, and 
take up his night's quarters there. But while Themi- 
stocles was asleep at midday before, it is said that the 
Mother of the Gods l appeared to him in a dream and 
said : " O Themistocles, shun a head of lions, that 
thou mayest not encounter a lion. And for this 
service to thee, I demand of thee Mnesiptolema to 
be my handmaid." Much disturbed, of course, 
Themistocles, with a prayer of acknowledgment to 
the goddess, forsook the highway, made a circuit by 
another route, and passing by that place, at last, as 
night came on, took up his quarters. 

Now, since one of the beasts of burden which 
carried the equipage of his tent had fallen into the 
river, the servants of Themistocles hung up the 
curtains which had got wet, and were drying them 
out. The Pisidians, at this juncture, sword in hand, 
made their approach, and since they could not see 
distinctly by the light of the moon what it was that 
was being dried, they thought it was the tent of 
Themistocles, and that they would find him reposing 
inside. But when they drew near and lifted up the 
hanging, they were fallen upon by the guards and 
apprehended. Thus Themistocles escaped the peril, 
and because he was amazed at the epiphany of the 
goddess, he built a temple in Magnesia in honour of 
Dindymene, and made his daughter Mnesiptolema 
her priestess. 

XXXI. When he had come to Sardis and was 

1 Rhea, or Cvhele, Magna Mater, called also Dindymen^, 
from Mount Dindymon, in Phry^;a s 

83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dycov 0edro rwv iepMv rrjv fcaracrKevrjv tcai TCOV 
TO 7rX?}#o9, elSe Be ev f.it]Tpo<; lepw 
ov Koprjv ^aXicijv, /j.ye0os 
ore rwv 'A0i']V*i(Tiv vbdrwv 
r)V, \cov Toy? vcfxzipovfjievovs TO v&wp 
/cat 7rapo%6TvovTa<;, dvedrj/cev etc rr)? %r}fj,ia<; 
7roir]<rdfjL6vos, etre Srj TraOwv TI TT/)O? TTJV 
Xcocriav TOU dvaOi'jLCLTos iT 



aai roi? rji'aiois, ocnrfv e^et TIY]V 
ev rot? /?a<T6\eaj? Trpdy/jiacri, \6yov TW 
aaTpdirr) Trpo&tjveyKev atrou/xez^o? dTroareiXai 
2 tcoprjv t9 ra? 'A^^Va?. ^aXeTrati/o^ro? Be rov 
fiapftdpov Kal /3aai\ei ypd-^rei 
<TTO\IJV, (froftrideis 6 6/jLi(TTOK\r}<; et'? TTJV 
VLTIV Kare(j)vje Kal ra<? 7raXXa"t8a? avrov 
6epa7T6V(Ta<f xpi]fj,acriv eicelvov re KaTerrpdvve 
Kal 7T/30? ra a\\a rrapet-^ev eavTov 

, r)8r) Kal TOV fyOovov TWV (Bapftdpwv 
BeSoiK(t)<f. ov yap Tr\ava>/j.vo<; Tr 
W9 (jE>7;<rt HeoTTOyu-TTO?, aXX' eV Mayvrja-ia JJLCV 
KapTTOv/JLevos Be Bwpeas fieydXas Kal Tifjt,ci)/j,vo<$ 
6/JLOia Hepcrcov rot? aptcrTOi?, eVl rro\vv "fcpovov 
Bifjyev, ov Trdvv TI, TO?? 'EXX^^i/coi? Trpdy- 
Trpocre')(pVTO<s VTT 



ra? 



3 '11? 8' Ai/yuTTTO? re d<f)i<TTa/Avt) 
*A6r]vai(i)v Kal Tpirfpeis 'EXX^^t/ca 

t KtXt/cta? dvarrXeovcrai, Kal KLJLLWV 0a\arro- 



Kparwv eVecrr/oeilrev avTov dv-reTnyeipelv rot? 
f/ EXXr;<7t /cal KtoXvetv avavo/j,evov<; GTT avrov, 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxi. 1-3 

viewing at his leisure the temples built there and the 
multitude of their dedicatory offerings, and saw in 
the temple of the Mother the so-called Water- 
carrier, a maid in bronze, two cubits high, which he 
himself, when he was water commissioner at Athens, 
had caused to be made and dedicated from the fines 
he exacted of those whom he convicted of stealing 
and tapping the public water, whether it was 
because he felt some chagrin at the capture 
of the offering, or because he wished to show 
the Athenians what honour and power he had in the 
King's service, he addressed a proposition to the 
Lydian satrap and asked him to restore the maid to 
Athens. But the Barbarian was incensed and threat- 
ened to write a letter to the King about it ; whereat 
Themistocles was afraid, and so had recourse to the 
women's chambers, and, by winning the favour of the 
satrap's concubines with money, succeeded in assuag- 
ing his anger. Thereafter he behaved more circum- 
spectly, fearing now even the jealousy of the Bar- 
barians. For he did not wander about over Asia, as 
Theopompus says, but had a house in Magnesia, and 
gathered in large gifts, and was honoured like the 
noblest Persians, and so lived on for a long time with- 
out concern, because the King paid no heed at 
all to Hellenic affairs, owing to his occupation with 
the state of the interior. 

But when Egypt revolted with Athenian aid, 1 
and Hellenic triremes sailed up as far as Cyprus 
and Cilicia, and Cimon's mastery of the sea forced 
the King to resist the efforts of the Hellenes 
and to hinder their hostile growth ; and when at 
last forces began to be moved, and generals were 

1 459 B.O. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



GKIVOVVTO KOL CTTpaT^yol Bl7TefJ,- 

TTOVTO teal KarejSaivov l dyye\iai rrpbs e/ucrro- 
tc\ea, TWV *}L\\r]viKwv e^drtTecrQai Ke\evovro<; 

4 /3a<JiXeco9 /cat fteftaiovv ra? vTrocr^ea-ei^, ovre $i 
opyrjv nva irapo^vvOel^ Kara rwv 'ITO\LTWV ovre 

rocravTr) KOI &vvd/JL6i, Trpbs rbv 
t aXX* tcrco? fjiev outf ecfriKTov 2 
TO epyov, aXXof? re /aeyaXou? TT}? 'EXXaSo? 
(rrjs a'rparrjjov^ Tore KOI K.lfjba)vo$ 
evri[j,epovvTO<; ev rot? TroXe/utfot?, TO Se 
alSol rr}? re SO^T;? TWV irpd^ewv TWV eavTOv KCL\ 

TWV TpOTTCLltoV etCGLVtoV, aplGTCL /3 *OV\V (7 d fJiV 'O? 

5 eTTiOeivai TW /3iw TTJV Te\evT^v Trpeirova-av, eOvcre 
rot? Oeols, Kal TOVS <>tXoi/? a-vvayaycov KOI Be^io)- 

o TroXu? Xoyo?, al/xa Tavpeiov 
a>? 5' evioi, tydpuaKov ccfrifaepov Trpoaevey- 
, ev Mayvrjcria KaTecrTpe^re irevTe Trpbs 
rot? e^KOvra /3e/3t&)a;? ITT; /eat ra TrXetcrra TOU- 
TCOZ^ ei^ TroXiretai? /cat r)y/j,ovLais. TTJV $ diTiav 
TOV Oavdrov Kal rbv Tporrov irvOofJ-evov /3acn\ea 
\eyovcnv ert f.taX\.ov Qav^daai TOV dvSpa teal 
rot? 0tXoi? avTov /cal ot/cetot? %p(t)fiei ov 



XXXII. 

Au<rdvBpov TOV ' 
oXuef/eTOP /cai 

u /cat nXarwy 6 0fXocro^>o? rL? 'nnrews dpia-Tov, 
raXXa 5' ovBevbs diov yevo^evov /jivrj/jiovevei,. 

Fuhr and Blass with F a S : Karefraivov els 



ovS' ><Tbv Fuhr and Blasa with F*S : 
86 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxi. 3-xxxn. i 

despatched hither and thither, and messages came 
down to Themistoclcs saying that the King com- 
manded him to make good his promises by applying 
himself to the Hellenic problem, then, neither 
embittered by anything like anger against his former 
fellow-citizens, nor lifted up by the great honour and 
power he was to have in the war, but possibly think- 
ing his task not even approachable, both because 
Hellas had other great generals at the time, and 
especially because Cimon was so marvellously success- 
ful in his campaigns ; yet most of all out of regard 
for the reputation of his own achievements and the 
trophies of those early days ; having decided that his 
best course was to put a fitting end to his life, 
he made a sacrifice to the gods, then called his 
friends together, gave them a farewell clasp of his 
hand, and, as the current story goes, drank bull's 
blood, or as some say, took a quick poison, and so 
died in Magnesia, in the sixty-fifth year of his life, 1 
most of which had been spent in political leader- 
ship. They say that the King, on learning the cause 
and the manner of his death, admired the man yet 
more, and continued to treat his friends and kindred 
with kindness. 

XXXII. Themistocles left three sons by Archippe, 
the daughter of Lysander, of the deme Alopece, 
namely : Archeptolis, Polyeuctus and Cleophantus, 
the last of whom Plato the philosopher mentions 
as a capital horseman, but good for nothing else. 2 

1 Thuc. i. 138. e J/eno, p. 93. 

VOL. n. D 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rwv Be 7rpe(T/3vrdrct)v Neo/cX*}? ^,ev en rrai<$ wv 
iMp 'LTTTTOV Bedels arcedave, Ato/cXea Be Avcrav- 

2 Bpo<; o rrdrrrros vlov erroi^daro. Ovyarepas Be 
7rXetoi/9 ecryev, MV MvrjanrToXe/Jiav fiev e/c 
7ri r yafjiii0ei(rr}s yevofievrjv 'A/o^eTrroXt? o a 

ou/c wz^ o/JLOfjLijrpios ey^/Aev, '\ra\iav Be 

6 Xto?, ^vftapiv ^ Ni/co^'8?79 o 

NiKO/jLd%r]v 8e QpacriKKrjs o dSe/V^So 

K\eov<?, 77877 rereXevrrj/coTO^ eiceivov, TrXeucra? et? 

Mayvijaiav e\aj3e Trapa rwv a 

Be TTCLVTWV ra)v re/ev&v ^Aaiav e 

3 Kal Tci(f)ov IJLGV avrov \a^irpov ev rfj dyopa 

ovar irepl Be rS)v \eitydvwv OI/T' 
) Trpoa-e^eiv afyov ev TW Il/jo? TOU9 
\eyovri, (fowpdaavras ra \ei"^rava Biap- 
TOU? *K6rivaiov<; (tyevBeTai, jap CTTL rov 
Trapo^vvwv TOL/? o\iyapxircovs\ 6 re <X>u- 
9, warirep ev rpayutBia rfj laropla /JLOVOVOV 
apa<$ real Trpoayaytov Neo/cXea T^a /cat 
f/ou9 efjLi(TTOK\OV<i, dycova jSov- 
Xerat fcivelv /cal TrdOos, o ovB' av 6 rv^cov dyvorj- 

4 aeiev OTL TreTrXacrrat. Ato8&>/)09 8' 6 



ev rot9 Ile/)i fivrj/^drcov eiprj/cev a>9 VTTOVOWV 

Xoi/ 77 <yiva)(rfca)V, on irepl rov /jiejav \i/jLeva rov 

Tleipaiws drro rov Kara rov "AX/cifjiOv 

piov Trpoiceirai Tf9 oloi> dy/cwv, Kal 

rovrov eVro9, 17 TO vrrevbiov rr}9 0a\drrrjs, 

earw ev/j.eyedr)<i teal ro rrepl avrrjV 

88 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxii. 1-4 

One of his two oldest sons, Neocles, died in boy- 
hood from the bite of a horse, and Diocles was 
adopted by his grandfather Lysander. He had 
several daughters, of whom Mnesiptolema, born of his 
second wife, became the wife of Archeptolis her 
half-brother, Italia of Panthoides the Chian, and 
Sybaris of Nicomedes the Athenian. Nicomache was 
given in marriage by her brothers to Phrasicles, the 
nephew of Themistocles, who sailed to Magnesia 
after his uncle's death, and who also took charge of 
Asia, the youngest of all the children. 

The Magnesians have a splendid tomb of Themisto- 
cles in their market place ; and with regard to his 
remains, Andocides is worthy of no attention when 
he says, in his Address to his Associates, that the 
Athenians stole away those remains and scattered 
them abroad, for he is trying by his lies to incite 
the oligarchs against the people ; and Phy larch us, 
too, when, as if in a tragedy, he all but erects a 
theatrical machine for this story, and brings into the 
action a certain Neocles, forsooth, and Demopolis, 
sons of Themistocles, wishes merely to stir up 
tumultuous emotion ; his tale even an ordinary person 
must know is fabricated. Diodorus the Topographer, 
in his work " On Tombs," says, by conjecture rather 
than from actual knowledge, that near the large 
harbour of the Piraeus a sort of elbow juts out from 
the promontory opposite Alcimus, and that as you 
round this and come inside where the water of the 
sea is still, there is a basement of goodly size, 
and that the altar-like structure upon this is the 

80 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 T(i<f)OS TOV F)/JLICTKOK\OV<;. OL6Tai $ KOI 

Tcova TOV KWIJU.KQV aurro /jt,ap~rvpt;iv eV 
'O cro? Be Tv/ji{3(>s ev Ka\&> 



ecrrai 

T 1 KTT\eoVTaS La7T^ GOI'TCIS T* 



Tot? S' a7T6 yevovs TOV e/ucrro/eXe'oi;? 
rtfiai rtfe? eV Mayz/T/crta 



f)/jiTepfoi> %povwv r)<rai>, a? e/capTrouro 



1 rows T' corrected by Bekker to ofts. 

8 ajuiAAa Bekker lias a ( atAA' $ after Person. 



THEMISTOCLES, xxxn. 5 

tomb of Themistocles. And he thinks that the 
comic poet Plato is a witness in favour of his view 
when he says : 

<f Thy tomb is mounded in a fair and sightly place ; 
The merchantmen shall ever hail it with glad cry; 
It shall behold those outward, and those inward 

bound, 
And all the emulous rivalry of racing ships." 

For the lineal descendants of Themistocles there 
were also certain dignities maintained in Magnesia 
down to my time, and the revenues of these were 
enjoyed by a Themistocles of Athens, who was my 
intimate and friend in the school of Ammonius the 
philosopher. 



CAMILLUS 



KAMIAA02 

I. Tlepl Be <&ovpiov Ka/uXXou TroXXwi/ KOL 129! 
fieydXcov \eyo^eva)v IBiov elvai BoKel 
TrapdBo^ov, ori TrXetcrra fjiev ev 

KaTop0a)cra<$ } BiKTarwp Be 



2 inrdrevae. rovrov 5* ai'Ttov 77 TT}? Tore 



reta? Kardcnacns, e/c Siacfropas TOV Brj/nov TT/OO? 
T^ crvyfc\^TOV uTrarou? yu-ei/ epicravros /XT) a?ro- 
LKW<j9ai, ^iKmp-^ou^ Be 'xei.pOTOvovvros eirl 
rrjv vjye/jioviav, wv, Ka'nrep air* e^ovcrias /cal 



anravra TrpaTTovTwv, rjrrov 
^^ T wX^^o?. 
, d\\a fir] Bvo, rot? Trpdy/jLaatv e 



TO 



3 Kara TOVTO &r) Kaipov ^dXicrra rfj Bo^r) Kal rot? 
a-yu-acra? o Ka/ztXXo? t/Traro? yuei^ oi)/c 
CLKOVTI rto Brj/jio) yeveaBai, tcaiTrep ev TO* 
/jieaov 8e^a/u-e^;? vTrariKas dp^aipecria^ 
, j> Se rat9 aXXat? fj 



94 



CAMILLUS 



I. TURNING now to Furius Camillus, among the 
many notable tilings that are told of him, this seems 
the most singular and strange, namely, that although 
in other offices of command he won many and great 
successes, and although he was five times chosen 
dictator, four times celebrated a triumph, and was 
styled a Second Founder of Rome, not even once was 
he consul. The reason for this lay in the political 
conditions of his time. The common people, being 
at variance with the Senate, strove against the 
appointment of consuls, and elected military tribunes 
to the command instead. These, although they 
always acted with consular authority and power, 
were less obnoxious in their sway because of their 
number. For the fact that six men instead of two 
stood at the head of affairs, was some comfort to 
those who were bitterly set against the rule of the 
few. 

Now it was at this period that Camillus came to 
the height of his achievements and fame, and he 
would not consent to become consul over a reluctant 
people, although during his career the city tolerated 
consular elections many times. But in the many 
other and varied offices which he held, he so con- 
ducted himself that even when the authority rightly 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TroXXat? Kal TravroBaTrais yevo/neva^ roiovrov 
avrbv 7rapecr%ev, ware rrjv /JLV e^ovalav Kal 
jAovap'Xpvvros elvai KOivrfv, rrjv Be Bogav IBlav 
Kal aeff* erepayv err partly ovvr of wv rov pev rj 
/jterpiorti? alnov dveTrifyOovux; apxpvTos, rov $ f) 
fypovriGis, Si rjv ofjioXo'yov^i'w^ eTrpcorevev. 

II. OvTTd) $ rore Trepl rov rwv Qovpiwv OLKOV 
ovcrrjs /jLeyaXrjs eTTKfraveias avrbs a<f> y eavrov TT/OO)- 
TO9 et? B6av TrporjXOev ev rfj /ueyaXr) fjid^rj TT/OO? 

Kal QVO\OV(TKOVS VTTO SiKrdropt, 
iw Tovftepra) crrparevo/jievos. 
yap rov arparov Kal 7r\r]yfj TrepiTreawv et? rov 
/jirjpbv OVK dvrjKev, aX/V* lyKeifJievov ru> rpav/jiari 
Trape\K(i)V TO dKovriorfjLa Kal a-v/ATr'X.eKo/jievos rot? 

2 apicrrois rwv 7ro\e/jiLwv rpcTTi/v eTrou^aev. CK Be 
rovrov rwv r a\,\ct)V yepwv eru^e Kal T^/A^T^? 
aTreBeiyOr), fjieya TT}? dpyrjs d^iw/jLa ravrrjs eVt 
TMV rore ^povcov e^oucr^?. {ivrj/jLoveverai Be 
avrov rifJUYjrevovro^ KO\bv fj,ev epyov rb TOU? 
dydfjiov^ \6yow re rreidovra Kal fyfMLais CUTTZI- 
\ovvra GvyKara^ev^ai rat? ^pevovaaif; yvvai^l 
(TroXXal S' rjaav avrai Bia rou? TroXe^ou?), dvay- 
Kalov Be rb KOL rou? optyavovs V7rore\eis Troirjcrai, 

3 Trporepov aveia-fyopovs ovras. alriai 8* rjcrav at 
avvG'xels crrparelat, fjueyd\G)v dvdKwfJidrwv Beo- 
/jievaL, Kal ^idXicrra /tariJTreiyev rj Qvri'iwv 7ro\iop- 
Kia. TOUTOU? ei'ioi Qvr]levravov^ KaXovaiv. 

9 H^ Be TrpoGXii/jia T^}? Tvpprjvias r; TroX/9, OTT\COV 
jjiev dpiOfJLW Kal 7r\r)0et rwv crparevofjLevwv OVK 
d7roBeov<ra rr)<s 'Pco/A?;?, TrXovrw Be Kal jSitov d/3po- 
rvjri Kal rpvcfrats Kal 7ro\vr6\eiat<; dya\\ofivr) 

96 



CAMILLUS, i. 3 -ii. 3 

belonged to him alone, it was exercised in common 
with others ; while the glory that followed such 
exercise was his alone, even when he shared the 
command. In the first case, it was his moderation 
that kept his rule from exciting envy; in the second, 
it was his ability that gave him the first place with 
none to dispute it. 

II. At a time when the house of the Furii was not 
yet very conspicuous, he, by his own efforts, was the 
first of his clan to achieve fame. This he did in the 
great battle with the Aequians and Volscians, serving 
under Postumius Tubertus the dictator. Dashing out 

~ 

on his horse in front of the army, he did not abate his 
speed when he got a wound in the thigh, but drag- 
ging the missile along with him in its wound, he en- 
gaged the bravest of the enemy and put them to flight. 
For this exploit, among other honours bestowed upon 
him, he was appointed censor, in those days an 
office of great dignity. There is on record a noble 
achievement of his censorship, that of bringing the 
unmarried men, partly by persuasion and partly by 
threatening them with fines, to join in wedlock with 
the women who were living in widowhood, and these 
were many because of the wars ; likewise a necessary 
achievement, that of making the orphans, who before 
this had contributed nothing to the support of the 
state, subject to taxation. The continuous campaigns, 
demanding great outlays of money, really required 
this. Especially burdensome was the siege of Veii 
(some call the people Veientani). 

This city was the barrier and bulwark of Tus- 
cany, in quantity of arms and multitude of soldiery 
no whit inferior to Rome. Indeed, pluming her- 
self 011 her wealth, and on the refinement, luxury, 

97 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7ro\\ov<t /cal Ka\ov<f dywvas rjywvicraTo irepl 0^779 
4 teal SvvacTTeias TrdKe^ovcra 'Pco/natois. ev Be ray 
Tore xpovw TT)? fiev <pi\orifiias dfyeicrTrfvei crvv- 
TpijSela'a /j,eyd\ai$ pa^ais' eTrapdfJievoi Be Tely?) 
fieydXa KOI /caprepa KOI rrjv iroXiv OTT\CI)V /cal 
/cal GITOV /cal Trapaa/cev^ aTracr^? e/jL7T\r]- 
, aSew? virefjievov TYJV TrdXiopKiav, /jiaKpav 
ovcrav, ov% fJTrov 6e Tot? TroXiopicovcriv ep- 
/cal ^akeTT^v yevo^ev^v. eWicr/JLevoi jap ov 130! 
^povov a/jia wpa 6epov<; %w crTpareveiv, 
&iaxi/JLd%6iv, Tore irpwrov rjvay/cdcr0r]aav 
VTTO TWV %i\idp%a)v (frpovpia KaraaKevad/jLevot, 
/cal TO (TrpaToTreSov rei'%L(TavTS ev rfj TroXeyuta 
^eifJLOtva xal Bepos crvvaTrreiv, rj&rj a"%6&bv TOV<? 
e/386/jLOV TW 7ro\/j,a> TeXeuTcoi/To?. wcrre teal 
TGI"? apxovras ev alria yevecrOai /cal p,a\a/cws 
jroXiopreeiv Sofcovvras d(>aipe0)}vai rrjv dp%ijv, 
erepwv alpeOevrwv eVt TOV irokefjiov' wv r)V /cal 
6 Ka/uXAo? Tore %i\.iap%wv TO Sevrepov. 
Se Trepl ri]V TroX-ioprciav ovBev ev erceivw TO> 



/ca aTTii'rais 7roejL6v, 01 



rore 

cavres /cal Trapa iravra TOV Typpr/viKov 
evo'X\,r)<TavTe i $ einedd^crav VTTO TOV Ka/u'AAof 
<rvveffTd\ricrav els ra Tei^rj TTO\\OVS aTrofta- 
Xoi/re?. 

III. 'E/c TOVTOV TO Trepl T^V 'A.\/3ai'i$a \ifjivrjv 
drcpd^ovTi, TW iroXefJiw avvev%0ev ovBevbs 
TWV cnrlcrTwv TcvQtaQcii OavfiaTcav atria? 
dTrooia /cal \6yov tyvcriKrjv e^oz/ro? dp%r}v 
ofiycrev. i]v fj,ev yap wpa fjieTOTrcopivij, /cal TO 

98 



CAMILLUS, ii. 3 -in. i 

and sumptuousness in which her citizens lived 
she had waged many noble contests for glory and 
power in her wars with the Romans. At this 
time, however, she had been crushed in great 
battles, and had given up her former ambitious pre- 
tensions. But her people built their walls high and 
strong, filled the city full of armour, missiles, grain, 
and every possible provision, and confidently endured 
their siege, which, though long, was no less laborious 
and difficult for the besiegers. These had been 
accustomed to short campaigns abroad as the summer 
sea-on opened, and to winters at home ; but then 
for the first time they had been compelled by their 
tribunes to build forts and fortify their camp and 
spend both summer and winter in the enemy's 
country, the seventh year of the war being now 
nearly at an end. For this their rulers were held to 
blame, and finally deprived of tiieir rule, because 
they were thought to conduct the siege without 
energy. Others were chosen to carry on the war, 
and one of these was Camillus, now tribune for the 
second time. But for the present he had nothing to 
do with the siege, since it fell to his lot to wage war 
with the Falerians and the Capenates, who, while the 
Romans had their hands full, had often harried their 
territory, and during all the Tuscan war had given 
them annoyance and trouble. These were over- 
whelmed by Camillus in battle and shut up in their 
fastnesses with great loss of life. 

III. And now, when the war was at its climax, 
the calamity of the Alban lake added its terrors. It 
seemed a most incredible prodigy, without familiar 
cause or natural explanation. For the season was 
autumn, and the summer just ended had, to all 

99 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eXrjyev ovr errou/Bpov ovre rrv6vuao~i vorioi? 
emo'tjXws yevofjLevov TroXXa? Be \iavas 
Trora/jLovs Kal vdfjiara rcavrobarra T/)? 'JTa- 
Xta9 eyovcrrj^ ra /j,ev eJ-eXnre Ko/juBfj, ra 8' dvr- 

/ / V /^. f C^ V \ / 

ecr^e ^Xtcr^yoco? /cat yitoXt?, ot oe rrora^oi rravres 
wcnrep del KOL\OL Kal rarreivol 8ta 6epov<$ eppvrj- 



aav. TO 



ev eavra) Kal re\evr>jv, opecnv ev /etot? 
H>evov, drf ovSevbs airLov, rf\rjv el ri Oe ov, av%6- 
fjievov emB)j\(i}^ SicoyKovro Kal Trpocriararo Tat9 
vTrcopeiais Kal rwv dvwrnrw Xofiwv o/zaXw? erre- 
^fravev, avev o~dXov Kal KXvSwvos e 
3 Kal rrpwrov uev r]v rroi^vwv Qav^a Kal 
errel Be, rov Sieipyovros drrb ryj<t Karat 
olov IcrdfjLov r-rjv Xifjivriv vrreKpayevro? vrrb rov 
TrXtjOous Kal /3a/3ou?, aeya pevfj.a KarefBaive Bta 
rwv dpovuevwv Kal (frvrevouevtov evrt T^V OdXar- 
rav, ov fjbovov aiirois rrapel^e 'PcoyLtatof? eKrrXrj^iv, 
dXXa Kal rraariv eBoKei Tot? rrtv ^\ra\iav Karoi- 



Kovcn Lt7t^o? fJiLKov (jr.elov zivai. 



8' avrov Xbyos rjv ev rw crrparoTreBM rw TroXiop- 
Kovvn TOU? QVTJIOVS, ware /ca/cetVot? eKirvo~rov 

IV. Ota 8' ev rroXiorKLa Bia ^pbvov /j,f)Kos 
CTTI Julias re vroXXa? e^ovarj Kal KoivoXoyias 
7T/3O? TOU? TToXe/uiovs, eyeyovei rivi PCO/JLULM 
avvr]Qeia Kal rrapprjo-i'a rrpbs eva rwv rroXirwv, 
avOpwrrov e/JLireipov re Xoyiwv rraXaiwv Kal ri 
Kal TrXeov elBevai, rwv a\Xa)V drrb /za^Tt/cT/c 
&Kovvra. rovrov ovv 6 'Payuaios, &>9 rjKovae 






re Kal KarayeXuvra T^? TroXiopKLas, ov ravr 
100 



CAMILLUS, in. i-iv. i 

observation, been neither rainy nor vexed by south 
winds. Of the lakes, rivers, and streams of all sizes 
with which Italy abounds, some had failed utterly, 
others barely managed to hold out, and all the rivers 
ran low, between high banks, as was always the case 
in summer. But the Alban lake, which had its 
source and outlet within itself, and was girt about 
with fertile mountains, for no reason, except it be 
that heaven willed it, was observed to increase and 
swell until it reached the skirts of the mountains 
and gradually touched their highest ridges. All 
this rise was without surge or billow. At first it was 
a prodigy for neighbouring shepherds and herdsmen. 
But when the volume and weight of water broke 
away the barrier which, like an isthmus, had kept 
the lake from the country lying below it, and a huge 
torrent poured down through the fields and vine- 
yards and made its way to the sea, then not only 
were the Romans themselves dismayed, but all the 
inhabitants of Italy thought it a sign of no small 
evil to come. There was much talk about it in the 
army that was besieging Veii, so that even the 
besieged themselves heard of the calamity. 

IV. As was to be expected in a long siege requir- 
ing many meetings for conference with the enemy, 
it fell out that a certain Roman became intimate and 
confidential with one of the citizens of Veii, a man 
versed in ancient oracles, and reputed wiser than the 
rest from his being a diviner. The Roman saw that 
this man, on hearing the story of the lake, was over- 
joyed and made mock of the siege. He therefore told 

IOJ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e(j>r) fiovov eprjvo^evai, OavfJiacrra TOV irapovra 
eTpa TOVTWV aroTrcarepa arj/jLela 
yeyovevat,, irepl wv 60e\eiv etceivcp 
, ei TI &VVCILTO, QkuBai TWV IBitov 
2 afjieivov ev rot? KOIVOIS VOGQVGIV. vTrarcovaavros 
Be TOV dvOpdjiTov irpo6v[Jiw<$ KOI StSoz/ro? eavrov 
et? Koivo\oyiav, &>9 aTropprjTwv TIVWV drcpoarrjv 



Kara LKov oura) 



VTrdycov avrov, co? Trap poor epw rwv vruXco/' eyeyo- 
vLaav, aipei re fieiecopov evpcocrroTepo^ wv nal 

TiV'OV aTTO (TTpaTOTTt&OV TTpOCrSpa/JiOVTWV 

adfjivos /cal /cparija'as Trape'Seo/ce rot? 

3 ev roi>T(o 8' dvdy/cijs 76701/0)? 6 avOpcoTros /cal 
p,adu>v dpa TO nr&TT^i^kvov cu? CL^VKTOV ecrj, \6yia 
Trpovtyaivev dTroppijra irepl r/}? eavrov 

&>? OVK over}*; d\(jL>(jLfjLOV irporepov 77 rrjv ' 
viSa Xifivrjv eic'xyBeicrav Kal <j>epofjievr)v 6801/5 
erepas wcrai^re? ojricra) /cal TrepicrTrdcravre^ ol 
7ro\e/MOL Kw\i)crovai iilyvvcrOai rfj Oa\drrr}. 

4 Taura rf) a-vy<\^r(D TrvOo^evrj /cal BtaTropovcrrj 131 



TOV 0eov. OL $e 
Kal ueyd\oi, Kocrcro? Ai/ctWto? Kal Ova\- 

\eptOS IIoTtTO? Kal < J ) aySi0 

re Xp^crd/jLevoi Kal TU>V rrapa TOV 6eov 
rjKov aXX9 re uavTeias KOfAi^ovTes, at 
Tivwv irepl ra? raXofyue^a? AartVa? eo/ora? 
5 6\iya)piav ecfrpa^ov avroLS, Kal TO rr)? ' 



0a\d(T(rr)s dvwOelv et5 TOI^ dp-^alov iropov, r) 
TOVTO fJLrj bwafjievovs opvy/JLacri Kal Tafipois 
Trapdyeiv ei? TO TreSiov Kal KaTava\lcrKeiv. 



IO2 



CAMILLUS, iv. 1-5 

him this was not the only wonder which the passing 
days had brought, but that other and stranger signs 
than this had been given to the Romans, of which 
he was minded to tell him, in order that, if possible, 
he might better his own private case in the midst of 
the public distresses. The man gave eager hearing 
to all this, and consented to a conference, supposing 
that he was going to hear some deep secrets. But 
the Roman led him along little by little, conversing 
as he went, until they were some way beyond the 
city gate, when he seized him bodily, being a sturdier 
man than he, and with the help of comrades who 
came running up from the camp, mastered him com- 
pletely and handed him over to the generals. Thus 
constrained, and perceiving that fate's decrees were 
not to be evaded, the man revealed secret oracles 
regarding his native city, to the effect that it could 
not be captured until the Alban lake, after leaving 
its bed and making new channels for itself, should 
be driven back by the enemy, deflected from its 
course, and prevented from mingling with the sea. 

The Senate, on hearing this, was at great loss 
what to do, and thought it well to send an embassy 
to Delphi to consult the god. The envoys were 
men of great repute and influence, Cossus Licinius, 
Valerius Potitus, and Fabius Ambustus, who made 
their voyage and came back with the responses of 
the gocl. One of these told them that certain 
ancestral rites connected with the so-called Latin 
festivals had been unduly neglected ; another bade 
them by all means to keep the water of the Alban 
lake away from the sea and force it back into its 
ancient bed, or, if they could not effect this, by 
means of canals and trenches to divert it into the 

103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a,7rayye\0evrcop &e rovrwv ol uev lepets ra rrepl 
Ta? Ov<rias eTrparrov, 6 Be S>j/j,os e^capei TT/JO? 
ra epya teal TO vBcop e^erperrev. 

V. 'H Be <7vyK\rjro<> els TO BeKarov eVo? TOV 
TToXejjiov KaTaXvcraaa ra? aXXa? ap^a^ SIKTO,- 
Topa Ka/uXXoz/ aTr&ei^ev iTnrap-^ov 8' fcelvo<s 
avrw 7rpoa\6/iJi(:VO<; KopvrjKiov 



ytto) reXo? eu/eXee? \a/36vri Ta? 

teal vewv 6eas, r)v fj,r}repa M.a-rovrav 



2 Tavrrjv av Tt? a?ro TWZ/ Spw/nevwv lepwv 
/jLoXicrTa Aev/coOeav vo/jiicreiev elvau. /cat yap 
OepaTraivav els rov crrj/cbv elcrdyovaai paTri^ovcnv, 
elr e%e\avv overt, KOI ra rwv aSeX^coz; re/tva Trpo 
rwv ISiwv evaytca'X.L^ovTai, KOI Spwcri irepl rrjv 
Gvalav a Tat? Aiovvcrov rpofyols /cal TO?? Sia TTJV 
7ra\\atcr)V irdOecn T^? 'IwoD? Trpocreoifce. 

Be Ta? eu^a? o Ka/i-iXXo? a? rrjv 
eve/3a\e, Kal /^%# ^eyd\rj TOVTOVS 
re Kal KaTrrjvdras Trpoafioijdrjcravras avrols 

3 evL/crjcrev. eireira rrpos rr]v 7ro\iopKiav rpajro- 
/^e^o? rwv Owi'iwv /cal rov e'/e TryoocrySoX?}? dywva 
f )(a\eTTov Kal o'va-epyov opwv VTTOVO/JLOVS ere/Jive, 
rwv Trepl ryv rro\iv %u>piwv ev^i^ovrwv TO?? 
opvyfjiacri, Kal Kara^e^ofJievwv et? /3a$o? ayeiv 
a&irj\ov Tot? TToXe/itoi? ra epya. Bto Kal 7rpoiovcrr]s 
68 



ft) TT? 
KKa\ov/Mvo<; 7rl ra rei^r) TOL/? 



104 



CAMILLUS, iv. 5-v. 3 

plain and dissipate it. On receipt of these responses 
the priests performed the neglected sacrifices, and 
the people sallied out into the fields and diverted the 
course of the water. 

V. In the tenth year of the war, 1 the Senate 
abolished the other magistracies and appointed 
Camillus dictator. After choosing Cornelius Scipio 
as his master of horse, in the first place he made 
solemn vows to the gods that, in case the war had a 
glorious ending, he would celebrate the great games 
in their honour, and dedicate a temple to a goddess 
whom the Romans call Mater Matuta. 

From the sacred rites used in the worship of this 
goddess, she might be held to be almost identical 
with Leucothea. The women bring a serving-maid 
into the sanctuary and beat her with rods, then 
drive her forth again ; they embrace their nephews 
and nieces in preference to their own children ; and 
their conduct at the sacrifice resembles that of the 
nurses of Dionysus, or that of Ino under the afflic- 
tions put upon her by her husband's concubine. 

After his vows, Camillus invaded the country 
of the Faliscans and conquered them in a great 
battle, together with the Capenates who came 
up to their aid. Then he turned to the siege of 
Veii, and seeing that direct assault upon the city 
was a grievous and difficult matter, he went to 
digging mines, since the region round the city 
favoured such works, and allowed their being 
carried to a great depth without the enemy's knowing 
about it. So then, when his hopes were well on 
their way to fulfilment, he himself assaulted the 
city from the outside, and thus called the enemy 

1 396 B.O. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



a\\oi S' aS?7\ft>9 V7ro7ropv6uvoi Sid TWV VTTOVO- 
e\a6ov eWo9 yevo/^evoi r//9 drcpas Kara TO 



T?9 pa9 epov, o /j,eyt<rTov r)V ev rfj TroXet /cal 



4 'EvravQa \ey6Tai Tvyziv tear t/ceivo Kaipov 
TOP i]yefjiova rwv Tvpprjv&v e'0' iepol?' TOV Se 
et? ra crTrXdy^va Kan^ovra KOL 



on VLKTJV 6 



KaraKO\ov6i](ravrt, rot? iepois e/cet 
Se TT}? ^) 0)1/7)9 TOU? ev rot? vrrovoiJiO 

ra^v BiaaTrdaat, TO e'Sa^o?, real 



u 



evTQiv TWV TroXe/jiiwv /cal 
TO, dTrXdy^a KOjJLiaai TT^O? TOV 
5 \ov. d\Xa TavTa iev laws eoucevai, 



ci Ka. 



TT? TToeo)? tcaTci Kpa.TO<$ KOI TWV 
ayovTwv KOI fyepovrwv aTreipuv TLVCL 
ir\o\jTOV, e(>optov 6 Ka/uXA,o? aTro r^}? arcpas TO, 
TrpaTToueva, TrpwTOv /iiev ecrraj? eSd/cpvaev, etra 
fiaKapKrOelf VTTO TCOV irapovTwv avecr-^e ra? 
6 ^eFpa? rot? #eot? KOL Trpocrev^oaevo^ etTre- " ZeO 
jmeyiaTe KOI deol i ypr)crTa)v eVtcr /COTTON ^at TTQVY)- 
pwv epywv, avTOi TTOV O-VVLCTTC 'Pwyaatot?, co? 
ov Trapd SIKTJV, d\\a /car' dvdytcrjv 
fMerep^ofMeda Sva/mevtov avBpwv Kal 

f^ > 5>> W H >.' I \ f n J / 

7To\iv. et, o apa Tt9, ^977, /tat T)/UI> avTi- 
6<f)6i\Tai, Trjs Trapoucrijs ve^eai,^ evirpa- 

virep re 



crTpaTou wjjiaicov et9 /.iavTov 

1 Tij$ "H/)as with C aud S : 
1 06 



CAMILLUS, v. 3-6 

away to man their walls ; while others secretly 
made their way along the mines and reached un- 
noticed the interior of the citadel, where the 
temple of Juno stood, the largest temple in the 
city, and the one most held in honour. 

There, it is said, at this very juncture, the 
commander of the Tuscans chanced to be sacrificing, 
and his seer, when he beheld the entrails of the 
victim, cried out with a loud voice and said that 
the god awarded victory to him who should fulfill 
that sacrifice. The Romans in the mines below, 
hearing this utterance, quickly tore away the 
pavement of the temple and issued forth with 
battle cries and clash of arms, whereat the enemy 
were terrified and fled away. The sacrificial entrails 
were then seized and carried to Camillus. But 
possibly this will seem like fable. 

At any rate the city was taken by storm, and 
the Romans were pillaging and plundering its 
boundless wealth, when Camillus, seeing from 
the citadel what was going on, at first burst into 
tears as he stood, and then, on being congratulated 
by the bystanders, lifted up his hands to the 
gods and prayed, saying : " O greatest Jupiter, 
and ye gods who see and judge men's good and 
evil deeds, ye surely know that it is not unjustly, 
but of necessity and in self-defence that we Romans 
have visited its iniquity upon this city of hostile 
and lawless men. But if, as counterpoise to this 
our present success, some retribution is due to 
come upon us, spare, I beseech you, the city and 
the army of the Romans, and let it fall upon my 
own head, though with as little harm as may be." 



107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 TeXevrrjcrai" raur* elirwv, KaOcnrep eerl ' 

e#o? eVeu^a/zeVo/9 /cat TrpocrKvv>](Ta<Tiv eVt 



ird\iv u 



eavrbv etc rou Trrcuyuaro? el-Trey, tw? yeyovev avru) 
v%rjv (T<f)d\/j.a fjLLicpbv eV evrv^ia 



VI. kicLTropOrjcras 8e r^y TTO\LV eyva* TO aja\- 133 
//a TJ}? r/ H/?a? f.(,era<f)ep6iv et? 'Pw/jirjv, wcnrep 
v<~aro. K.OI crvve\9ovTwv eVl roura) 
TCOJ/, o yLtef e^fe :al Trpoa-ev^ero rfj Oew ^e 
Ti]V TrpoOvfiiav avTWV KOI v/jL6vfj yevecrOat, avvoi- 
KOV rot? \a^ov(TL rr)V 'P^jJLrfv 6eol<$, TO 8' ajaX/ad 
(j)aaiv VTro^dey^d/jievov eltrelv, ort KOI /3ov\rat, 
2 /cal crvjKaraivel. Atouio? 8e fyrjGiv ev^eaOai 
[jitv TOV Kd^iL\\ov aTTTOfJievov T% ^eou teal Trapa- 
fca\eiv, cnroKpivaaOai Se TIVCLS TWV Trapovrwv, on 
KOI ftovXerat, /cal (rvytcaTaivei ical crvva/co\ov06i 



Ol 8' la")(ypL^oiJLevoL /cal rw Trapa^o^w (3or)6ovv- 
Te? /jLejLcrrrjv pev e%ovcrt crvvrjyopov r^v rv^rjv 
TToXeco?, r)v avro /xtr/oa? real Kara^povov^vi]^ 
eVt TO&OVTOV 5o^?;? /cat Suvd/iiea)? irpoe\- 
Oelv 8t^a ^eoO TroXXat? /cat ne r yd\ais 7ri(f)aveLai<; 
3 e/cd(TTOT a-v/JLTrapovTO? djjbifyavov ov pr^v aXXa teal 
crvvdyov<Tiv oyLtoetS?} Tti^a, rovro fiev 

7ro\\d>ci<; eV^u^ei'Ta?, TOVTO Be 

TrocrTpotyds re Seitcvvvres teal Kara- 
%odvwv, a? l(jTOpr)Ka(Tiv OVK 6\iyoi 
Trporepov. TroXXa Be KCLI TMV Kaff 
Te? dvOpayTTGW \eyeiv e-^OfJiev a%ia flav/jbaro?, wv 

1 08 



CAMILLUS, v. 7-vi. 3 

With these words, as the Romans' custom is after 
prayer and adoration, he wheeled himself about 
to the right, but stumbled and fell as he turned. 
The bystanders were confounded, but he picked 
himself up again from his fall and said : " My 
prayer is granted ! a slight fall is my atonement for 
the greatest good fortune." 

VI. After he had utterly sacked the city, he 
determined to transfer the image of Juno to Rome, 
in accordance with his vows. The workmen were 
assembled for the purpose, and Camillus was sacrificing 
and praying the goddess to accept of their zeal 
and to be a kindly co-dweller with the gods of 
Rome, when the image, they say, spoke in low 
tones and said she was ready and willing. But 
Livy 1 says that Camillus did indeed lay his hand 
upon the goddess and pray and beseech her, but 
that it was certain of the bystanders who gave 
answer that she was ready and willing and eager 
to go along with him. 

Those who insist upon and defend the marvel 
have a most powerful advocate for their contention 
in the fortune of the city, which, from its small 
and despised beginning, could never have come 
to such a pinnacle of glory and power had God not 
dwelt with her and made many great manifestations 
of himself from time to time. Moreover, they 
adduce other occurrences of a kindred sort, such 
as statues often dripping with sweat, images uttering 
audible groans, turning away their faces, and 
closing their eyes, as not a few historians in the 
past have written. And we ourselves might make 
mention of many astonishing things which we 

I r- OO 

^,^-1, 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 OVK av T/,? eiKrj Karacfrpovijcreiev. a\\&, rot? 

Kal TO TTKJTeVttV (T(j)6Bpa Kal TO \ICLV 

7rt<7<j&aXe? ecrrt Sid rrjv dv6pwjrivr]v 
dcrOeveiav opov OVK e^ovaav ouSe Kparovcrav 
a\)C eKtyepofjLevrjv OTTOU pep 66? SeiaiSaL- 
Kal rvfyov, OTTOV 8' et? bXiyayplav TWV Oewv 
KOI TrepifypovTja'W r) S' evXdfteia /cat TO 



ayav a 

VII. C O 8e Ka/tiXXo? elVe /jLeyedei TOV epyov, 
TTo\iv avTLTraXov T? 'Pwu,?? ere^ 



, etre UTTO raw 



TCOV avTOV et? oytcov e^apOels KOI 
fiov /cal TroXtTi/c?;? apx*!? 7ra%0ecrTpov, TO, re 
aXXa o-o/3apa)<? 0pidfjL/36V(76 Kal TeOpnnrov VTTO- 
%vt;d/jLi>o<; \evK07rw\oi' eire^ij teal Sie^ij\aa'6 r?}? 
'PCO/AT;?, ovBevos TOVTO TTOLt'jCravTos 77ye//,o^o? TT/OO- 
Tepov ouS' vGTepov. iepov 'yap rjjovvrai TO TOLOV- 
TOV offlfta TO) {3aa-i\ei Kal iraTpl TWV Otwv eViTTfi- 
vov. K T Srj TOVTOV &ie(B\r)6ri TT/OO? TOU? 
ou/c elQicrfjievovs evTpVffrdaQai, Kal 
pav e'Xa/Sei^ alilav eVtcrra'/zez/o? vbp,w 

TTO\IV. elarjyovvTO yap oi ^fjbap^oi TOV re 
ov Kal T'tfv a~vjK\7jTov Lcra pepri Bvo veatjdrjvat,, 
Kal rou? fjiev avToOu KaTotxelv, TOV$ Be K\r)pw 
et? TT)^ al^aXwTov /jLeTacrTrjvai 7r6\w, 
evTTopcoTepcov ecro^evcov Kal Svcrl 

acrrecrt r?;^ re %copav O/JLOU Kal 
3 evBaiuoviav $v\a%bvTwv. b fxev ovv Brjuos 
7ro\v<i yeyovws KOL 

no 



CAMILLUS, vi. 4-vn. 3 

have heard from men of our own time, things 
not lightly to be despised. But in such matters 
eager credulity and excessive incredulity are alike 
dangerous, because of the weakness of our human 

O 

nature, which sets no limits and has no mastery 
over itself, but is carried away now into vain 
superstition, and now into contemptuous neglect 
of the gods. Caution is best, and to go to no 
extremes. 

VII. Whether it was due to the magnitude of his 
exploit in taking a city which could vie with Rome 
and endure a siege of ten years, or to the congratula- 
tions showered upon him, Camillus was lifted up to 
vanity, cherished thoughts far from becoming to a 
civil magistrate subject to the law, and celebrated 
a triumph with great pomp : he actually had four 
white horses harnessed to a chariot on which he 
mounted and drove through Rome, a thing which 
no commander had ever done before or afterwards did. 
For they thought such a car sacred and devoted to 
the king and father of the gods. In this way he. 
incurred the enmity of the citizens, who were not 
accustomed to wanton extravagance. They had also 
a second grievance against him in that he opposed 
himself to a law dividing the city. The tribunes 
introduced a measure dividing the people and the 
Senate into two parts, one to remain and dwell 
there, and the one on which the lot fell to remove 
into the city they had captured, on the ground that 
they would thus be more commodiously bestowed, 
and with two large and fair cities could better 
protect their territory as well as their prosperity 
in general. Accordingly the people, which was now 
become numerous and poor, welcomed the measure 

in 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

real awe^r)? rjv rot? Trepl TO ftrjua Qopvftois airwv 
f) Be /3ov\rj KOL TWV d\\a)v ol Kpd- 
TTo\irct)V ov Btaipe&tv, aXX* dvaipecriv 
rjyovuevoi rrjs f Pa>/4?7? TroXirevecrOai. rou? 8^7,^tap- 
%ou? teal Svaava(r%eTovi'T<i eVt rbv Ka/*tX\ov 

4 tcarecfrvyov. KaKeivos oppw^wv rov dywva irpo- 
<j)dcris ve/3a\\e ra> brffjuw /ecu acr^oXta?, 

del TOV VOfJLOV %6KpOVV. Y)V fJ,V OVV Bid 

\v7rripos. 

'H Se ^avepwrdrrj KOL /jLeyicrrr) TWV dire- 
Trpbs rbv S?HJLOV ex TT}? Se/car?/? 
\a(j)vpa)v virrjp^ev, OVK d\oyov, el KOI fj,rj 
Trdvv SiKaiav dp%r)v rayv 7ro\\cov \aj3bvTwv. 

5 eu^aro jJLev yap e?rt TOL/? Ovrjtov?, co? COLKG, /3a8i- 
%o)v, el rr)v irciKiv e\oi, r& 6eS> rovrwv rrjv 
Be/cdrr)v tcaOiepwcreiv. d\ovarj^ Se r)}? TroXea)? 

l SiapTraadeicrr)?, err' o/c^^cra? evo^Xrjcrai, rot? 
, eire \r)0r) TIS avrov VTTO ra>i> Trapovrwv 

e\a/3e TT}? GU^T}?, TreptelSev oo 
vcrrepov Be 

dvrjveytce Trepl rovrwv et? J 

K\rjTov t oi re /J.dvrt(i ijyye\\ov eVt rot? iepoi? 13 
dewv 



VIII. ^r)<ptaa/iJievrj<f Be rr}? /3oi>X^9 

a)(j)e\iav (%a\eTrov yap YJV} avd^acrrov arj yeve- 

crOai, TOU? Be Xa/3oj/ra? avrovs <rvv opKW rrjv 

Beicdrrjv 7rapa<pepeiv els fMeaov, eylvero TroXXa 

1 els Bekker and Sinteni* ', with most MSS. : w 



112 



CAMILLUS, vn. 3-vm. i 

with delight, and was for ever thronging tUmultu- 
ously about the rostra with demands that it be put 
to vote. But the Senate and the most influential of 
the other citizens considered that the measure pro- 
posed by the tribunes meant not division but 
destruction for Rome, and in their aversion to it 
went to Camillus for aid and succour. He, dreading 

' <j 

the struggle, always contrived to keep the people 
busy with other matters, and so staved off the 
passage of the bill. For this reason, then, they 
were vexed with him. 

But the strongest and most apparent reason 
why the multitude hated him was based on the 
matter of the tenth of the spoil of Veii, and herein 
they had a plausible, though not a very just ground 
of complaint. He had vowed, as it seems, on 
setting out against Veii, that if he should take 
the city, he would consecrate the tenth of its 
booty to the Delphian god. But after the city had 
been taken and sacked, he allowed his soldiers full 
enjoyment of their plunder, either because he shrank 
from annoying them, or because, in the multitude of 
his activities, he as good as forgot his vow. At a 
later time, when he had laid down his command, he 
referred the matter to the Senate, and the seers 
announced tokens in their sacrifices that the gods 
were angry, and must be propitiated with due 
offerings. 

VIII. The Senate voted, not that the booty should 
be redistributed, for that would have been a difficult 
matter, but that those who had got it should, in 
person and under oath, bring the tenth thereof to 
the public treasury. This subjected the soldiers to 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\VTrrjpa /cal fBiaia Trepl TOVS cn-paTiwra?, dvOpw- 
KCU 7ro\\d 



wv e/ce/crrjvTO real 



2 elcrcfrepeiv TOGOVTOV. Qopvftov/Aevw 8' VTT avrCov 
TO) Ka/AtXXw KOI Trpofiaaews ajropovvrt /3e\.Tiovos 

rov droTrcoTcnov TWV \6ywv cruveftaive Kara- 
, 6/jt,o\oyovvTt, 7rt\a0e<r0ai TT}? et^r}?. ol 
' e^dXeTraivov, el ra TWV vroXe/xicoy SeKarevo-eiv 
v^d/jipo<; rare vvv Sefcarevei ra TOJV TTO\ITO)V. ov 
d\\a TTUVTWV oaov e&ei ftepo? 

KpaTifpa ^pvaovv Karaafcevda-avTas 

3 AeX<ou? aTTOcrretXat. %pucriov 8' fjv crTrdvis ev 
ry 7r6\et' fcal TWV dp^ovTWv oOev av rropLcrOeirj 
CTKOTTOVVTWV, at <yvvaiK<> avTol Ko.0' avTas j3ov- 
\evcrdpevai TOV ovTa ^pvcrovv exdcrTrj rrepl TO 
aa)fj.a Koafjiov erre&coKav et? TO ava^y/na, cTTaO/Ato 

jevo/jLevov OKTCO Ta\dvTcov. /cal raurcu? 
17 <rvyK\ijTO? dTroSi&ovcra TL^V TrpeTrovaav 
O /LLGTCL Odvarov wcnrep rrl rot? dv&pdcri 
teal rou9 yvvai^l \eyea6ai TOV a^iov 7ratvov ov 
yap TJV eWto-fjievov irpoTepov eyKWfjad^ea'Oai yv- 

4 valfca &rj{io(Tia TeXevT/jaaa-av eXofievoi Be Tpeis 
avBpas e/c TWV dpi(7Twv Qewpovs teal vavv /bta/cpdv 
evavBpovvTL rrX^pw/jLaTL xal Koafiw Travrjyvpifcw 



' apa real / Xip>wv KOI ya\i]VTj 0a\d(Tcrr)<; 
dpya\eov, to? GKeivoi? crvveTV^e TOTE Trap ovBev 
eXdovTas aTfoXeaOai Biatyvyeiv avOw dTrpoa- 
BOKIJTWS TOV KLvBuvov. 7r6TT\ev(rav yap auroi? 
Airrapewv Tpiqpeis Trepl ra? Alo\ov vij<7ov<f TOV 



114 



CAMILLUS, vni. T-4 

many vexations and constraints. They were poor 
men, who had toiled hard, and yet were now forced 
to contribute a large share of what they had gained, 
yes, and spent already. Beset by their tumultuous 
complaints, and at loss for a better excuse, Camillus 
had recourse to the absurdest of all explanations, and 
admitted that he had forgotten his vow. The soldiers 
were filled with indignation at the thought that it 
was the goods of the enemy of which he had once 
vowed a tithe, but the goods of his fellow citizens 
from which he was now paving the tithe. However, 
all of them brought in the necessary portion, and it 
was decided to make a bowl of massive gold and send 
it to Delphi. Now there was a scarcity of gold in 
the city, and the magistrates knew not whence it 
could be had. So the women, of their own accord, 
determined to give the gold ornaments which they 
wore upon their persons for the offering, and these 
amounted to eight talents weight. The women were 
fittingly rewarded by the Senate, which voted that 
thereafter, when women died, a suitable eulogy 
should be spoken over them, as over men. For it 
was not customary before that time, when a woman 
died, that a public encomium should be pronounced. 
Then they chose three of the noblest citizens as 
envoys, manned with its full complement of their 
best sailors a ship of war decked out in festal array, 
and sent them on their way. 

Calm at sea has its perils as well as storm, it would 
seem, at least so it proved in this case. Envoys and 
crew came within an ace of destruction, and found 
escape from their peril when they least expected it. 
Off the Aeolian isles, as the wind died down, some 
Lipariaii galleys put out against them, taking them 

"5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Trvevuaro'S eK\nr6vros ox? \yarais. SeofJLevwv Be 
teal rrpoia")(oiJiiv<i)v y^elpa^ e/i/SoX?}? p.ev ecr^ovro, 
rrjv Be vavv ava^fa^voi KCLI /carayayovres 



arreicripvrrov, ap,a KO.I ra xpifaara teal ra 
Treipari-ca tcpivavres elvai. 



av$po<$ apery /cal Svvd/jLt, Ti^rjo-iOeov rov 
arpar^yov TreLaOevres pL6?)Kav. o &6 teal Trpoa 1 - 
aa$ i&ia 7r\oia Trap eir ep.-^re KOI avy/cad- 
TO avaQi^^a' 6*' o KOI Tipas ecr^ev, a? 

J \ 9 > f-T) ' 

et/co? rjv, ev l war). 

IX. Twv Be 87j/jLcip%wv avOis eTreyeipovrwv rov 
Trepl rov SLOLKIO-JLLOV VOJJLOV, o 777309 4>aXt'avcou9 
TToXe/io? ev Kaipw rrapa<$>ave\<$ eScotce roi? 7r/oaTO? 
av&pdcriv dp^aipecridcraL Kara yvcti/jLrjv /cal Ka- 
[LiXXov arro&el^ai /j,ed* erepwv rrevre 
a>? rwv Trpayudrwv ^ye^ovo^ SeojAevwv a^/c 
2 real So^av yuer' e/j,rreiplas e^o^ro?. 

Se rov Bijaov \a(3cov &vvajj,iv o KayiuXXo? 

evej3a\e.' real rro\iv epvfivrjv rcare- 
rracriv et? rr6\e/j.oi> Ka\ws ^aXe- 
/otou? 7ro\i6p/cei, TO yLtev eXet^ oy fjiiKpov epyov 
ovSe xpovov rov rv^ovros rjyovjuevos, aXXw? Se 
rpifieiv roi)? TroXtra? Arat TrepiaTrav 



OIKOI 

Kal crracrtd^eiv. eTrieiKO)? yap del 
rovrw xpijo/jievot, StereXovv, warrep larpoi, ra 
rapa/eriKa rrdOr] r?}? TroXfre/a? e^w rperrovres. 
X. OUTOJ? 5e TT}? iro\iOpKlas icarefypovovv ol 
116 



CAMILLUS, VIH. 5-x. i 

for pirates. The enemy had sufficient regard to 
their prayers and supplications not to run their 
vessel down, but they took it in tow, brought it to 
land, and proclaimed their goods and persons for 
sale, adjudging them piratical. At last, and with 
much ado, through the brave intercession of a single 
man, Timesitheus, their general, the Liparians were 
persuaded to let the captives go. This man then 
launched boats of his own, convoyed the suppliants 
on their way, and assisted them in the dedication 
of their offering. For this he received suitable 
honours at Rome. 

IX. Once more the tribunes of the people urged 
the passage of the law for the division of the city, 
but the war with the Faliscans came on opportunely 
and gave the leading men occasion to hold such 
elective assemblies as they wished, and to appoint 
Camillus military tribune, with five others. The 
emergency was thought to demand a leader with the 
dignity and reputation which experience alone could 
give. After the people had ratified the election, 
Camillus, at the head of his army, invaded the 
territory of the Faliscans and laid siege to Falerii, a 
strong city, and well equipped with all the munitions 
of war. It was not that he thought its capture would 
demand slight effort or short time, but he wished to 
turn the thoughts of the citizens to other matters 
and keep them busy therein, that they might not be 
able to stay at home and become the prey of seditious 
leaders. This was a fitting and sovereign remedy 
which the Romans used, like good physicians, thereby 
expelling from the body politic its troublesome 
distempers. 

X. The Falerians, relying on the great strength of 

117 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



<&a\epioi TO) rravra^odev e^w^vpMaOai mcrrev- 
ovrev, ware 7r\rjv rwv rd rei%y (fruXarrovrcov rot 1 ? 
ev ifiariois Kara r>/v rro\iv dvacrrpe- 
TOU9 Be TraiSa? avrwv et'? re ra &i8a- 
(poirdv teal rrapd ra rei^r) rrepirra- 
/cat yv/jLvacrojj.vovs VTTO rov SiSaa-Ka\ov 
^(j9ai. KOLVW 'yap e~%pwvro ry $i$a- 
y, axnrep f/ EXX?^e9, ot QaXepioi, /3ov\6- 13 
(rvvrpe<po-@ai /cal crvvayeXa^eaOai, per* 
2 a\\i/i\(i)V v6vs e ap^?}? TOU? 7rai3a?. ouro? 
ovv o StSacr/caXo? e7ri$ov\eva)v rot? 
a rwv Trai&wv e^ijyev avrovs ^yLte/ 



VTTO TO rer^o? eyyv<$ TO irpwrov, elr' 

eidw vjLvaaaevov^. etc Be rovrov Kara 



ov vrrdywv eWicre Oappelv &)? TroXXr}? ov 

, Kal TeXo? e^wz/ airavras e? TOU? 
Xa/ca? TWI' r P(t)^ai(i)v eVe/5aXe 






3 aety K\vcra<> 7r?o9 TOI/ 



t /caracrra? e/9 fjiecrov e\6ye7ra(5evrijs fjiev elvai 
, rr>v Se 77/369 ZKtivov %ap^ ci^rl 
6Xo/xez^o9 TWJ^ SiKaiwv, rjKew avrco rrjv 

7TO\LV GV TOt9 TTCLlcl KO[Jiill,MV. SeiVOV OVV (IKOV- 

(ravri, TO epyov e^xivr] Ka/^tXXft)* /cat 7r/)09 Toi/9 
rrapovras elrraiv, &>9 ^aXeTrot' /xei' e'o~Tt 7roXeyLt09 



4 epyaiv, etVt 8e /tral 7ra\e/j.(t)v OJJLW^ rives vofJLOi rol<s 
ayaOois avBpdcri, Kal TO VLKCLV ov^ oura) &ia)- 
Kreov, atare yLt^ (bevyeiv ra$ eK Kaxwv Kal dae/Swv 
epy&v xdpira? (aperf) yap ot/ceta TOI/ 
crrpaniyov, OVK d\\orpLa Oappovvra 
^pi]vaL arpareveiv), rrpoarera^e rols v-n 
rov fjiev av6pd>rrov Karapprjyvvvai, ra tfjidrta 

118 



CAMILLUS, x. 1-4 

their city at all points, made so light of the siege 
that, with the exception of the defenders of the 
walls, the rest went up and down the city in their 
garb of peace. The boys went to school as usual, 
and were brought by their teacher along the walls 
outside to walk about and get their exercise. For 
the Falerians, like the Greeks, employed one teacher 
in common, wishing their boys, from the very start, 
to herd with one another and grow up together. 
This teacher, then, wishing to betray Falerii by 
means of its boys, led them out every day beyond the 
city walls, at first only a little way, and then brought 
them back inside when they had taken their exercise. 
Presently he led them, little by little, farther and 
farther out, accustomed them to feel confident that 
there was no danger at all, and finally pushed in 
among the Roman outposts with his whole company, 
handed them over to the enemy, and demanded to 
be led to Camillus. So led, and in that presence, he 
said he was a boys' school-teacher, but chose rather 
to win the general's favour than to fulfil the duties 
of his office, and so had come bringing to him the 
city in the persons of its boys. It seemed to Camillus, 
on hearing him, that the man had done a monstrous 
deed, and turning to the bystanders he said : " War 
is indeed a grievous thing, and is waged with much 
injustice and violence ; but even war has certain laws 
which good and brave men will respect, and we must 
not so hotly pursue victory as not to flee the favours 
of base and impious doers. The great general will 
wage war relying on his own na ive valour, not on 
the baseness of other men." Then he ordered his 
attendants to tear the man's clothing from him, tie 

VOL. II, E 119 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



real fjLaffTiyas, OTTW? /co\d- 
TOV Trpoo'oTrjV eXavvMcriv et9 rrjv TTO\.IV. 
"A/m 8e TWI> ^aXeptwz' rj&OriiJLevwv T^V TOV 
Si^acrKaXov TrpoSocriav teal rr^v /JLCV iro\iv, olov 
et/co?, eTTt o-vfji^opa TijXiicavTy 6pr,vov /care- 



o/xo /cal yvvaifcwv eVl ra 
teal ra? TruXa? CTLW ot8e^l \oyio-fjLU) 



Trpoorfjyov ol Trat^e? 

KOI SeSe/jievov Trpo7r^\aicL^ovre^, TOV Be 
crwTrjpa real TraTepa KOI Oeov ava/ca- 
6 Xouz/re?, wcrre yu,^ n-bvov rot? ryovevai TWV TraiSwv, 
d\\a real rot? aAAo/? TroXtVat? Tav0* opwcri 
Oau/jid re /cat iroOov efjiTreaelv r?)? roO Ka^LttXXou 

teal avvSpajjiovTes et? KK\rjcriav 
eicelvw TO, ica6' eavTovs e 



7 'Pco/^T/z/. ez/ 5e r^ /3ov\yj KaraaTavTes eiirov, OTI 
t Po)/jLalot Tr}<? vi/crjs Trjv SiKaiocrvvrjv 



cravT<; eiaav CIVTOVS 



Trpo T^? \V0epia<; t ov TOCTOVTOV TJJ $vvd/jii 
XetTreo-^at SOKOVVTCLS, oaov rjTTaffOai TT}? a 
6/Jio'\,oyovvTas. aTroSouo"?;? 8e TT}? ySou 
Kivq> TO Kplvai teal SiaiTrjcraL TavTa, 
\a/3a)v Trapa TWV <&d\,epia>v /ecu (f>i\iav 



XI. Oi Be crTpaTi&Tai SiapTrdcreiv 
cravTes TOVS ^aXe/Jiou?, a>? 7ravrj^dov ei? ' 
/eevals ^epcrt, Karrjyopovv TOV Ka/uXXot' 
TOU? aXXof? TroXtra? a>? fucro&rjfiov /eal 
<ravTO<$ a)d>e\nd rival roi? 7revr)(riv. eVet Se roi' 

f * * 

7Tpl TOV SlOLKiGfWV VOfAOV OL 
T2O 



CAMILLUS, x. 4-xi. i 

his arms behind his back, and put rods and scourges 
in the hands of the boys, that they might chastise 
the traitor and drive him back into the city. 

The Falerians had just become aware of the 
teacher's treachery, and the whole city, as was 
natural, was filled with lamentation over a calamity 
so great. Men and women alike rushed distractedly 
to the walls and gates, when lo ! there came the 
boys, bringing their teacher back stripped, bound, 
and maltreated, while they called Camillus their 
saviour, their lather, and their god. On this wise 
not only the parents of the boys, but the rest of the 
citizens as well, when they beheld the spectacle, 
were seized with admiration and longing for the 
righteousness of Camillus. In haste they held an 
assembly and sent envoys to him, entrusting him 
with their lives and fortunes. These envoys Camillus 
sent to Rome. Standing in the Senate, they declared 
that the Romans, by esteeming righteousness above 
victory, had taught them to love defeat above 
freedom ; not so much because they thought them- 
selves inferior in strength, as because they confessed 
themselves vanquished in virtue. On the Senate's 
remanding to Camillus the decision and disposition 
of the matter, he took a sum of money from the 
Falerians, established friendship with all the Faliscans, 
and withdrew. 

XI. But the soldiers thought to have had the 
sacking of Falerii, and when they came back to 
Rome empty-handed, they denounced Camillus to 
the rest of the citizens as a hater of the common 
people, and as begrudging to the poor the enjoyment 
of their rightful booty. And when the tribunes once 
more put forward the law for the division of the city 

121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



av8i<s eTTt TIJV -fyrifyov e/cdXovv rbv Brjfjiov, 6 Be 
Ka/uXXo? ouSeyiua? aire'xOeias ovBe Trapprjaias 
(freicrd/iievos etydvrj /xaXicrra TrdvTwv e/cftia^o- 

/Zl>O? TOU? TTOXXOU?, TOV fJLGV VO/JLOV 

2 dTTe-^rj^icravTo, TOV Be Kd/j,i\\ov Bi opyrjs 



cocrre KOI Sva-Tv^o-avro^ avrov Trepl TO, ol/ceia 
(rwv yap vi(ov d7re/3a\e TOV eTepov vocrrjcravTa) 
OIKTM TT}? 0/97?)? v<f)e(T0ai. KCLITOI TO 
ov fiTpiw<; tfvejKev dvrjp ij/j-epo? (frvcrei, KOI 



O?, a\\a rr}? BLKTJ^ TrpoyeypafifjLevrjs 
Sia TrevOos oiKovpei KaOeipyiJLevos /i-era 
yvvaifcwv* 

XII. 'O fiev ovv KaTijyopos fy Aev/cios ' 

6yK\r)/j,a Be K\O7rf)S Trepl ra TvpprjvL/ca 
KOI SrJTa KOL Ovpai Tives e\eyovTO 
Trap avTW <J>avrjvat, TWV ai^ttaXtTa)i/. o 

erjpedt,(TTo KOI 
TrpO(f)d(Tec0$ KCLT avTOv 

2 ourw? ovv crvvayaywv TOVS re <pi\ovs KCU 

<TVCTTpaTU(Ta[A6VOVS OVfC 6\iyOW$ TO 7T\f]00<> OVTdS, 

fj,rf Trepi'iBeiv avTov dBiKcos err CLITICUS \\ 

otyKovTO, KCU KarayeXarrTOv VTTO TWV 
yevo/jiei>ov. eVet 8* ol (f>L\oi (BovKevcrd- 
teal Sia\e%0evTs eaurot? aTreKpivavTO, rrpbs 
T^V Kpicnv avTw /j,rj$ev OLeaOai ftorjOrjcreiv, Trjv 
Be ty)j.dav 6(j)\6vTt a-vve/cTi&eLv, OVK dvao-%6fjLvo$ 
eyvco fjLeTCKTTrjvai, KCU (fruyeiv /c TT}? TroXcw? rrpb? 

3 bpyrji'. daTracrd/jLevos ovv Trjv yvval/ca ical TOV 



vibv 67rl r;? ofcas rrporjei <Tiwrr) 
7rv\r)<f Kel B& 7re<7Trj, /cal 

122 



CAMILLUS, xi. i-xii. 3 

and summoned the people to vote upon it, then 
Camillas, shunning no hatred nor any boldness of 
utterance, was manifestly the chief one in forcing the 
multitude away from its desires. Therefore, they 
did indeed reject the law, much against their will, 
but they were wroth with Camillas, so that even 
when he met with domestic affliction and lost one 
of his two sons by sickness, their wrath was in no 
wise softened by pity. And yet he set no bounds 
to his sorrow, being by nature a gentle and kindly 
man, but even after the indictment against him had 
been published, he suffered his grief to keep him at 
home, in close seclusion with the women of his 
household. 

XII. Well, then, his accuser was Lucius Apuleius, 
and the charge was theft of Tuscan goods. It was 
said, forsooth, that certain bronze doors belonging 
to the booty had been seen at his house. But the 
people were exasperated, and would plainly lay 
hold of any pretext whatever for condemning him. 
So then he assembled his friends and comrades in 
arms, who were many in number, and begged them 
not to suffer him to be convicted on base charges 
and to be made a laughing-stock by his foes. When 
his friends had laid their heads together and dis- 
cussed the case, they answered that, as regarded his 
trial, they thought they could be of no help to him ; 
but if he were punished with a fine, they would help 
him pay it. This he could not endure, and in his 
wrath determined to depart the city and go into exile. 
Accordingly, after he had kissed his wife and son 
good-bye, he went from his house in silence as far 
as the gate of the city. There he stopped, turned 
himself about, and stretching his hands out towards 

123 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fcal ra<? ^elpa^ avareiva? TT/OO? TO KairiT(o\t,ov 
rot? Oeols, el p.1] BiKaicos, aXX' v(Bpei 
Kal (fidovtp 7rpo7rr)\aKt6/jievo$ 
wyLtatof? /j-eravorjaai Kal Trdcriv 

<f>avepovs yeveaOai Beofj-evov<; avrov KOI 



XIII. 'E/eeii>09 fiev ovv, warjrep 6 ' 

ftejmevos eVl TOI)? TroXtVa? /cal yLteracrra? 



pi]<J.r)v, Tt/zr/yLta /jivplwv teal 
dcraapiwv e^ovaav. 
' V O yiveTai TT/JO? dpyvpiov \6yov 
Kal Trevrafcocnai' aacrdpiov yap TJV TO pyvpioi> t 
teal TO $etcd\a\icoi> OVTWS eKa\elro Srjvdpiov. 

f\ 'S'V ^-''^'Tl f * ' '<- ^ 

2 (Jj;oet9 6 eaTi IwfJiaiwv, o? OL vop-i^GL Ta? 



eu^a? TOI) Ka/xtXXou Ta%v rqv &.IK.TIV v 
Kal yeveaOai ri/uwpiav aura* T?}? aSi/fta? ou/c 
ri^eiav, aXA,' dviapdv, ovo}jLa<JTi]v $ /cal irepi- 
fiotjTOV rocravrr) TrepirjXOe rrjv 'Poo/m^v ve/Jieais, 
Kal roaovTOV ciywv (frOopov Kal KIV^VVGV a/^a JJLGT 

Kaipos 67rl T^V 7r6\tv, etVe 



OVTCO avveXdova-rs, etre /rat 



epyov ecrrl fjirj TrapafieXslv dperr^ d'%apicnov- 



XIV. Tlp&rov /Aev ovv eSo^e at^eLov yeyovevai 
V {jieydX,ov Trpooriovros r; 'louXtou rov TI/JLTJTOV 
)' fj,d\iara yap Brj 'Pcoyuaioi creftovrai Kal 
v iepav TTJV TWV TII^YJTWV dp^t]V. Bev- 
repov Be irpo TT}? Ka/ztXXou (frvyrjs avr/p OVK 
eintyavris fj.ev ovBe IK rij^ /3ofXr}?, eineiK^ Be Kal 
^/PT^CTTO? elvai BOKOIV, Ma/3/co? KaiBiKios, di'rj 
7T/30? 



124 



CAMILLUS, xn. 3-xiv. i 

the Capitol, prayed the gods that, if with no justice, 
but through the wantonness of the people and the 
abuse of the envious he was now being driven from 
his country, the Romans might speedily repent, and 
show to all men that they needed and longed for 
Camillus. 

XIII. After he had thus, like Achilles, 1 invoked 
curses upon his fellow citizens, he removed from out 
the city. His case went by default, and he was fined 
fifteen thousand asses. 

This sum, reduced to our money, is fifteen hundred 
drachmas. For the as was the current copper coin, 
and the silver coin worth ten of these pieces was for 
that reason called the denarius, which is equivalent 
to the drachma. 

Now there is no Roman who does not believe that 
justice followed hard upon the imprecations of 
Camillus, and that he received a requital for his 
wrongs which was not pleasing to him, but painful ; 
certainly it was notable and famous. For a great 
retribution encompassed Rome, and a season of dire 
destruction and peril not unmixed with disgrace 
assailed the city, whether fortune so brought things 
to pass, or whether it is the mission of some god not 
to neglect virtue that goes unrequited. 

XIV. In the first place, then, it seemed to be a 
sign of great evil impending when Julius the censor 
died. For the Romans specially revere and hold 
sacred the office of censor. In the second place, 
before Camillus went into exile, a man who was not 
conspicuous, to be sure, but who was esteemed 
honest and kindly, Marcus Caedicius, informed the 
military tribunes of a matter well worth their atten- 

1 Iliad i. 407-412. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 e<br) yap ev rfj irapw^fjievr) VVKTI Kaff 68bv 



VTTO 

/uieracrrpa^vai, real dedaacrOai 
ovBeva, <^W/'T}? Be fieL^ovos ?! /car' dv6pwTTtV7]v 
dteovcrai rdBe \yovo-r)<f ""Aye, Ma/3/ce Ka^StVte, 
\eye TT/JO? TO 1)9 ap^ovra^ ew6ev e\0a)V 6\iyov 
'Xpbvov TaXara? 7rpoa"Se^(T0ai,.^ raur' dfcov- 
crai/re? o/ ^Xiap^oi yeXwra KOL Tra&iav CTroiovv- 
TO. ~al /xer' oKiyov a-vveftrj ra Trepl Ka/uX,\ov. 

XV. Oi 5e FaXarat rov lLe\TiKov yevovs o 
UTTO ir\r)0ov<$ \eyovrai rrv CLVT&V 



OVK ovcrav avrdp/crj Tpeffrav aTravras, eVt 

erepa? 6p/JLr>craf /jiVpidBes Be TroXXal 
vewv dv$p&v KOI fjLa-^ifJLWv, en Be 



KCLI yvvaucwv ciyovres, ol fiev eVl 
TOV fiopeiov *lKeavov VTrepfiaXovTe? ra 'PiTraia 
opr) pvrjvai KOI ra ecr^ara TT}? Eivp(t)7rr)<} teara- 
2 cr-^elv, ol <5e yaera^u Tivppt'jV^ opovs KOI 



"A\7rea)v ISpvOemes eyyvs ^evwvwv KOI KeXro- 
pia)i> KaroifceLv %povov TTO\VV o-^re 8' olvov yevcrd- 
jjuevoi Tore rrpwrov e 'IraX/a? SiaKOfjuaOevros 
ouTO)? apa Oavfjidcrai TO Tro^cta KOI TT/JO? rrjv 

I n t & r* if t '/I 

(caLvorrjra T/;? t]bov^ eK(f>pove$ yevecruai 
a)crr dpd/jLei 01 ra oVXa /cat yereas dvaX 
eVt Ta? "AXvrei? (f>epea6ai KOI ty^relv eKeivrfv 
yf)V, rj roiovrov Kaprrov dvaSiSa)cri, rrjv 8' a 
aKapwov rjyelaOai, KOI dv^/juepov. 
3 'O 8* elaayaytev rov olvov rrpos avrovs teal 
Trapn^vvas eVt rijv ^}ra\iav /j*d\i(rr(i /cal Trpwros 
"Appwv \eyerai yeveadai r Yvppr]vbs, dinjp eTri<bavr)<$ 
Kat <fiu(Ti fjiev ov TTOvrjpos, a-vfjL<fiopa Be roiavrrj 



126 



CAMILLUS, xiv. 2-xv. 3 

tion. He said that during the night just passed, as 
he was going along the so-called New Street, he 
was hailed by someone in clear tones, and turned, 
and saw no man, but heard a voice louder than 
man's saying : " Hark thou ! Marcus Caedicius, early 
in the morning go and tell the magistrates that 
within a little time they must expect the Gauls." 
At this story the tribunes mocked and jested. And 
a little while after, Camillus suffered his disgrace. 

XV. The Gauls were of the Celtic stock, and their 
numbers were such, as it is said, that they abandoned 
their own country, which was not able to sustain 
them all, and set out in quest of another. They 
were many myriads of young warriors, and they took 
along with them a still greater number of women 
and children. Some of them crossed the Rhipaean 
mountains, streamed off towards the northern ocean, 
and occupied the remotest parts of Europe ; others 
settled between the Pyrenees and the Alps, near 
the Senones and the Celtorians, and dwelt there a 
long time. But at last they got a taste of wine, 
which was then for the first time brought to them 
from Italy. They admired the drink so much, and 
were all so beside themselves with the novel pleasure 
which it gave, that they seized their arms, took 
along their families, and made off to the Alps, in 
quest of the land which produced such fruit, con- 
sidering the rest of the world barren and wild. 

The man who introduced wine to them, and was 
first and foremost in sharpening their appetite for 
Italy, is said to have been Arron, a Tuscan. He was 
a man of prominence, and by nature not prone to 
evil, but had met with the following misfortune. 
He was guardian of an orphan boy who was heir to 

127 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

76 TTpCOTOV TWV TToXtTWZ' KOI 6 CiV fid^O- 
/JL6VOV tear* el&OS, OVOfJLO, AoVKOV fJLtoVOS. OUTO? K 136 

veov Trapa ru> "Appcovi, $Lairav et%e, KOI peipdiaov 
OVK direkiTre rrjv oixiav, o\\a TTpocreiroLelro 
(rvvcov e/ceivw. KCU nrokvv ^povov e\dv0avG 
Ka)<> avrov rrjv ryvvaiKa KOI $ie(f)dapfjLevos 
VTT e/eeivrj?' r)$r) Se Troppco rov irddovs d/ji(j)orepfi)V 
ryeyovorwv KOI /u-^r' dfyelvai, rrjv eTndvp.iav /jLiJTe 
tcpvTTTeiv en ^vvafiivwv, o jjiev veavicricos eVe^etpet 
<f>avpws aTrocrTracra? e%6iv TTJV avOpwirov, o S* 
avrjp 7rl Bifcyv e\du)v fcal KpaTov/jLevos 7r\yj0i 

<f)L\WV KCU ^ptlfJLCLTWV SaTTaVCUS V7TO TOV AoVKOV- 

IJLGJVOS e^eXivre Trjv eaurov' KOI 7ru$o/xez/o9 TO, TWV 
TaXarwv fjtcev et? avrovs teal Kadr^yTJaaro TT)? a? 
rr]v 'IraXiav crrpareia^. 

XVI. O/ S' efj,/3a\6vTs v0vs etcpdrovv TTJ<; 
^wpa? OCTTJV TO iraXaiov ol Tvpprjvoi Karel^ov t 
djrb TWV "AXTreeoy eV d^orepa^ rcaflrj/covcrav ra? 
^aXacrcra?, a)? KOI rovi>o^a fjiaprvpel ra> \6yw. 
rr]v p.ev jap ftopeiov OdXarrav 'ASpiav fcaXov&iv 
djro Tvppqvitcijs TToXeco? 'AS/o/a?, Trjv be TT/OO? 
VOTOV KK\i/jievi]V dvrLKpv^ 'YvppyviKov TreXayo?. 

2 Tracra 6' earl &v$p6(j)VTOs avrrj teal dpe^aaiv 
tcai /cardppVTOs irora/jLol^. KOI TroXei? 
orcrwKaiSefca AraXa? /cal jjueydkas KOL Kare- 
TT/OO? re ^piifjuariarfjiov c'/oyaTtvco? fcal 
BictLrav Travrjyvpifca)?, a? ol FaXarat TOUV 
Tvpprjvovs e/c/9aXoi/T9 avrol Karecr^ov. aXX<i 
ravra fj^ev eirpd^Orj av%vu) TIVI XP V( P Trporepov. 

XVII. Ol 8e TaXarat Tore TT/JO? 7ro\iv Tvpprj- 
viBa KXoixnov arparevaavre^ eiro\i6pKOVv. ol 
Be KXovaivot, Kara<puy6vre<? eVl TOI)? ' 

128 



CAMILLUS, xv. 3-xvn. i 

the greatest wealth in the city, and of amazing 
beauty, Lticumo by name. This Lucumo from his 
youth up hud lived with Arron, and when he came 
to man's estate, did not leave his house, but pre- 
tended to take delight in his society. He had, 
however, corrupted Arron's wife, and been corrupted 
by her, and tor a long time kept the thing a secret. 
But at last the passions of both culprits increased 
upon them so that they could neither put away their 
desires nor longer hide them, wherefore the young 
man made open attempt to remove the woman and 
have her to wife. Her husband brought the case 
to trial, but was defeated by Lucumo, owing to the 
multitude of his friends and his lavish outlays of 
money, and forsook the city. Learning about the 
Gauls, he betook himself to them, and led them on 
their expedition into Italy. 

XVI. The Gauls burst in and straightway 
mastered all the country which the Tuscans occupied 
of old, namely, that stretching from the Alps down 
to both seas, the names of which bear witness to the 
story. For the northern sea is called Adria, from the 
Tuscan city of Adria; the southern is called out- 
right the Tuscan Sea. This whole country is studded 
with trees, has excellent pasturage for flocks and 
herds, and an abundance of rivers. It had also 
eighteen cities, large and fair, well equipped for 
profitable commerce and for sumptuous living. These 
the Gauls took away from the Tuscans and occupied 
themselves. But this happened long before the 
time of which 1 speak. 

XVII. At this time the Gauls had marched against 
the Tuscan city of Clusium and were laying siege 
to it The Clusians applied for assistance to the 

129 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rpecr/3et9 Trap CLVTMV /cal rypd/j,/jLara 
TT/OO? TO 1/5 {3ap(3dpov<;. eTre/ji^Orjaav Be rov 
<>a/3i,cov yevou? rpels dvBpes evBo/ctfjiOL /cal 
2 fjLeya\as e^o^re? ev rfj TroXet. TOVTOVS eBe 
fjiev ol VaXdrai $i\av6punrws Bid TO TT)? ' 
ovo/^a, /cal Travcrdfjievoi rr}? Trpo? ra rei 
et? Xo70f? <Tvvri\0ov. TrvvOavofjievwv S' avr&v, 
o TI TraOovres VTTO KXcucrtVo)^ rftcoiev eirl rrjv 
, r ye\daa<? 6 /^acriXei/? TWV Ta\ara)i> 



yrv 

6\ijrjv fjiev yewpyeiv Swd/jievoi, TroXXrjv Be 
a^toO^re? /cal /JLTJ j^eraBiBovre^ rjfjuv 
ovai /cal vroXXots fcal Trev^cri. ravra B* 
apa /cal u/za? rjBitcovv, a> f P&>/uu(H, Trporepov fjiev 
*A\/3avol real ^iBrjvarai /cal 'ApSeaTai, vvv Be 
Ovijlot /cal l^aTrrivarai /cal 7ro\\ol QaXia/ccav /cal 
Qvo\ov(TK(i)V' e^)' ou? vfjiels crrpaTevovres, eav /j,r) 
/jLeraBiBwaiv V/JLLV TWV dyaOayv, dv^p 
/col \erj\arelre /cal /caracr/cdTrreTe ra? 
avT&v, ov^ev ovBe u/tei? 76 Beivbv ovBe dBi/cov 
4 TTOiovvres, d\\a TW Trpecr/Svrdra) TWV VOJJLWV 

d/CO\OV0OVVTS, O? TO) Kpe'lTTOVl TO, TWV ^TTOVWV 
dp%6/jL6VO$ CITTO TOV 060V Kal T\eVTG)V 

ra drjpia. fcal yap TOVTOLS e/c ^ucrea)? evecrn 
TO ^ijTelv 7r\eov e^eiv ra icpeiTTOva ra>z' vTroBe- 
ecfTepcov. K\OV<TLI>OVS Be TravcraaOe 7ro\iop/cov- 
ol/CTeipovTes, &>? /x?; Kal FaXara? BiBdgrjTe 
/cal (f)i\oiKTipjjLova<; yevecrOai rot? VTTO 



E/c TOVTWV TWV \oy(ov eyvcocrav ol ' 
TOV ^pevvov davfjifBaTW^ e%ovTa t /cal 7rape\- 

130 



CAMILLUS, xvu. T-5 

Romans, and begged them to send ambassadors in 

their behalf with a letter to the Barbarians. So 

there were sent three men of the Fabian gens who 

were of great repute and honour in the city. The 

Gauls received them courteously, because of the 

name of Rome, ceased their attacks upon the city 

walls, and held conference with them. When they 

were asked what wrong they had suffered at the 

hands of the Clusians that they had come up against 

their city, Brennus, the king of the Gauls, burst into 

a laugh and said : "The Clusians wrong us in that, 

being able to till only a small parcel of earth, they 

yet are bent on holding a large one, and will not 

share it with us, who are strangers, many in numbei 

and poor. This is the wrong which ye too suffered, 

O Romans, formerly at the hands of the Albans, 

Fidenates, and Ardeates, and now lately at the 

hands of the Veientines, Capenates, and many of 

the Faliscans and Volscians. Ye march against these 

peoples, and if they will not share their goods with 

you, ye enslave them, despoil them, and raze their 

cities to the ground ; not that in so doing ye are in 

any wise cruel or unjust, nay, ye are but obeying 

that most ancient of all laws which gives to the 

stronger the goods of his weaker neighbours, the 

world over, beginning with God himself and ending 

with the beasts that perish. For these too are so 

endowed by nature that the stronger seeks to have 

more than the weaker. Cease ye, therefore, to pity 

the Clusians when we besiege them, that ye may 

not teach the Gauls to be kind and full of pity 

towards those who are wronged by the Romans." 

From this speech the Roman envoys saw that there 

was no coming to terms with Brennus, and so they 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO K\ou<r/.0z/ eOdppvvov /cat Trnpcop- 
TOVS dvBpas err^e\0eli> rot? ftapftufois 
avrcov, eire rrjv exelvwv d\Krjv tcara- 
eire rrjv eavr&v 67riBei%aa0ai, 6e\ovr^. 
fjS Be rwv K\ovaivc0v KOI /Lta^? irapa TO, 
et? TWV tPa/SUdi', KotVro? "Ayu,- 
LTTTTOV e^wv e\i]\affev avTios avSpl 
/j,eja\a) KOI rcdXw Va\drrj TTO\V TrpolirTrevovrt, 
TMV a\\a)i>, dyvoyjOels ev dp%fj Bta TO rrjv avvo&ov 
o^eiav ryevecrOai KOI ra oir\a 7repi\djj,7rovTa Trjv 
6 o^riv dTroxpVTTTeiv. co? 6' eTTticpaTrjcras rfj pd^r) 
KOI KaTaf3a\u>v ecrKvXeve TOV av9p<> r rrov t 'yvu>pl<ja<$ 
o BpeWo? avrbv eirefiaprvpaTo ffeous, w? frapd 137 
ra KOiva Kal vevofjaa-^ei a iraa-iv dv9pu>Troi<$ oaia 
teal Sitcaia Trpea-fievrov jmev iJKOi>TO<?, TroXe/ita Be 
elpyaa-fjievov. KaraTravcras Be rrjv fj,d)(r)v avruca 
K.\ov<rivovs pev ela %aipeiv, eVl ^e TTJV r Pd)/j,r)v 
rov arparov rjyev. ov /3ov\6/iivo<; Be B6at T^V 
dBifciav aurot? wo-rrep da^evoi^ yeyovevai KCL\ 
Seo/jievois 7rpo<acrero9, efrefji^rev e^aiTwv eVt n- 
fifopia rov avBpa KOI Trpofjyev aaa <j^oXaiw?. 

XVIII. 'E^ Be f Pa>yu,77 TT}? /3ou\rj<; a-vva^deiarr)^ 
a\Xot, re TroXXot rov QalBiov Karrjyopovv, KOI 
rwv lepiwv ol /ca\,ov/j,voi QijTiaXets evfjyov 
7rt0idovT<; Kal KeKevovres TO rwv rrerrpay- 
ayos r^v a-vy/c\rjrov ei? eva rov alnov 
vrrep r&v a\\wv d<boo~ia>Gao~0ai. 
TOV? tprjriaXeis Tlofj,7ri\io<; 



jmev eiprfvi] 1 ?, GTTiyvco/jLOvas Be 
aln&v, at crvv Btxy 
a-vvdirrovat. 

132 



CAMILLUS, xvn. 5-xvui. i 

slipped into Clusium, and emboldened and incited 
its citizens to sally out against the Barbarians with 
them, either because they wished to discover the 
prowess of those warriors or to display their own 
The Clusians made a sally, and in the fight which 
raged along the walls one of the Fabii, Quintus 
Ambustus, drove his horse straight at a stately and 
handsome Gaul who was riding far out in front of the 
rest. At first he was not recognized, because the 
conflict came swiftly to pass and his dazzling armour 
hid his face. But when he had conquered and un- 
horsed his foe and was stripping his arms from him, 
then Brennus recognized him, and called upon the 
gods to witness how, contrary to the general practice 
of all mankind, which was deemed just and hoty, 
he had come as an ambassador, but had wrought as 
an enemy. Then, putting a stop to the battle, he 
straightway let the Clusians alone, and led his host 
against Rome. But not wishing to have it thought 
that his people were rejoiced at the outrage, and 
only wanted some pretext for war, he sent and 
demanded the offender for punishment, and in the 
meantime advanced but slowly. 

XVIII. When the Senate convened in Rome, 
many denounced the Fabii, and especially the priests 
called Fetiales were instant in calling upon the 
Senate in the name of all the gods to turn the curse 
of what had been done upon the one guilty man, 
and so to make expiation for the rest. 

These Fetiales were instituted by Numa Pompilius, 
gentlest and justest of kings, to be the guardians of 
peace, as well as judges and determiners of the 
grounds on which war could justly be made. 

133 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



T}? Be /3ouX?}9 7rl rbv Bfjuov di'veyKaaVtj<; 
TO Trpdyua /cal TWV iepecov oaoLa rov Qa/Siov 
/carrj yo povvrwv, ovrco Trepivftpicrav oi TroXXoi ra 
Oela KOI /caTeyeXacrav, wcrre teal "%i\iap')(ov 
aTToBel^at, rov Qdftiov yu-era TWV aSeX^wi^. oi Be 
KeXro! irvOo^evoi ravra KOL ^o-XeTr 
ovBev efiTToBaiv eiroiovvro T?}? (nrovBr)?, 

3 e%(Dpovv Travrl rd^er KCLI TT/JO? TO 7r\r)0o<; avrwv 
/cal rr)v \a/j,7rporrjTa T^? 7rapa<TKevr)<; /cal /3iai> 
teal 6u/jLoi> e/c7r7rX?77 / ttez'ft>i> rwv BLO, /xecrof, /cal 

re '^/oipav aTTo\w\evai irauav r;S?7 teal ra? 
evOus aTrokelcrdaL BOKOVVTCOV, Trap i\- 
ovBev rjSi/covv ouS' e\d^l3avov e/c TWV 
dypwv, aXXa /cal Trapa ra? TroXet? 6771/9 7rape%- 
efiowv eVl TT;/I/ 'Pw^v TropeveaQai teal 
7To\eueiv 'Pcopaiois, TOJ)? S' aXXou? 0t- 
Xoi/? iTTiaraaOai. 

4 TomuTT? Se ^pwfievwv op/^f) rcov ftapftdpwv 
c^rjjov oi *x_t\iap%oi TOU? 'Pco/uaiovs eVt roz^ 
dycova, r 7T\i l Oei fxev ov/c eVSeet? (eyevovro yap 

TerpaKKTuvpLwv ov/c e\d<rcrovs), dva- 
Be TOV<? TroXXou? Aral Tore 

O7rXa)i\ eri S' e^T/yCteX^ro ra 
aurot? cure Ka\\Lepr)aacriv ovre 
a irpo KivBvvov teal ad^rj(f et/co? ^i; e' 

5 ovBevbs Be rjrrov eTrerdpaTrev rj iro\vapyia 
TO, TTparToueva. /cairoi TrpoTepov ye /cal 
eXarro^a? dywvas etXoyro 7ro\\dfcis 

ou? Af^raropa? Ka\ov<riv t ov/c dyvoovvres, oaov 
ecrrlv et? eVtcrcjbaXr; /ca/pbv 6'^eXo? yiti 
yvwurj 7T/)o? dvvTrev6vvov dp^rjv ev 

6 Bltcrjv e^ovcrav evTa/ereiv. ov% ^Kiara, Be /cal 

134 



CAMILLUS, xviu. 2-6 

The Senate referred the matter to the people, and 
although the priests with one accord denounced 
Fabius, the multitude so scorned and mocked at 
religion as to appoint him military tribune, along 
with his brothers. The Gauls, on learning this, were 
wroth, and suffered nothing to impede their haste, 
but advanced with all speed. What with their 
numbers, the splendour of their equipment, and 
their furious violence, they struck terror wherever 
they came. Men thought the lands about their 
cities lost already, and their cities sure to follow at 
once. But contrary to all expectation the enemy 
did them no harm, nor took aught from their fields, 
but even as they passed close by their cities shouted 
out that they were marching on Rome and warred 
only on the Romans, but held the rest as friends. 

Against this onset of the Barbarians the military 

/ 

tribunes led the Romans forth to battle. They were 
not inferior in numbers, being no fewer than forty 
thousand men-at-arms, but most of them were un- 
trained, and had never handled weapons before. 
Besides, they had neglected all religious rites, having 
neither sacrificed with good omens, nor consulted the 
prophets as was meet before the perils of battle. 
But what most of all confounded their undertakings 
was the number of their commanders. And yet before 
this, and on the brink of lesser struggles, they had 
often chosen a single commander, with the title of 
Dictator, not unaware how great an advantage it is, 
when confronting a dangerous crisis, to be of one 
mind in paying obedience to an authority which is 
absolute, and holds the scales of justice in its own 
hands. Moreover, their unfair treatment of Camillus 

135 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TCI 

rov jarj TTpbs yap iv fnyBe KoXa/cevovras dp^eiv 
ftepov yevopevov. 
IIpoeX$6We9 ovv CLTTO 

irapa rov *A\iav Trora/jibv r)v\L- 

t OV TTOppO) TOV (TTpaTOTreSoV TO) 0y/X/3pfSt 

evravOa Be TWV ftapfidpwv 
dycovicrdjAevot, &i dra^iav 
7 CTpaTTovro. Kal TO fjiev dpicrrepov epa? evQv<s 
/j,/3a\6vT<; et? rov Trora/jiov ol KeXrol 
(frdeipav TO Be Be^ibv v7rKK\2vav rrjv 
e/c rov TreSiov TT/JO? TOU? Xo^of? r\riov 

7re(7ov UTTO rovrwv e/9 rrjv TTO\LV ol 
T049 S* aXXot? 
direiTrovrwv TT/JO? TOI^ (frovov ecra)0r)a'av, 

al (j)vyal Sta vvfcrbs rjcrav, co? r;)? 
0/^0/^6^779 t TWJ/ eVe? irdvrwv 0.770- 



XIX. 'Eyei'eTo S' 77 ^X^ A t6T * rpoiras 
irepi rr)v Travo-eXrjvov, y Kal Trporepov fjfjbepa /j,eja 
irdOos <7we/3^ TO irepl TOU9 4>ay8tov9' rpiatcocrioi 
yap e/c ToO yevov? avBpe? vrrb Tuppi]vcov dvypeOij- 
<JOLV. eKpdrijae Be rr)V rj/uepav drro ri]^ Bevrlpa? 

Bia rov 



Tlepl 6 rjfjiepwv dirofipaBctiv, etre %pr; rlOeaOal 138 



dyaOds Troiov/^eva), rds Be <^auXa?, 609 
dyvoovvn (JJVCTIV ?}/zepa9 d7rdo~rjs fiiav ovcrav, 
2 erepwOi Bi,rj7r6pr)rai. rfj 3' VTroKei/jievy ypa<fifj TO 

7rapaBeiyfj,dra)v oXiywv t 



136 



CAMILLUS, xvin. 6-xix. 2 

was in no slight decree fatal to discipline, since it 
was now dangerous to hold command without paying 
regard to the pleasure and caprice of the people. 

They advanced from the city about eleven miles 
and encamped along the river Allia, not far from its 
confluence with the Tiber. There the Barbarians 
came suddenly upon them, and after a disorderly and 
shameful struggle, they were routed. Their left 
wing was at once driven into the river by the Gauls 
and destroyed ; their right wing was less cut up, 
because it withdrew before the enemy's onset from 
the plain to the hills, from which most of them made 
their way back to the city. The rest, as many as 
escaped the enemy's hands, which were weary with 
slaughter, fled by night to Veii. They thought that 
Rome was lost and all her people slain. 

XIX. The battle 1 took place just after the summer 
solstice when the moon was near the full, on the very 
day of a former great disaster, when three hundred 
men of the Fabian gens had been cut to pieces by 
the Tuscans. But the second defeat was so much 
the worse that the day on which it fell is called 
down to the present time "dies Alliensis," from the 
river. 

Now concerning " dies nefasti," or unlucky days, 
whether we must regard some as such, or whether 
Heracleitus was right in rebuking Hesiod for calling 
some days good and some bad, in his ignorance that 
the nature of every day is one and the same, this 
question has been fully discussed elsewhere. Still, 
even in what I am now writing, the mention of a few 

1 390 B.O. 

137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



pfJi(T6t6. rOVrO UV rOLVVV 

bs, co? 8' 'A.dr)valoi, Ka\oixn,v ' 

rj Bvo \aftelv 

eTTKpavecrrdra^, als row? "EXXf/^a? r/XevOe- 
pwo~ai>y Ti}v reTrepl Aev/erpatcal rrjv eirl Keprjoraw 
ravrris irporepov erecri 7r\iocriv rj StaKocriois, ore 
3 Aarra/jivav Kal eo'craXou? eviKrjGav. TOVTO 8' 
au 7ra\.ii> Tlepcrat. JJHJVOS Bo^SpOyatw^o? e/cry fj,ev 
ev ^HapaOwvi, rpirrj 8* eV H\araial<i a/jua KOI 

viro 



7T6/Z7TT77 <lVOVTO<i V /0/?;oi9. 01 

vaioi KOI rrjv Trepl Nd^ov eviKwv vav^a^lav, 17? 
Xa/3/ot'a? a-rpaT)]jei, rov BorjBpo/Jii)i'o<$ Trepl Trjv 
7ravGe\r)vov, ev Be %a\a/jLLVi Trepl TO,? 
co? THUV ev TM Tlepl fjpepwv aTroBeBeiKTai. 
vo")(e Be Kal 6 Sapjij\ia)v firjv rot? ftap 

Kal jap 'AXe^az^S/oo? eVl 



Trep LKeav VTTO 



Ti/j,o\eovTOs TJTTWVTO rfj e(BoofJ,ri (frOivovros, Trepl 
T)V BoKel Kal TO "\\LOV d\Mvai, apy^\ia)vo<;?- &>? 
"E^oyoo? Kal KaXXtcr^e^? Kal Aa^acrr^? Kal 
5 <5>uXap%09 l(TTop)JKaa-ii>. avdiraK.iv 8' o MerayeiT- 
vi(*)v, ov Boiwrot Tldve/jiov Ka\ov(Tiv, rot? f/ EX- 
\rjcnv OVK ev/jievr)s yeyove. TOVTOV <ydp rov 
e/SBo/jir) Kal rr)v ev }Lpavwv 
'Avrnrdrpov reXea)? aTrooXovro, Kal irporepov ev 
XaipnveLa aa^o/jievoi, TT/OO? fyikiTrrrov r)rv)(riaav. 
Tr}? 8' avrrjs fj/mepas TavrrfS ev rw MerayeirvLMvi 
Kara rov avrov eviavrov ol yuer' ^Ap^iBd/jiov Bta- 
/3ai/T6? et? ^\ra\iav VTTO ra)v e/cel (BapjSdpwv 
1 apyr)\ia>vos deleted by Bekker, after Reiske. 

138 



CAMILLUS, xix. 2-5 

examples may not be amiss. To begin with, then, it 
was on the fifth day of the month of Hippodromius 
(which the Athenians call Hecatombaeon) that the 
Boeotians won two illustrious victories which set the 
Greeks free : that at Leuctra, and that at Ceressus 
more than two hundred years earlier, when they 
conquered Lattamyas and the Thessaliaris. Again, 
on the sixth day of the month of Boedromion the 
Greeks defeated the Persians at Marathon, on the 
third day at Plataea and Mycale together, and on the 
twenty-sixth day at Arbela. Moreover, it was about 
full moon of the same month that the Athenians won 
their sea-fight off Naxos, under the command of 
Chabrias, and about the twentieth, that at Salamis, 
as has been set forth in my treatise " On days." 
Further, the month of Thargelion has clearly been a 
disastrous one for the Barbarians, for in that month 
the generals of the King were conquered by Alex- 
ander at the Granicus, and on the twenty-fourth of the 
month the Carthaginians were worsted by Timoleon 
off Sicily. On this day, too, of Thargelion, it appears 
that Ilium was taken, as Ephorus, Callisthenes, 
Damastes, and Phylarchus have stated. Contrary- 
wise, the month of Metageitnion (which the Boeotians 
call Panemus) has not been favourable to the Greeks. 
On the seventh of this month they were worsted by 
Antipater in the battle of Crannon, and utterly un- 
done ; before this they had fought Philip unsuccess- 
fully at Chaeroneia on that day of the month ; and in 
the same year, and on the same day of Metageitnion, 
Archidamus and his army, who had crossed into 
Italy, were cut to pieces by the Barbarians there. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



6 Bie(j)ddpr)crav. KapfflBovioi Be rrjv evdrrjv 
VOVTOS &)? ra ir\ei(TTa KOI fjiejicrra TWV a 
TO)v avrois del fyepovaav irapa^vKdrrovcriv. 

OVK dyvow S' OTL ire pi TOV TMV ^vaTrjpLwv icaipov 
av6i<; rj(3ai re KarecrKd^iaav VTTO 'AXe^dvbpou, 
l yLtera ravra typovpav * KQr\valoi Tblatce&ovwv 
r rrep\ avrrjv rrjv eltcdSa TOV Bo^SpOyCtfoi- 

7 vos, y TOV fAVCTTt/cov "Ia/^oz> e^d'yovcnv. o/xotw? 
8e r Pa)/j,aloi rr)? aur?}? Ty/zepa? irpoTepov fiev VTTO 

v TO yLcera KatTTtw^o? dnre^a^ov 
vctTepov Se A.OVKOV\\OU 

KOI Tiypdvrjv evifcycrav. "ArraXo? S' 
o ftacriXevs icai Ilo/A7rr;to? Ma7^o? ev rot? eavT&v 
aTTzOavov. teal oXw? eVrl TTO\\OVS eV 
rat? avTais %pr)cra/j,ei>ov<i 



8 'AXA-a 'Pw/iatot? avTrj fiia T&V ^d\L(7Ta drro- 
d&aiv ecrr'i, KOI &i avrrjv /cd(TTov /jLrjvbs Tepcu 
, TT}? 7T/90? TO (jvfjjSav eL'Xa/^eta? Kal SeicriBai,- 
eVl ir\elov, wcnrep eiw6e, pveicrrjs. Tavra 
ev ovv ev TW flepl auTuwv Pw^al/ccjv eVtyaeXe- 
<TTepov Str/piiTat. 

XX. Mera Se TYJV pdyriv etceivrjv el fiev ev0u<; 
01 Va\drai rot? <j)cvyov(riv, ovSev 



av 



TOGOVTOV ol (f)vyoi>T<j eveip dfovro cei/Aa TO?? 



2 Tap f i\r)S Ka Trapapoavvr)^. vvv anriaTia TOV 
ol ftdpftapoi, T>;? VIK.^ Kal irpo 



140 



CAMILLUS, xix. 6-xx. 2 

The Carthaginians also regard with fear the twenty- 
second of this month, because it has ever brought upon 
them the worst and greatest of their misfortunes. 

I am not unaware that, at about the time when 
the mysteries are celebrated, Thebes was razed to 
the ground for the second time by Alexander, and 
that afterwards the Athenians were forced to receive 
a Macedonian garrison on the twentieth of Boe- 
dromion, the very day on which they escort the 
mystic lacchus forth in procession. And likewise 
the Romans, on the self-same day, saw their army 
under Caepio destroyed by the Cimbri, and later, 
when Lucullus was their general, conquered Tigranes 
and the Armenians. Both King Attalus and Pompey 
the Great died on their own birth-days. In short, 
one can adduce many cases where the same times 
and seasons have brought opposite fortunes upon the 
same men. 

But this day of the Allia is regarded by the 
Romans as one of the unluckiest, and its influence 
extends over two other days of each month through- 
out the year, since in the presence of calamity, 
timidity and superstition often overflow all bounds. 
However, this subject has been more carefully treated 
in my " Roman Questions." x 

XX. Now had the Gauls, after this battle, followed 
hard upon the fugitives, naught would have hindered 
Rome from being utterly destroyed and all those who 
remained in her from perishing, such was the terror 
which the fugitives infused into the occupants of the 
city, and with such confusion and delirium were they 
themselves once more filled. But as it was, the 
Barbarians could not realize the magnitude of their 

1 Morals, pp. 269 f. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



av etc TOV jrept^apov^ apa /cal 

ev TO* crrparoTreSft) ^p^/naTcov rpajro- 
TO) fjiev e/CTTLTTTovTi, r% 7ro\eax; o%^ 
paaTwvrjv (f>vy^^ Trapecr^ov, eA/TTtcrat S' en /ecu 
TrapacTKevdcracrOat, rot? viro^evovcn. rrjv yap 
a\\t]v TTO\IV Trpoefjievoi TO 

3 /3e\e(ri KOL &iaTei%LcrfjLa(ri,v. ev 

lepwv a /jiev eh TO K.a7rira)\iov avecrKevdcravro, 
TO Be Trvp T?}? 'Ecrrta? ai irapdevou ^GTCL T&V 
lepwv efavyov apTraa'djjLevai. 

Katrot Tt^e? ovSev elvai TO ^povpov/jLevov UTT' 139 
avTwv eTepov rj Trvp a&Oirov icrTopov&i, No//,a 
roO (3acn\ew<s KaTacrTrjcravTOS a>? dp^rjv anravTwy 

4 GetSearOai. KIVIJTIKCOTCITOV yap ev TT) (pixrei, TOVTO' 

Be rt? 77 crvv TLVI /civijcet Travrw*; rj yeve- 
Ta 8' aXXa T^? i/Xr;? fjiopia 6ep/ji6rr}TO<; 
dpya Kei^eva teal veicpols concord 
Tr)V TOV TTf/oo? SuvajJiiv, a)? "^v^rjv, teal 
7rpocre\6t>va"r)s a/ico? ye TTO)? eVt TO Bpdv TL /cal 
7rda"%eiv TpeTreTai. TOUT* ovv are Brj 
dvBpa TOV NojuLav /cal \6yov e^ovTa Tat? 

Bid aofyiav e^ocriaHrai teal fypovpelv 



ev el/covi TT}? rd irdvra 



5 d'iBtov Bvvduetos. ol Be TO (Jiev Trvp, wcnrep Trap 
Ej\\rjaL f irpo iep&v aWeaQcn, KaOdpaiov, d\\a 
Be Ta eVTo? ddea-ra KpvirTeaQai Trdai, 7r\r)v rav- 
TU9 rat? Trapdevois, a? r crTta8a9 7rovGjj,dov<ri. 
142 



CAMILLUS, xx. 2-5 

victory, and in the excess of their joy, turned to 
revelry and the distribution of the good things 
captured in their enemy's camp. For this reason the 
throngs who were for abandoning the city had ample 
time for flight, and those who were for remaining 
plucked up hope and prepared to defend themselves. 
Abandoning the rest of the city, they fenced the 
Capitol with ramparts and stocked it with missiles. 
But their first care was for their sacred things, most 
of which they carried away to the Capitol ; the fire 
of Vesta, however, was snatched up and carried oft 
by the vestal virgins in their flight, along with the 
other sacred things entrusted to their care. 

However, some writers state that these virgins 
have watch and ward over nothing more than the 
'ever-living fire, which Numa the King appointed to 
be worshipped as the first cause of all things. For 
fire produces more motion than anything else in 
nature, and all birth is a mode of motion, or is 
accompanied by motion. All other portions of 
matter, in the absence of heat, lie inert and dead, 
yearning for the force of fire to inform them, like a 
spirit, and on its accession in any manner soever, 
they become capable of acting and being acted upon. 
This principle of fire, then, Numa, who was an extra- 
ordinary man, and whose wisdom gave him the 
repute of holding converse with the Muses, is said to 
have hallowed and ordered to be kept sleepless, that 
it might image forth the ever-living force which 
orders the universe aright. Others say that this fire 
is kept burning before the sacred things by way of 
purification, as among the Greeks, and that other 
objects within the temple are kept hidden from the 
gaze of all except these virgins, whom they call 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Kal 7rXecrro9 pev /Voyo? Karel^e TO Tpco'iKov 
eicelvo Tla\\(iBi,ov aTroicelcrOai Si' hlveiov KOJJLI- 
crOev a? '\Ta\lav. ela-l S' ol ra 



et? 
opyidcrai Kal KaOiepw&ai /criaavra 



-r> / >1 T / / r 

6 oia(703(7ai ^XP 1 T? ^ ? ev ^ ra ^ L( p KUTOLK-I] crews. OL 

V \ ' -v''' ft ' ^ 

oe TrpoGTroiov/jievot, irXeov eTTiarcKTuai TI irepi 
TOVTWV Buo (fracriv ov fJLjaXov<^ aTTOKelaOai TTL- 






v TOV fjicv avewyora tea icevov, rov e 
KOI Karaa-a-jLacr.ievov, ajioreovs Se 



Travayecri Covens TrapOivots opaTovs elvat,. 
a\\oi Be TOVTOVS BLe^revcrdat, vofJLibv<ri TW ra 
7rXet<TTa TWV iepStv TOT ra? Kopas ej&/3a\ovcra<; 
el? TTiOovs Bvo Kpv-^rat Kara 7^9 VTTO TOV vewv TOV 

KOI TOV TOTTOV fCLVOV 6TI KOLl VVV TCOV 



(pepeaOai Trjv e 

XXI. Ta Be /cvpiwTaTa Kal /.leyia-ra TWV lepwv 
\a,6ou(7ai <f>vyf) jrapa TOV TTOTa/^ov CTTOL- 
OVVTO TT^V aTro^p^a-Lv. evTdvOa AevKtos ' 






avrjp ~i]fjLOTiKos ev Tot? 
vrJTTLa Kal yvvaiKa /jLTa ^prjiuiTwv aiay- 

8' elBe ra9 



Trapdevov? ev Tot? KO\TTOL^ ifrepoixras TO, TCOI> 
de&v iepa OepaTrelas eprfjJLOWi irapaTropevo/meva^ 
Kal KaKOTTadovGas, Ta%v TI}V yvvaiKa ytteTa TWV 
Kal rwv %pr)fjLa,TO)V Ka0e\wv airo T?}? 



1 'A\.8ivios S and Livy, v. 40 : ' 
144 



CAMILLUS, x*. 5 -xvi. i 

Vestals. And a very prevalent story had it that the 
famous Palladium of Troy was hidden away there, 
having been brought to Itab by Aeneas. There are 
some who say that it is the Samothracian images 
which are hidden there, and they tell the tale of 
Dardanus bringing these to Troy, after he had 
founded that city, and consecrating them there with 
celebration of their rites ; and of Aeneas, at the 
capture of Troy, stealing them away and preserving 
them until he settled in Italy. Others still, pretend- 
ing to have larger knowledge in these matters, say 
that two small jars are stored away there, of which 
one is open and empty, and the other full and sealed 
up, and that both are visible only to the holy virgins. 
But others think that these knowing ones have been 
led astray by the fact that the virgins, at the time of 
which J am now speaking, cast the most of their 
sacred treasures into two jars, and hid them under- 
ground in the temple of Quirinus, whence that place, 
down to the present time, has the name of " Doliola," 
or " Jars." 

XXI. However that may be, these virgins took 
the choicest and most important of the sacred objects 
and fled away along the river. There it chanced 
that Lucius Albinius, a man of the common people, 
was among the fugitives, carrying off his wife and 
little children, with the most necessary household 
goods, upon a waggon. Wiien he saw the virgins 
with the sacred symbols of the gods in their bosoms, 
making their way along unattended and in great 
distress, he speedily took his wife, with the children 
and the household goods, down from the waggon, 
and suffered the virgins to mount upon it and make 



145 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



et9 nva TWV 'EXX^-'iStop TTO\(I)V. rrjv 
ovv ' AXftiviov 7rpo9 TO delov ev\d@iav KOI 



ev TO49 efcrjaeo'TaTOi? Kaipois 



ovtc tov rjv /jLvrj/jLovevrov 
Ol Be TMV a\.\ayv dewv /epe?? oi re yrjpaiol rwv 

VTTCLTIKWV Kdi pi CL/J,/3lK 0)V dvSpWV TT]V /JL6V 1TO\iV 

K\nr6iv ov% V7re/iieivav, tepa? 8e teal Xayu-vr/oa? 
dva\a/36vres e'cr^T/ra?, elfrfyovfjuevov Qaftiov rov 
dp^ipea)(f, 67r6v'{;d/jievoi rot? $eot?, co? eaurou? 
virep TT}? Trar/ot'So? ra> Sai/jiovt, KaQiepovvres, em 

ev dyopa e/cddrjvro l 



rrjv eTTiovcrav rv^rjv 



XXII. Tptrrj 8' a7ro rr)? ytta^? rj/jiepa irapr)V 
o Byoeyi'O? aycov eVi rrjv Trb\iv TO (rrpdrev^a' tcai 
ra? re TruXa? evpwv dvewy/jLevas /cal rd rei^rj 
(j)v\aK(av eprjfjLa, irp&Tov nev e&eiaev eveSpav 
teal 86\ov, aTTKJTWV aura) TravTaTracriv 



Kevat, TOU? 'PfOfAaiovs. eVel eyvo) TO 



Bid TT}? KoXXt^? TruX?;? elXe 

Ta KOI TpiaKoa-lwv erwv TT\eiova 
ftpayv ^povov aTrb T% /trtcreeo? e'^oucrai/, et TW 
TTIGTQV aTroato^ecjOai TWO, TWV ^povwv dtcpifieiciv, 
ot? /cal Tre/ol vecoTepwv d\\wv d/ucfjicr/BrJTrja'iv rj 
2 (Tvyxva-is e/ceivr) Trapecr^e. roO jnevroi irdOov^ 
avrov teal T/}? aXcoo-ew? eai/cev d^ivSpd ns eu$i/? 
et9 T^V 'EXXaSa <j>i)[J>'n $te\OeZv. 'HpaK\iBr]^ yap 
6 IIoi'Tt/co? ou TTO\V 






a?ro 

TTO\IV 



r Pa)[Jirjv, eKet TTOV KarwK^jjievrjv irepl 
with all MSS. and editors 

146 



CAMTLLUS, xxi. 2 xxn. 2 

their escape to a Greek city. This pious act oi 
Albinius,and the conspicuous honourwhich he showed 
the gods in a season of the greatest danger, could 
not well be passed over in silence. 

But the priests of the other gods, and the aged 
men who had been consuls and celebrated triumphs, 
could not endure to leave the city. So they put on 
their robes of state and ceremony, following the lead 
of Fabius, the pontifex maximus,and vowed the gods 
that they would devote themselves to death in their 
country's behalf. Then they sat themselves down, 
thus arrayed, on their ivory chairs in the forum, and 
awaited their fate. 

XXII. On the third day after the battle, Brennus 
came up to the city with his army. Finding its gates 
open and its walls without defenders, at first he feared 
a treacherous ambush, being unable to believe that 
the Romans were in such utter despair. But when 
he realised the truth, he marched in by the Colline 
gate, and took Rome. This was a little more than 
three hundred and sixty years from her foundation, 
if one can believe that any accurate chronology has 
been preserved in this matter, when that of even 
later events is disputed, owing to the confusion 
caused by this very disaster. However, it would 
seem that some vague tidings of the calamity and 
capture of the city made their way at once to Greece. 
For Heracleides Ponticus, who lived not long after 
that time, in his treatise "On the soul, "says that out of 
the West a story prevailed, how an army of Hyper- 
boreans had come from afar and captured a Greek 
city called Rome, situated somewhere on the shores 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 rr}V ueydXijv 6 d\acr a av . OVK av ovv OavpA- 
aai\ii (jLvdaiBtj /cal TrXacraariav ovra TOV '\\pa- 
K\iBr)v d\n]0el Xoyw rw nrepl T% aXcocreo)? 
67rircofji7rd(Tai, rou? 'Tirep/Bopeovs teal rrjv fj.eyd\tji> 
0d\arrav. 'A^tcrToreX?;? Be o ^)tXocros6o? TO [JLCV 
a\<*yvaL T^V TToX-iv VTTO K\TCOV dfcpificos S^Xo? 
ecrriv dtcTjKOct)*;, rov Se auxjavra AevKiov eivai 

TIV Be Map/co?, ov Aeu/cto?, o 
a ravra fjuev elfcaa-firo \e\CKTai. 

4 Karacr^ft)z> 8e rr]v *Pa>/^r)v 6 B 
Ka7riTco\La) (frpovpav Trepieorrrjcrev, auro? Be /cara- 
/3aii>(t)v BL* dyopds edav/^a^ TOV? 7rpoKa@r)fj,6vov<; 

ev Koa-fjiw real auoirfj $e&>yu,ei>o?, a>? ovB* 
e(TT^(Tai' ITTLOVT^V TroXe/uojz/ ovr o^nv ?) 
v erpstyav, aXXa padv/jLO}^ teal aSer7>? ey/ce- 
K\I/J.VOI rot? aKiTTUHJiv, oy? efyopovv, 1 /cat Trpocr- 

5 /9Xe7ro^T6? aXX^Xoi? ^^o-u^a^bv. ^i/ ouz^ OavfJia 
rot? PaXarai9 TT/)O? T/)f droTTiav, real iroKvv 
^povov otcvovvres d^raaOai teal Trpocre\&eli> a>9 
Kpe'iTTOcn SirjTTOpovv. eVet S^ ToX/^,'/;cra? Tt? e^ 
avrwv fc ? 77L/? irapea-rr] YlaTreipiw Map/cm /cal 
Trpoaayaywif TIJV xeipa vr/oact)? r^aro TOU yeveiov 
teal Kar^ye rrjv VTrrjvrjv /SaOelav ovarav, o per 
TlaTreipios rfj j3aKTr}pt,a rrjv Ke$>a\r]V avrov 
Trara^a? crvverpi-^ev, 6 Be fSdpftapos <nraardfjLevo<s 

6 rrjv fjLa^aipav dTre/creivev IKZIVOV. IK Be rovrov 
ical rou? XotTTOu? dvypovv TrpoaTreaovres, teal TWV 

ocrot? eTTirv^ocev BtexpcovTO, Kal ra? oltcia^ 
uv e<f> i] fie pas TroXXa? ayovres Kal <f)e- 
povres, elra KaTeTrip.'rrpacrav Kal 
opyi^ofjievoi rot? e^ovai TO KaTTtTcoXtoi/, 

1 iqApovv with S : l^epor. 
148 



CAMILLUS, xxn. 3-6 

of the Great Sea. Now I cannot wonder that so 
fabulous and fictitious a writer as Heracleides should 
deck out the true story of the capture of Rome with 
his " Hyperboreans " and his " Great Sea." But 
Aristotle the philosopher clearly had accurate tidings 
of the capture of the city by the Gauls, and yet he 
says that its saviour was Lucius, although the fore- 
name of Camillus was not Lucius, but Marcus. How- 
ever, these details were matters of conjecture. 

When he had occupied Rome, Brennus surrounded 
the Capitol with a guard. He himself went down 
through the forum, and was amazed to see the men 
sitting there in public state and perfect silence. 
They neither rose up to meet their enemies when 
they approached, nor did they change countenance 
or colour, but sat there quietly, at ease and without 
fear, leaning on their staves and gazing into one 
another's faces. The Gauls were amazed and per- 
plexed at the unwonted sight, and for a long time 
hesitated to approach and touch them, regarding 
them as superior beings. But at last one of them, 
plucking up his courage, drew near Papirius Marcus, 
and stretching out his hand, gently grasped his chin 
and stroked his long beard, whereupon Papirius, 
with his staff, smote him a crushing blow on the 
head. Then the Barbarian drew his sword and 
killed him. After that, they fell upon the rest and 
slew them, made away with every one else they met, 
sacked and plundered the houses of the city for many 
days together, and finally burned them down and 
levelled them with the ground, in their wrath at the 
defenders of the Capitol. For these would not 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

K.a\o\}WTU>v avTWV ovft vTrrjicovov, a\\k /cal Trpocr- 
fSd\\ovcn 7T\rjyd<; edocrav CLTTO rov B{,arei^icr/jLa- 
TO? d/jivvofjievoi. Bid ravra fjiev ovv e\VfjLi^vavro 
rrjv TTo\iv fcal TrpocrBte^deipav TOW? uXia/co/Jievovs, 
o/W&>9 jjiev az/Spa? KCLI <yvvai/ca<;, ofjioicos Be irpecr- 



ical 



XXIII. TT}<? Be 

eTTKriTicrfjiov rot? FaXara^? eSei' /cal 
eavrovs ol fiev TOO j3acri\l Trapa/AevovTes l<bpov- 
povv TO Ka7T4TwXtoi>, ol Be rrjv ^u>pav Trepiiovres 
/cal ra? /cw^a? erropOovv Trpocnrl- 

o/jiov Trai/re?, aXXoi 8* a\\rj 
real crvvrdyfjLara, T& fjieja 



VTTO TWV evru^Tj/^drcov /cal SeBtei'at fJL^Bev diro- 
2 (TKLSvdfjuevoi. TO Be TrXelarov avTMv /cal 
avvreray^evov e^copet vrpo? rrjv 'ApBearwv 
iv y Bierptfie KayiuXXo? dpywv Tat? 

rrjv (j)vy^v /cal IBiwTev&v, \7riBa<; Be 
fcal Bia\oyi(TfjLovs ov%l TO \a6etv KCLI 
TOU9 TroXe/uou? dyaTrwvros dvBpos, 
aXX* OTTO)?, el Trapayevoiro fcaipos, djuvveirat 

3 (JKOTTOVVTOS. BlO KOL TOV? 'A/oSfttTa? OptoV 1T\^0t, 

[lev Itcavovs ovras, evBeeis Be ToXyu-T]? 5t* aTreipiav 
/cal yuaXa/a'ap rwv o-rpaTfjywv, eveftaXe \6yoi> 
TOU? veous irpwrov, a>? ov %pr) rrjv 

dvBpeiav KeXTWi^ vo/jLi^eiv, ovB a 

crvre/3ij TraOelv KeLvoi<$ epya ro)i> 
et? TO i>iK.r)<rai Trapaa-^ovrwv, aXXa TU^? 
rjyeicrdai. Ka\ov fiev ovv elvai KCLI 
Bia Kivbvvwv aTTMO'ao'dai 7r6\/jiov d\\6<f)V\ov 
/cal /3ap/3ap'/cov, w rov Kparelv Trepan, wcnrep TW 
Trvpi, Bia<f>0apf)vai TO vitctopevov ov IM)V aXXa 



CAMILLUS, xxii. 6-xxin. 4 

surrender at their summons, but when they were 
attacked, actually repulsed their foes from the 
ramparts with loss. Therefore the Gauls inflicted 
every outrage upon the city, and put to the sword 
all whom they captured, men and women, old and 
young alike. 

XXI II. The siege lasted a long time, and the Gauls 
began to lack provisions. They therefore divided 
their forces. Some remained with their king and 
watched the Capitol, others ravaged the country 
round about, falling upon the villages and sacking 
them, not all together in one body, but scattered 
about by commands and companies, some here, some 
there, moved by their successes to great confidence 
and the fear of nothing. The largest and best 
disciplined body of them marched upon the city of 
Ardea, where Camillus was staying since his exile. 
He lived in complete retirement and privacy, it is 
true, but cherished the hopes and plans not of a man 
who eagerly desired to escape the notice and hands 
of the enemy, but of one who sought to avenge him- 
self upon them if occasion offered. Wherefore, see- 
ing that the Ardeans were of sufficient numbers, but 
lacked courage, through the inexperience and effemi- 
nacy of their generals, he began to reason with the 
young men first, to the effect that the mishap of the 
Romans ought not to be laid to the valour of the 
Gauls, nor the sufferings of that infatuated people 
to the prowess of men who did riot deserve their 
victory, but rather to the dictates of fortune. It was 
a fine thing, he said, even at dangerous risks, to repel 
the attack of an alien and barbarous folk, whose only 
end in getting the mastery was, as in the work of 
fire, the utter destruction of what it conquered. But 

VOL. II. F 151 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/cat Oappovcri Kai irpo9vfjLov(jLevoi^ avrols d/cLv- 
Bvvov ev Kaipw rr]V viKrjv vrape^eiv. 

Tourou? rou? \6yov ? rwv vewv Bea/.ivcov eVt roi>9 
ap*%ovra<s yei teal TOU? TrpojBovXovs rwv'ApSearwv 
o KayiuXXo?. ft)? Se KaKeivovs crvveTreicrev, WTrXicre 
rou? eV rfKiKia Trdvras KOI a-vrel^e rov 
eWo?, ayvoelaOat. ySovXo/te^o? L/TTO 

5 eyyvs ovrwv. eVet &e T^v %(*)pav 

KOI /8apet<? oVre? y?ro TrX^of? rcoy dyo^eixav KOI 
feponevtov ayueXw? /cat oXiycopw? ev rw TreStw 
KarecrrparoTre^eva'av, etc Be rovrov vv% e7rrj\6e 
fjieOvoucriv ayrot? /cat aiwnri Karea^e TO (jrparo- 
TreSov, irvdofjicvos ravra irapa rwv KaraarKOTrcov 
6 Ka/iiXXo? er)ye TOU? 'ApSeara?* al 
/m#' r)(TV%Lav rov yuera^u TOTTOV Trepl 
vvfcra<; 7rpoae/jLi% rco yapaKi tcpavyfj re 
7ro\\f} icai rat? cdXTTiy^L iravra^oOev etcrapdr- 
rwv dvOpwTrovs KaKcos VTTO fJLe9r]^ /ecu yu-oXfc? e 
TCOI^ virvwv dvafyepovTas TT/)O? TOZ^ OopvjBov. 

6 6\iyoL /lev ovv dvavrityavTes ev rw (f)6/3(t) KOI 
SiacrKevaad/jLevoi, TOI)? 7re/?t ro^ KayttiXXo^ w 
ar^a'av, &<J'T d/jivv6/j,voi ireGelv TOU? Se 
crroi'? ert Kparovfjizvovs VTTVW /ecu d'ivw 

dvo7r\ov<; e/ereivov. ocroi Be 
v e/c TOV ^dpaxo^ ov TroXXot, TOVTOU? 
v crTropaSa? eV TT; 
eire\avvovre^ iTTTreis Biecfr 

XXIV. 'H Se (pr'juij TCI^V Biayye\\ova'a rrjv 
irpa^Lv eVl ra? TroXet? e^e/caXeiro TroXXou? rwz^ 
ez> r)\iKia (rvvicrTa/Jievovs, /jLd\K7ra Be Pay/Jialcov 
Bia<f)vy6vTS e/e rr}? eV 'AXta fid^rj^ ev 
r)<rav /cal (*)Bvpoi>TO Kara tr^a? avrovs, 



CAMILLUS, xxni. 4-xxiv. i 

in the present case, if they were bold and zealous, he 
would find occasion to give them a victory without 
any danger. 

After gaining the support of the young men, 
Camillas went to the rulers and councillors of 
Ardea, and when he had won them over also, he 
armed all who were of age for service and kept 
them together within the walls, that they might not 
be perceived by the enemy, who were near. These 
had scoured the country round about, and encamped 
in the plain, without care or concern, and heavily 
encumbered with their abundant booty. When night 
had fallen upon them, putting an end to their 
carousals, and silence reigned throughout their 
camp, Camillas, acquainted with this by his scouts, 
led forth the Ardeans. Passing quietly over the 
intervening space, they reached the camp about 
midnight, and with shouts and trumpet blasts on 
every hand confounded the men, who were scarcely 
brought to their senses by the din, heavy as they 
were with drunkenness and sleep. A few of them 
were sobered by fear, armed themselves, and made 
resistance to Camillus and his men, so that they fell 
fighting ; but most were still mastered by sleep and 
wine when they were fallen upon and slain without 
their arms. A few only ran from the camp, under 
cover of darkness, and when day came, were 
seen straggling about the fields, but horsemen 
pursued them and cut them to pieces. 

XXIV. Rumour quickly carried news of this ex- 
ploit to the neighbouring cities, and called to arms 
many of those who were of age for service, particu- 
larly the Romans who had made their escape from 
the battle on the Allia, and were in Veii. These 

'53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



" Olov rjyGjmova rr}? 'Pco/zry? o Bai/ncov a<f)\6fJLevo<; 

'ApSeara? e/cocr/jLrja-e rot? KayuiXXou tcaropOa)- 

fjLCKTiv, r) Be yeLvaj^evr] teal Optyacra roiovrov 

2 avBpa TroXt? olyzrai KOI aTToXwXev. 17/1,649 B' 

7T6pt(3a\o- 



'A/jSeara? aTrcuT&juev rov eavrcov 
crrparrjyov, fj \a/36vT<; avrol ra 07r\a TT/DO? 
etceivov fta$i%ayfjLV ov/ceri yap 



7ro\lrat, Trarpi&os OVK ovary?, a\\a Kparov- 
VTTO ra)i> 7roXe/u&>i>." ravr eSoffe /ecu 
e&eovro TOV K.a/uLi\\ov Be^eaOat, rrjv 
6 8e OVK ecfrrj TTporepov r) TOV<; V rw 
TToXtra? eiri'fyrifyicracrOai Kara rov 
e/ceivovs yap rjyelcrOai TraTpiSa crw^o- 
/ecu /ceXevovai JJLCV vTra/eoveiv 7rpo0vfjL(0<;, 
7ro\V7rpayfMOi>^criv. TT}? /nev 

ovv euXa/3eta? Kal Ka\otcayadia<; TOV Kd/j,i\\ov 
eOav^aaav. r)v S' aTropia rov ravra Biayye- 
XoOi/ro? et? TO KaTTtTwXtoir /JLO\.\OV S* oXca? 
a&vvaTov e'So/cet ra)v TroXeyutw^ e^ovrwv rrjv iro\iv 
ayye\oi> ei? rrjv d/cpOTroXiv irapeKOelv. 

XXV. T Hi/ Be rt? ev rot? veois Vlovnos Ko- 
fiivios, TWV iJukcrusv Kara 7^05 iro\irwv, Bo^rj^ B 
Kal ri/jLfjs epacrrrfs' ouro? vTrecrrij rov aO\ov 
Kal ypdfjifiara /JLev OVK e'Xa/3e 7T/90? 
Ka,7TfcTft)Xtft), yu,^ \rj(f)0evros avrov 
ol 7ro\fjLLOL Bt avrwv rov Ka/uXXou 
rr)v Bidvoiav, etrdijra Be fyavkyv e^wp Kal 
UTT* avrfj KOILI^WV ryv [lev a\\rjv 6Bov 
a8ea>9 8ir)\0v, eyyvs Be ri}<; 



154 



CAMILLUS, xxiv. i-xxv. i 

lamented among themselves, saying : <e Of what a 
leader has heaven robbed Rome in Camillus, only 
to adorn Ardea with his victories ! The city which 
bore and reared such a hero is dead and gone, and 
we, for lack of generals, sit pent up within alien 
walls, and see Italy ruined before our very eyes. 
Come ! let us send to Ardea and demand our own 
general, or take our arms and go ourselves to him ! 
For he is no longer an exile, nor are we citizens, now 
that our country is no more, but is mastered by the 
enemy." So said, so done, and they sent and asked 
Camillus to take the command. But he refused 
to do so before the citizens on the Capitol had 
legally elected him. They were preserving the 
country, as he thought, and if they had commands 
for him, he would gladly obey, but against their 
wishes he would meddle with nothing whatsoever. 
This noble restraint on the part of Camillus was 
much admired, but it was hard to see how the 
matter could be referred to the Capitol. Nay 
rather, it seemed utterly impossible, while the enemy 
held the city, for a messenger to elude them and 
reach the acropolis. 

XXV. But there was a certain young man, Pontius 
Cominius by name, who was, in spite of his ordinary 
birth, a lover of glory and honour. He volunteered 
to attempt the task. He took no letter with him 
to the defenders of the Capitol, lest this, in the 
event of his capture, should help the enemy to 
discover the purpose of Camillus ; but under the 
coarse garments which he wore, he carried some 
pieces of cork. The greater part of his journey 
was made by daylight and without fear ; but as 
night came on he found himself near the city. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yev6fj.evo$ ijBrj cr/corato?, ^vrel Kara yecfrvpav OVK 
rjv TOV rroTa/nbv Trepaaai TWV fiapftdpwv irapa- 
2 (f)v\aTTovTcov, Trjv p.ev ecrQrJTa TTJ K<fra\rj Trepi- 
ov TroXXrjv ovBe ftapelav, rot? e 



rb crcojia /col (rvv7riKOv<)a)v TOO 



TrepaiovcrOai, Trpos rrjv TTO\I,V egeftrj. teal 7rapa\- 
\drrwv del TOU? e^/OTyyopora?, TO?? (freyyecrt, teal 
Oopvftip T6K/Jiaip6/jLevo$, e/3aSt^e vrpos rrjv 
7rv\rjv, r) TrXeicrT'rjv el-xev r)(TW)(iav t 
real fjid\i(TTa KCLT* avryv op0ios 6 TOV KaTTiTcoXiou 

teal TreTpa KVK\(O Tro\\r) KOI 



KOI 



rot? <j>v\aTT overt TO 
fcal yw,oXi? KCLTCL TO \ayapcoTaTov. 
3 tt<77racra/zei>o? Be TOU? az/Spa? KOI (f>pd(Ta<; eavTOv 
ej; ovo/jiaTOs, dva\rjcf)0el^ e^copei Trpos TOU? eV Te\ei 
TWV 'Pw/Aaicov. Ta%v Be <rvyK\rJTOv yevo jjievr)? 
7rape\6o)V Trjv TC vixrjv aTnjyyeiXe TOV Ka/^iXXov 
TrpoTepov ov TrvOofJievois, fcal rd SotcovvTa rot? 
SirjyeiTO' KOI Trapetcdket, TW Ka- 
fie/Saicocrai Trjv dp^jv, &>? yuo^w Treio~o- 

KLV(p TWV ^O) 1TO\ITWV. Ol 8* (\KOV- 

KOI (Bov\evad^ei>ot TOV T6 Kd/jLi\\ov a 
Bei/cvvovcri BiKT(iTopa, Kal TOV HOVTIOV a 
dTTO'TTe/JLTrovo't, Trjv avTrjv 6Bov oyitota)? dyaOfj 
%pr)crdfjLevov. e\a0e yap TOU? TroXe/itou? KOL TO, 
Trapa T/l? y?ou\r)? d7rrjyyei\6 rot? e'a> 'Pco/iatot?. 

XXVI. ^KeLvwv Be Be^afjLevwv irpoOvfjiw^ d<f)i- 
tcofjievos o K^//itXXo? rjBrj /nev ei> oVXo 
KdTeXafie, TrXetoi/a? Se crvvrjyev diro TWV 

1 r$ Bekker supplies eV with Bryan. 
I 5 6 



CAMILLUS, xxv. i-xxvi. r 

He could not cross the river by the bridge, since 
the Barbarians were guarding it, so he wrapped 
his light and scanty garments about his head, 
fastened the corks to his body, and thus supported, 
swam across, came out on the other side, and 
went on towards the city. Always giving a wide 
berth to those of the enemy who were watchful 
and wakeful, as he judged by their fires and 
noise, he made his way to the Carmental gate, 
where there was the most quiet, at which the 
Capitoline hill was most sheer and steep, and 
which was girt about by a huge and jagged cliff. 
Up this he mounted unperceived, and finally 
reached, with great pains and difficulty, the sentries 
posted where the wall was lowest. Hailing them, 
and telling them who he was, he was pulled up 
over the wall, and taken to the Roman magistrates. 
The Senate quickly convening, he appeared before 
it, announced the victory of Camillus, about which 
they had not heard, and explained to them the 
will and pleasure of his fellow-soldiers. He exhorted 
them to confirm Camillus in his command, since 
he was the only man whom the citizens outside 
would obey. When the Senate had heard his 
message and deliberated upon it, they appointed 
Camillus dictator, and sent Pontius back again 
by the way he had come, wherein he repeated 
his former good fortune. For he eluded the enemy's 
notice and brought the Senate's message to the 
Romans outside the city. 

XXVI. These gave eager welcome to the tidings, 
so that when Camillus came, he found twenty 
thousand men already under arms. He collected 



157 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ical Trapecrfcevd^ero TT/OO? rrjv eirlOe<riv. 
ypedf) BiKTarayp 6 Ka/uXXo9 TO Bev- 
Tepov KOI TropevOels et9 Qvrjtovs eVeTi^e rot9 
arpaTiwrais KOI (rvvfjye TrXetou? CLTTO TWV <TV/JL- 
fid^cov Co? e7ri0r)(r6fjLVos rot? TroXe/ttof?. 1 

'Ei> Be if) 'Ptofir) TWV ftapftdpcov rives etcelvr/ 
Kara TV^V Trape^iovres, fj Sia VVKTOS 6 IIoimo<? 
Trpocreftr] ry KaTmwiXiw, KaTa^aOovre^ 7ro\\a%fj 
/lev lyyt) TTo&wv KOI ^eLpwv, a>9 dvT\a^dvero KOL 
7T/ote8 pdrr era, 7ro\\a%r) Be TWV eTTi'jre^vKOTWv 
rot? Kprjfjivols dTrorpiftas KOI 7repio\if70rjar6i<; rwv 
2 yew&wv, fypd^ovcrt ra> /SacnXet. fcdrceivos 
6a)V KOL Oeaad^evo^ rare /JLV r^a-v^a^ 
8e rou? eXa^porarou? rot? <r<w/^acrt KOI 
opeiftarelv paXiG-ra rwv Ke\ra)v crvvayay(t>v, 

\ * ^ ' * / f J* r \ '' 

fjiev obov, enrev, i]^iv eq> eavrovs ayvoov- 
ol iro\e[JLioi Beiicvvovcriv &)? ovr diropevros 
ovre afSaros dv6pa)7roi<f eanv, alcr'xyvri Be 7ro\\rj 
rrjv ap~)(r)v e%pVTa? eXXetVetP Trpos TO TeXo? KOI 
Trpoecrdai TOV TOTTOV a>9 dvd\wrov, CLVTWV T&V 
rroXe/jLiwv f/ XT^TTTO? ecrri SiSacr/covTcov. f) yap 
evl Trpoa/Brjvai pdBiov, ovBe ?roXXot9 Kad* eva 
BV<TKO\OV, aXXa real pa)^ Kal /3oij0ia TroXX?) 
d\\ij\(0v ein'xeipovcn. Scopeal Be /cat 
l TrpeTrovffai rfjs dvBpayaOias e/cdcrra) Bodrj- 



XXVII. Toiavra TOV 

VTreorrrjcrav ol FaXaTat 7rpo^u/x&)9, Kal 
fjieaas vv/cras iri/3dvr? a/xa TroXXot 

1 ODrw . . . vo\e/j.lois deleted by Bekker, after Reiske. 

158 



CAMILLUS, xxvi. I-XXVH. i 

still more from the allies, and made preparations 
for his attack. Thus Camillas was chosen dictator 
for the second time, and proceeding to Veii, he 
put himself at the head of the soldiers there, 
and collected more from the allies, with the 
purpose of attacking the enemy. 

But in Rome, some of the Barbarians chanced 
to pass by the spot where Pontius had made his way 
by night up to the Capitol, and noticed in many 
places the marks made by his hands and feet in clam- 
bering up, and many places also where the plants 
that grew upon the rocks had been torn away, and 
the earth displaced. They advised their king of 
this, and he too came and made inspection. At 
the time he said nothing, but when evening came, 
he assembled the nimblest men and the best 
mountain-climbers of the Gauls and said to them : 
" The enemy have shown us that there is a way 
up to them of which we knew not, and one which 
men can traverse and tread. It would be a great 
shame for us, after such a beginning as we have 
made, to fail at the end, and to give the place 
up as impregnable, when the enemy themselves 
show us where it can be taken. For where it 
is easy for one man to approach it, there it will 
be no difficult matter for many to go one by 
one, nay, they will support and aid one another 
greatly in the undertaking. Gifts and honours 
befitting his valour shall be given to every 



man." 



XXVII. So spake their king, and the Gauls 
eagerly undertook to do his will. About midnight 
a large band of them scaled the cliff and made 



159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

UCTCL <ria)7rr)s, e/j,<f>v6uvoi TO?? 

aTrOTO/JLOLS OVCTi Kal %a\TTol<i, 0V UTjV 

aXXa aa\\ov rj Trpoa-eBoK^d^ Tceipw/jLevcDV avT&v 

2 TTpocrieuevois teal Trape'iKovcriv, wcrre TOU? Trpco- 
rov? dtyafjievovs rcov aicpwv ical SLCKTKzvaaa- 

yLteVoi/9 QGOV OU/C Ij8r) TOV TT/OOTet^tVyLtaTO? CLTT- 

reaOai /ecu roZ? <$V\CL%LV eTTL^eipelv rcoi/Aw/Aevois' 
f}(r0TO yap OVT avOpwiTo? OVT KVWV. a\\a 
r]Gav lepol Trepl rbv veu>v T>}? f 'Hpas rpetyo- 
TOV a\\ov xpovov dtydovw, rare Be rwv 
L(T^pw^ teal yu.o\t? aiyrot? Siap- 

3 KOVVTWV d/jt,6\ovjui>oi a/cco? eirpaTTOV. eari fj,ev 



ovv /ca 



TO <uov e/ceivoi Se Kal 8t,a Xt/uoz^ d 

ical 0opvj3(t)$6i<; yeyovore? Ta^v Trjv (f>d$d& y- 

aOovro TWV YaXaTwv, Kal fjLera Spofiov 

K\ayyf)s (f)ep6/j,evoi Trpo? auTou 

CLTravTas, r)$ri Kal T>I> fiap/Bdpcov Sia TO arj 

\av9dveiv d(^eL^>ovvTwv Oopvfiov KOI (3iatoTpov 

4 eTriTi0jjiei'(i)V. dpTrdcravT<$ ovv VTTO crTrofSr}? 

W T<? e/CaCTTO? OTT\W TTpOCT6TVyxaveV, K TOV 

Trapbvros efiptfOovv. TrdvTwv Se TT/SWTO? MaXXto?, 
dvrjp vTraTiKos, TO T6 o~a)ua pw^a\eo^ Kal <bpo- 
vijtiaTi 'fyv'xfis eTTKpavyjs, diTavT^cra^ Svcrlv O/JLOV 
TWV 7ro\euia)v TOV uei> e<j)0acr6 ^irjp^evov KOTriSa 
TO) ^i(f)6i Trjv Be^iav diroKO"fyas, TOV Be TU> 6vpe& 
TraTa^a? et? TO Trpoawrrov ewcrev OTTICTW KaTa T/}? 

5 TreTpa?. eV/crTa? Be TW Tefyei /xeTa TMV o~vv$pa- 
IJLOVTWV Kal yevouevcov Trepl avTOV aTrearpe^re 

U? aXXof?, ouTe TToXXoi/? avw ycvojuevovs OVT 

vTas TL TT}? ToXyUty? a%iov. OVTW Be TOV 143j 

KivBuVOV K(f)Vy6l>T6S dfL l]fJLpa TOV UV a 

1 60 



CAMILLUS, xxvn. 1-5 

their way upward in silence. They climbed on 
all fours over places which were precipitous and 
rough, but which yielded to their efforts better 
than they had expected, until the foremost of 
them reached the heights, put themselves in array, 
and had all but seized the outwork and fallen 
upon the sleeping watch. Neither man nor dog 
was aware of their approach. But there were 
some sacred geese near the temple of Juno, which 
were usually fed without stint, but at that time, 
since provisions barely sufficed for the garrison 
alone, they were neglected and in evil plight. 
The creature is naturally sharp of hearing and 
afraid of every noise, and these, being specially wake- 
ful and restless by reason of their hunger, perceived 
the approach of the Gauls, dashed at them with loud 
cries, and so waked all the garrison. At once 
the Barbarians, now that they were detected, spared 
no noise, and came on more impetuously to the 
attack. The defenders, snatching up in haste 
whatever weapon came to hand, made the best 
shift they could. Manlius first of all, a man of 
consular dignity, mighty in body and exceeding 
stout of heart, confronting two of the enemy at 
once, cut off the right hand of one of them with 
his sword as he was lifting his battle-axe, and 
dashing his shield into the face of the other, 
tumbled him backwards down the cliff. Then 
taking his stand on the wall with those who ran 
to his aid and formed about him, he repulsed the 
rest of the enemy, who had reached the top in 
no great numbers, and showed no prowess to 
match their daring. So the Romans escaped out 
of their peril. At break of day, they cast the 

161 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rwv <j>v\dfca)v eppityav et<? TOU? 7roXe/uot>9 Kara 
rr)<s Trerpa?, TO> Se MaXXta> TT}? vltcr]^ dpiarela 
7T/309 rifJLrjv aeydX.'rjv 1 fj,a\\ov rj 



aevoi crvmveytcav ocrov fjfjiepas e/cacrTo? 



ftavev et? rpo(f)r)V, airov 

(ovrw 'yap KaXoixnv a^ro), olvov 8e 



reraprov. 
XXVIII. 'E/c rovrov ra rwv KeXrwi/ 



/ca jap etr^etcoj' cfnaviov epyo- 
Trpovouijs <j)6/3y TOV Ka/^tXXou, /cal z^ocro? 
v7roiKovp?icrev avrovs ev veicpwv 7r\i]0ei ^v^rjv 
wv (TtcrjvovvTas ev e/oeiTTtot?, TO T 
Te<f)pa<; aepa ^ijporrjri real SpiuvrrjTi 
<f)av\ov VTTO TTvevudrcov teal Kavfidrwv avaOv- 
[jn,(i)crr)<; eXf/xat^ero ra (Tci)/j.ara Sta rfj 
2 fjidXidra S' rj /tera/SoX^ TT}? crvvrpotfiov 
K TOTTWV (TKiepwv KOI 6epov<$ Karafyvy 

6jjb/3a\6vTa<; et? ^wpav raTreivrjv /cal 



KKpa/jii>rjv <>ua)$ Trps TO fieroTraypov Kivr)<rev 
avrovs, J] re 7r/?o9 T&> KaTTiTcoXtct) KaQeSpa /cal 
o~^oX^ jevofjuevr] %pbvtos. eft&ojJLov yap eicelvov 
oi/covpovv urjva 7ro\iop/covi>re<i. ware <f)6opav 
elvai TroXX^v eV TO; &rparo7r$<p /cal ^Se Qarcrz- 



Ou //.^ 7rapa~ rovro ra TT pay par a (3e\rlw Tot? 
f)v. eTreretve yap b \iu6$, r) re 
Trepl Kdui\\ov ayvoia Trapel^e SvaQu/jiiav 
l? yap <f>oi,ra reap* avrwv Bia TO <$>povpela6ai 

1 /j.eyd\r)v deleted by Coraes and Bekker. 

2 iro/ja MSS. and edd., including Sintenis 1 : vfpl. 

162 



CAMILLUS, xxvn. 5 -xxviii. 3 

captain of the watch down the cliff among the 
enemy, but voted to Manlius a meed of victory 
which did him more honour than service. They 
collected for him the rations which each man 
of them received for one day, namely, half a pound 
of native spelt, Roman weight, and an eighth of a 
pint of wine, Greek measure. 

XXVIII. After this, the case of the Gauls was 
less hopeful. They lacked provisions, being shut 
off from foraging through fear of Camillus, and 
disease lurked among them. They were encamped 
amid ruins, where a multitude of corpses had 
been cast at random, and besides, an air made 
dry and acrid by vast quantities of ashes which 
wind and heat sent flying abroad, made breathing 
hurtful. But what most of all affected them was 
the complete change in their mode of life. They 
had come all at once from regions of shade, 
where easy refuge could be had from the heats 
of summer, into a land which was low lying and 
had an unnatural climate towards autumn. Then 
there was their long and idle sitting down before 
the Capitol, they were now whiling away the 
seventh month in its siege. For all these reasons 
the mortality was great in their camp ; so many 
were the dead that they could no longer be 
buried. 

All this, however, brought no relief to the 
besieged, for famine increased upon them, and 
their ignorance of what Camillus was doing made 
them dejected. No messenger could come from 
him because the city was now closely watched 



163 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Tr)V 7ro\iv atepiftws VTTO TWV ftap[Sdpwv. oOev 
ovT(o irpaTTOvcnv a/zc^orepot? eyivovTO o- 
\6yot Bid T&V TT po(>v\dtca)V TO TrptoTov 
4 evTvy^avovTwv elra, o>? eBo^e TO?? 

crvve\0ovTOS et? Xtr/of? Bpevvw ^ovkiriKiov rov 



TWV 



rou? 

etc TT? 7rou&)? avTitca teal 
. 7rl TOVTOLS yevo/jLevwv opicwv Kc 
TOV valov KOjiicr0evTOS, T&V 8e Ke/Vrco^ Trel rov 



v dyvcofjLOvovvTcov /cpi>(f)a TO TTpWTov, elra 
KCU (fravepcos affreXfcovrtov /cal &ia<TTpe(j)ovTwv TIJV 
5 poir^v, jjyavd/crovv oi 'Pa>/uuoi Trpo? aurou?. 6 5e 
B/?i>z>o<? otoi; efivftpL^cov KOI Karaye\.a)v CLTTO^V- 



a/jL6i'OS 1 T fi^aipav apa KCU, TOV 



TO?? crra^/Aot?. irvvOavo/jievov Be TOV 
2.ov\7riKLOv, " Tt TOVTO ; ' " Tt 7y9 a\\o," CL 
" rj Tot? veviKrjiJLevois 6&vvr) ; " TOVTO pev ovv 

tfAioo&rjs Xoyos yeyove. TWV Se 'Pcojuaiwv ol 
rjyavdfCTOvv /cal TO ^pvaiov WOVTO Belv 
avOis airievai /cal T>)V TroXtop/ciav VTTO- 
ol Be crvyxwpeiv e/ceXevov dBi/cov/j.evov<; 
, teal fjirj TW 7r\eov SiSovai TrpocrXoyi^ecrOai 
TO ala^poVy avTo ye TO Bovvai Bta TOV icaipov ov 



XXIX. Oucr??? Be Trepl TOVTCOV TT/OO? T6 TOV$ 
/cal 7T/909 auroi)? 2 Biacfropas dywv TOV 
o KayutXXo? ev Tat? TrvXat? rjv /cal 
ei'O^ TO, yivojjieva TOU? aXXou? e/ceXeva-ev ev 
/cal o"%eBr)v e7rafco\ov6tiv, auTO? Be yu-era 



1 ait oSva a^evos with S : aTTo\vffdfifvos unfastening. 

8 OUTOUS Siateais 2 with C : ainovs Bekkur and Sintenis 1 . 

164 



CAM ILL US, xxvin. 3~xxix. i 

by the Barbarians. Wherefore, both parties being 
in such a plight, a compromise was proposed, 
at first by the outposts as they encountered one 
another. Then, since those in authority thought 
it best, Sulpicius, the military tribune of the 
Romans, held a conference with Brennus, and it 
was agreed that on the delivery of a thousand 
pounds of gold by the Romans, the Gauls should 
straightway depart out of the city and the country. 
Oaths were sworn to these terms, and the gold 
was brought to be weighed. But the Gauls tampered 
with the scales, secretly at first, then they openly 
pulled the balance back out of its poise. The 
Romans were incensed at this, but Brennus, with 
a mocking laugh, stripped off his sword, and 
added it, belt and all, to the weights. When 
Sulpicius asked, " What means this ? " " What else," 
said Brennus, " but woe to the vanquished?" 1 and 
the phrase passed at once into a proverb. Some 
of the Romans were incensed, and thought they 
ought to go back again with their gold, and 
endure the siege. Others urged acquiescence in 
the mild injustice. Their shame lay, they argued, 
not in giving more, but in giving at all. This 
they consented to do because of the emergency ; 
it was not honourable, but it was necessary. 

XXIX. While they were thus at odds in the 
matter, both with the Gauls and with themselves, 
Camillus led his army up to the gates of the city. 
On learning what was going on, he ordered the rest 
of his army to follow in battle array and deliberately, 

1 Vae victia I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rwv dpicrrwv erreiybuevos evOvs eTropevero 737)09 
2 TOU? Ptoyu-atoi"?. Biavravrayv Be rrdvrwv KOI 
avrov a>? avroKpdropa /cocr/z&> /cal 
), TO uev xpvcriov apas dirb rov uyov rot? 

eBwfce, rov Se vyov Kal ra 
KeXrou? \a/36vra<i diro^wpelv 



a>5 (n&ijpq) Trdrpiov ian 'Pw^uatoi?, ov 



Be 

TOV BpeWou Kal <}>dcrKovTo<s dSiKeicrdai 
TT)? o/toXo^ta?, avrelire fjirj VO^IIJLW^ 

3 iJ,r)& Kvplas elvai ra? a~vvQij/ca<i' ijSr) yap avrov 
SiKrdropos yprj/j,evov Kal jj,r)$vbs dp^ovro^ erepov 
vo/juri) 7T/90? OVK e\ovra<$ e^ovcriav 6fj,o\oyr)9f)i>ai,. 
vvvl Se xptjvat \eyetv ei n ftovXovrai,' vop,w yap 
rfKSiv icvpios 76701/0)? (rvyyvw/jirjv re Seoyttei/oi? 
Bouvai real SiKrjv, el fi,r) fj,eravoovcriv, emOelvai 

4 rot? amot?. Trpo? ravra 0opv/3ii0els o Bpevvos 144 
jjtyaro fjiev a-v/r^a^ta?, /cat 7rpor)\6oi> a^pi i- 
(j)ov\KLas e/cdrepot, teal &ici)0i,(Tuwv dva/jLfj.iyuevoi, 

7T/5O9 U\\tJ\OV<f, OHTTTep LKO$, V OtKLCtlS KOi 

arevwrrols dvacrrpefybjJievoL Kal -^fopioL^ Be^aa-Qai 
rrapdrafyv oil Svva/Jievois. ra%u Se crvfjLtbpovi'iaas 

Bpei/vo? dm^yaye roi)? KeXroi)? et'<? TO a-rparo- 

v ov TroXXwi/ rreaovrwv. Kal WKros dvaarri- 
arravras e^eXiire rr\v TTO\LV, Kal rfpoe\9a)v 
ara&iovs Karearparorre&evae rrapd rrjv 
6B6v. aua 8' fjfjiepa Trapijv 6 KaytuXXo? 
e-Tr' avrov <u7r\icruevos \a/x7r/?w? Kal reOappriKoras 
e~)(wv rare TOU? 'Pw/iatou?' Kal yevo^evri^ Icr^ypa^ 
ad\rj^ erci rro\vv %povov avrovs re rperrerat, 
rro\\(p (povcp Kal Xajjiftdvei, TO crrparbrre&ov. rwv 

1 66 



CAMILLUS, xxix. 1-5 

while he himself, with the flower of his men, pressed 
on, and presently came to the Romans. These all 
made way for him, in decorous silence acknowledg- 
ing him as their dictator. Thereupon he lifted the 
gold from the scales and gave it to his attendants, 
and then ordered the Gauls to take their scales and 
weights and be off, saying that it was the custom 
with the Romans to deliver their city with iron and 
not with gold. When Brennus in wrath declared 
that he was wronged by this breaking of the agree- 
ment, Camillus answered that the compact was not 
legally made nor binding, since he himself had 
already been chosen dictator and there was no other 
legal ruler ; the agreement of the Gauls had there- 
fore been made with men who had no power in the 
case. Now, however, they must say what they 
wanted, for he was come with legal authority to 
grant pardon to those who asked it, and to inflict 
punishment on the guilty, unless they showed 
repentance. At this, Brennus raised a clamour and 
began a skirmish, in which both sides got no further 
than drawing their swords and pushing one another 
confusedly about, since the action took place in the 
heart of the ruined city, where no battle array was 
possible. But Brennus soon came to his senses, and 
led his Gauls off to their camp, with the loss of 
a few only. During the ensuing night he broke 
camp and abandoned the city with his whole force, 
and after a march of about eight miles, encamped 
along the Gabinian way. At break of day Camillus 
was upon him, in glittering array, his Romans now 
full of confidence, and after a long and fierce battle, 
routed the enemy with great slaughter and took 
their camp. Of the fugitives, some were at once 

167 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



OL 



TOU9 & TrXetCTTOU? SiaaTTCipeVTaS 7TK- 

Oeovres etc TWV 7rept KWJJ.MV /cal iroKewv etcreivov. 
XXX. Ovro) /iev r\ 'Pcofjirj 7rapa\6yco<; r/Xw /cal 
7rapa\oy(t)Tepov e'cro)^;, p,r/vas ejrra TOU? Trdvras 
VTTO rot? ftapfBdpois yVOfj,ev7). 7rape\06i>T$ yap 
t? avr^v 6\iyais f)iJiepai<s varepov row K.VLVTI- 
\Lo)v elSwv irepl ra? Qeftpovapias eiSovs e^ejrecrov. 

6 Be Ka/l-iXXo? 0pld/jL/3V(T /JLV, CO? 6tVo9 T)V, TOV 

(rcorijpa Trarpibos yevofj.ei'ov KOI 
rrjv 7ro\iv avrrjv et9 kavrr]V o'i re 
yap ej;(i)06v a/^a iraidl KOL yvvat^lv elcrekav- 
vovros avrov a-vyKCLTrjecrav, 01 re 
ev TOJ KaTTtrcoXtw, fiLKpov 
Sia \I/JLOV, aTn'jVTOiv nrep 
/cal Sa/cpvovres VTTO 1 T>;9 irapovar]^ TjSovfjs, lepei? 
re teal ^d/copoL 6ewv, ocra fyevyovres avroOt 

v rj crvv avrols e^e/cXe 
KO/niovTes GTreSeifcvvvro nroQov- 
XiTats Se^o/i,6^oi9 fiera %apa$, 
avrwv TWV 6ewv av6i<$ et9 TTJV 'Pco/^rjv 
Ovaa^ Se T0t9 Oeois real rcaOd- 
Trjv TTO\IV e%r)yov{j.evwv TWV Trepl ravra 
Seivwv, ra (JLCV ovra TWV lepwv Karea'Ttja-ev, auro9 
&e iSpvcraro vewv O?;yLt^9 /cal KXrjSovos, dvevpwv 
Kivov TOV TOTTOV, ev co vv/CTCop rj fcarayy6~\J\.ovcra 
TWV ftapftdpcov aTpariav ere 6eov rco Kou- 
(f)covr) TrpocreTrecre. 




with S : aTTiariafor distrust of. 

KO\ KfKocr^.r)/u,eva S, and adorned. 



168 



CAMILLUS, xxix. 5-xxx. 3 

pursued and cut down, but most of them scattered 
abroad, only to be fallen upon and slain by the people 
of the surrounding villages and cities. 

XXX. So strangely was Rome taken, and more 
strangely still delivered, after the Barbarians had 
held it seven months in all. They entered it a few 
days after the Ides of July, and were driven out 
about the Ides of February. Camillus celebrated a 
triumph, as it was meet that a man should do who 
had saved a country that was lost, and who now 
brought the city back again to itself. For the 
citizens outside, with their wives and children, 
accompanied his triumphal chariot as it entered the 
city, and those who had been besieged on the 
Capitol, and had narrowly escaped death by starva- 
tion, came forth to meet them, all embracing one 
another, and weeping for the joy that was theirs. 
The priests and ministrants of the gods, bringing 
whatever sacred objects they had either buried on 
the spot or carried off with them when they took to 
flight, displayed them, thus preserved in safety, to 
the citizens, who caught the welcome sights with 
delight, believing in their hearts that the gods 
themselves were now coming back to Rome with 
them. After Camillus had made sacrifices to the 
gods and purified the city, in the manner prescribed 
by those who were versed in such rites, he restored 
the existing temples, and erected a new one to 
Rumour and Voice, 1 having sought out carefully 
the spot where by night the voice from Heaven, 
announcing the coming of the Barbarian host, had 
fallen upon the ears of Marcus Caedicius. 

1 Ara Aii Locutii. 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXI. XaXeTTw? aev ovv teal ao\t,<; at r&v 
lepwv dvKa\v7rrovro XP ai fa^ortfjiia rov Ka- 
fjii\\ov Kal TTOVW 7ro\\(p r&v iepofyavTwv ft>? Be 
Kal rr)v rro\iv dvoiKoBoueiv e$ei rravrdrraai, Ste- 
r]v, ddv/jiia TT/JO? TO epyov eveTrnrre rot? 
Kal /J.e\\r)crt<s TJV ecrreprj/jievois ctTrdvTcov 
Kal TWOS ev TU> Trapovri, pacrTcovrjs /cal dvaTrav- 



<70)5 K KaKWV eO/JieVOLS [JLooV r K/MVlV 

Kal aTTorpv^eiv eavrovs ovre ^prjfjiaaLv ovre 

OVTW Be rjcrvxf) 7r / ? o? 



Kal 

eveBoaav rot? TT/JO? X^P !V 
6/jLi\eiv t Kal \6ya)V r^ 
rov Ka/uXXov, &>9 eKeivov (f>i\OTi/Aias eveKa Kal 
SO^T;? l&ias aTrocrreyOoO^TO? avrovs TroXew? erot/x?;? 
Kal ftia^ouevov cr/crjvouv epeiTTta Kal irvpKalav 
Tocravrrfv eyeipeiv, OTTO)? firj povov rfye^wv ' 
Kal (TTparrjyos, d\\a Kal KTicrTrjs \eyrjrai, 



3 *E/e rovrov (f)o/3r)06L(ra rov @6pv/3ov 3) 

rov fiev Kd/jii\Xov ov/c e'lacre fBov\oiievov diro- 
rriv dpxrjv evrbs eviavrov Kaircep 



ovSevbs vrrepf3a\ovro<$ erepov SiKrd- 
TO/9O?, avrrj Se rrapepvOelro Kal Kareirpdvve 
rreldovaa Kal Se^iov/Aevr} rbv BTJ/JLOV, Tri$6itcvv- 



fiev ypia Ka rajou? rrareprov, 



Be -^wpiwv tepcov Kal roirwv dyiwv, 069 
77 Noyita? r) ris aXXo? avrofc ra>v 



170 



CAMILLUS, xxxi. 1-3 

XXXI. Owing to the zeal of Camillas and the 
abundant labours of the priesthood, the sites of the 
temples were at last uncovered, but it proved a 
grievous undertaking. And since the city had also 
to be built up again from a state of utter destruc- 
tion, the multitude were overwhelmed with despair 
of the task, and shrank from it. They were bereft 
of all things, and for the present needed some rest 
and repose after their sufferings, instead of toiling 
and wearing themselves out on a task for which they 
had neither means nor strength. And so it was that 
insensibly their thoughts turned again to Veii, a city 
which remained intact and was equipped with all 
things needful. This gave opportunity for mischievous 
agitations to such as were wont to consult only the 
people's will and pleasure, and ready ear was given 
to seditious speeches against Camillus. He had an 
eye, it was said, only to his own ambition and fame, 
when he would deprive them of a city that stood 
ready to receive them, and force them to pitch their 
tents among a mass of ruins, while they rebuilt what 
had become a monstrous funeral pyre. He wished 
not merely to be a leader and general of Rome, 
but to thrust Romulus to one side and be styled its 
founder. 

The Senate, therefore, fearful of this clamour, 
would not suffer Camillus, much as he wished it, to 
lay down his office within a year, although no other 
dictator had served more than six months. Mean- 
while the Senators, by dint of kindly greetings and 
persuasive words, tried to soften and convert the 
people, pointing out the sepulchres and tombs of 
their fathers, and calling to their remembrance the 
shrines and holy places which Romulus, or Numa, 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 ftacriXewv emOeidvas irapeSw/eev. ev TT/OCOTOJ? S 
TUV BeLdiv rijv re veocr^aytj Ke^>a\^v rrpoixfiepov 145 
ev rf) 06/JL\i(t)crei, rov Ka7Tira)\Lov fyavelaav, co? 

T(p TOTTO) TTCTrpco/uLevov eKGivw T?}? 'IraXt'a? K(pa\f) 
<yevecr0ai, /ecu TO T?}? 'Ecrua? irvp, o fiera rbv 
7ro\jAOV VTTO TWV TTdpdevwv avaTTTo/jievov av 
d<f)ai i^eiv /ecu aftzvvvvai TOL/? < npo\LTrovTas 
TTG\IV, 6Vet8o? avrols Icrofjievov, av re VTT* 

opwcnv 7rfj\v8a)V /ecu tfevav av T 
ovaav KOI /J,rj\6@orov. 

5 Toiavra teal TT/^O? e/caarov IBia /cat icowfj 

ev TW B^fjLO) <7^6TX 
VTTO T&V TTO\\WV Tr)V Trapovaav 
ajjLYi^aviaVy /cat Beo/j,eva)i> fxr) cr^a? axnrep 
e/e vavajiov JVJJLVOVS teal ajrdpovs 
irpoa-fiid^ecrOai, TCL \ei-fyava TT}? 
crv/jiTrrjyvvvat, TroXew?, erepas erot//,^? 

XXXII. "ESo^ei' ovv (3ov\r)v irpoOelvai 
KayutXXw' /eal 7ro\\a /JLCV avrbs Bie^rj\de Trapa- 
iea\wv VTrep T>)9 Trar/otSo?, TroXXa Se iea\ rcov 
a\\cov 6 /SouXoytte^o?" reXo? Be rbv Trpcorov 
\ej6Lv JIX^/JL^JV KGVKLOV Aov/epi]Tiov dva- 
eieekevcrev aTrofy^vacrQai Trpwrov, elra 
2 TOL/? aXXou? <f>f;f]s. yevo/jievijs Se criMTrfjs /eal 
TOV Aov/epr)TLov fJL\\ovTO<; evdp^eaOai, Kara 
rv)(rjv e^wOev etearovrdpxrjs ayaiv rdy/j,a 0fXa:^? 
rjfjLepivrjs rrapercopevero, /eal rbv (frepovra rrpwrov 
TO <r7)fjLiov fj,yd\rj (frwvfj Trpocrayopevcras e'/ce- 
\6vcrv avrov fMeveiv /eal TO 

172 



CAMILLUS, xxxi. 4-xxxn. 2 

or some other king, had consecrated and left to 
their care. Among other signs from Heaven, they 
laid chief stress on the newly severed head that was 
found when the foundations of the Capitol were dug, 
showing, as it did, that the place where it was found 
was fated to be the head of Italy ; also on the sacred 
fire of Vesta, which had been kindled anew by her 
virgins after the war. If they should quench and 
extinguish this again by their abandonment of the 
city, it would be a disgrace to them, whether they 
saw that city occupied by immigrants and aliens, or 
abandoned to flocks and herds. 

Thus did the Senators remonstrate with the people, 
both individually in private, and often hi the public 
assemblies. They, in their turn, were moved to com- 
passion by the wailing complaints of the multitude, 
who lamented the helplessness to which they were 
come, and begged, now that they had been saved 
alive as it were from a shipwreck, in nakedness and 
destitution, that they be not forced to piece together 
the fragments of their ruined city, when another 
stood all ready to receive them. 

XXXII. Accordingly, Camillus decided that the 
question should be debated and settled in council. 
He himself spoke at great length, in exhortation to 
preserve their common country, and every one else 
who wished did likewise. Finally, he called upon 
Lucius Lucretius, to whom custom gave the first 
vote, and bade him declare his opinion first, and 
then the other senators in the order due. Silence 
fell, and Lucretius was on the point of beginning, 
when it chanced that a centurion with a squad of 
the day watch passed by outside, and calling with a 
loud voice on the man who led with the standard, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/cd\\icrTa yap evrav&a KaOeBeicrQai /cal 

a/iia Be rw tcaipw KOI rfj irepl rov /JL\\OVTO<> 

evvola Kal dBtjXorrjTi rrjs <f)O)vij<f yevojjievrjs, 6 re 

AoVKprJTIOS <f)rj 7T pOG KVV1JG <Z9 TO) #t&> TTpOO'Tl- 

OeaQai rrjv eavrov yvw/jLrjv /cal TWV a\\a>v 
3 eVacrro? 7rrjKO\ov0rja'. Oav^acfrrj Se teal TO 



TrapatcakovvTwv /cal 7rpoTpe7ro/j,va)v l ?rpo9 TO 



epyov, OVK etc Siavofjirjs rti/09 r) ra^e&)9, aX,X' a>9 



e/cao~TO9 eroifiorrjTO^ rj fiovXijaea)*? 

Kara\a/j,/3avo/j,ev(i)v. Bib /cal rerapay- 
t9 /cal ov^ir^vp^kv^v rat9 
avijyayov rrjv TTO\IV VTTO crTrov&fjs /cal 
rayou9. eVro9 yap eviavrov \eyerai Kal rot? 
Kaivr) /cal ra?9 ISiwriKais otVoSoyitafc ava- 



4 Oi Se Toi/9 iepovs ro7rou9 ava\a(3elv Kal opicrai 



TOU 



0)9 /cov e T?V Kaia rov 
TO 



aXXa, Ste^Oap/Aevrjv /cal KaraKeKav^evrjv evpov 
virb TWV (Bapftdpwv, (TKevwpovfjLevoi Be /cal KaOaL- 
povT<; TO %a)pLo 
ToO *Pft)/LtuXoy raTa 
5 KaraSeSvKori. rovro S' eo"Tt /iev eVf/ea/iiTr^ e'/c 
OaTepov 7repaTO9, Ka\eiTai Be \trvov xpwvrai 5' 
auTft) 7T/909 Ta9 Twi^ TT\ivd i(ov V7roypa(f)d<; orav eV 
opvicn Sia/jiavTev6jj,6VOi 

TlKU>TaTOS WV. 7TlBrj B' 

TrapaXaftovres ol iepels TO %v\ov 
aXXo Tt TCOV iepwv atyavcrTov (f)v\arTOv. 

1 vpoTpfTOfj.fvwv with S : 
174 



CAMILLUS, xxxn. 2-5 

bade him halt and plant his standard there, for that 
was the best place to settle down and stay in. The 
utterance fell at the crisis of their anxious thought 
for the uncertain future, and Lucretius said, with a 
devout obeisance, that he cast his vote with the god. 
The rest, one by one, followed his example. Then 
the inclinations of the multitude were marvellously 
changed. They exhorted and incited one another 
to the work, and pitched upon their several sites, 
not by any orderly assignment, but as each man 
found it convenient and desirable. Therefore the 
city was rebuilt with confused and narrow streets 
and a maze of houses, owing to their haste and 
speed. Within a year's time, it is said, a new city 
had arisen, with walls to guard it and homes in 
which to dwell. 

Those who had been deputed by Camillus to 
recover and mark out anew the sacred places, found 
them all in utter confusion. When they came to 
the shrine of Mars, in their circuit of the Palatium, 
they found that it had been demolished and burnt 
by the Barbarians, like the rest, but as they were 
clearing away and renovating the place, they came 
upon the augural staff of Romulus, buried deep in a 
great heap of ashes. The augural staff is curved at 
one end, and is called lituus. It is used to mark off 
the different quarters of the heavens, in the cere- 
monies of divination by the flight of birds, and so 
Romulus had used this one, for he was a great 
diviner. But when he vanished from among men, 
the priests took this staff and kept it inviolate, like 



175 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOVTO Brj Tore TWV a\\wv aTroXeoXoT&w avev- 
POVTGS BiaTretyevyos rrjv <f)0opav rjBlovs eyevovTO 
rat 9 e\Tri(Tiv VTrep rr)? f Pco / a^9, &>? dtBiov avry 
Trjv crcoTrjpiav TOV arj/jieiov j3/3aiovvTO<>. 

XXXIII. OUTTGI) 8e rf}9 vrepl raOra Trejrav- 
aa"^o\ici^ aurot? CTriTmrTei 
fiev a/na real OVO\OV<TKO)V KCU 
wpav e/jL/3a\\6vTCi)v, Tvpprivwv Be 
op/covvT(ov ^ovrpiv, crf^tyCta^tSa '^wfjiaiwv TTO\,LV. 
ol rr)V r)yfj.oviav e^ovre? ^i\iap^oi, 
evcrd/jLevoi irepl TO MdpKiov 0/309 OTTO 
Aarivwv eirokiopKovvTO teal KLv^uvevovres 
aTTo{Ba\elv TO arparoTreBov 619 'Poo/A/;!/ eirejjsfyav 
2 aTroBeLtcvvTai TO rpirov Ka/ttX\o9 Bucrdrcop. irepl 
rovrov TOV Tro\ejjiov BITTOL \6yoi \eyovTCU' Bi6i/ju 
Be TOV fjbvdcoBrj jrpoTepov. 

<&acrl TOVS AaTivovs, erre irpofyda-ei xpcofjievovs 
(BovXofJievovs 009 aX77^co9 dvafjii^ao'dat, TO, 
TraK.iv et; V7rap-\rj^ y Trejju^ravTas alrelv Trapa 



Be TWV 'Pco/uiaiwv, TI ^prf froieiv (fcal 
yap TOV 7ro\efJLOv ayppwSovv ouira) KaffecrTWTes ovB* 
dvei\r)(j)6Ts avTOVs, ical Trjv acTrjaLv TMV yvvai- 
KWV vTTcoTTTevov e^o/jL/jpevcrLV elvai, TOV B' evTrpe- 
7TOU9 X^P iV GTiyafJULdv Ka\etcr9ai\ OepairaiviBa 
3 Tovvofjia TovTOv\av, co? 8* eviou \eyoua-i, QiXcoTiBa 
ro?9 apxpvcri Trapaivecrai Tre/jLTreiv crvv avTy TWV 
BfjLtoiBfiiv Ta9 ev wpa ^d\L<TTa Kal Ta?9 otyeaiv 
e\ev0pLovs, /co(T/jirj(TavTas a>9 vv/j-fyrts evyevels, 
TCL \oi7ra 8^ avTrj /jLe\r)<reiv. TreiG0evTa<$ Be TOVS 

7rt\e%a<T0ai TWV OepairaiviB^v o 
77/009 TTJV > %peiav eBoKi/^aae, teal 

176 



CAMILLUS, xxxn. 5-xxjcm. 3 

any other sacred object. Their finding this at that 
time unscathed, when all the rest had perished, gave 
them more pleasing hopes for Rome. They thought 
it a token that assured her of everlasting safety. 

XXXIII. They were not yet done with these 
pressing tasks when a fresh war broke upon them. 
The Aequians, Volscians, and Latins burst into their 
territory all at once, and the Tuscans laid siege to 
Sutrium, a city allied with Rome. The military 
tribunes in command of the army, having encamped 
near Mount Marcius, were besieged by the Latins, 
and were in danger of losing their camp. Where- 
fore they sent to Rome for aid, and Camillus was 
appointed dictator for the third time. Two stories 
are told about this war, and I will give the fabulous 
one first. 

They say that the Latins, either as a pretext for 
war, or because they really wished to revive the 
ancient affinity between the two peoples, sent and 
demanded from the Romans free-born virgins in 
marriage. The Romans were in doubt what to do, 
for they dreaded war in their unsettled and un- 
restored condition, and yet they suspected that this 
demand for wives was really a call for hostages 
disguised under the specious name of intermarriage. 
In their perplexity, a serving-maid named Tutula, 
or, as some call her, Philotis, advised the magistrates 
to send her to the enemy with some maid-servants 
of the comeliest sort and most genteel appearance, 
all arrayed like free-born brides; she would attend to 
the rest. The magistrates yielded to her persuasions, 
chose out as many maid-servants as she thought meet 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra? effdfJTi real %pvcra) irapaBovvai rot? Aarivois 
ov Trdvv TroppQ) rr)? 7roXe&>9 cTTpaTOTreBevovcrt. 
Be Ta9 j^ev aXXa9 v<f>e\ecr0at, ra ey-^etpiBia 



1 elre Tovrov\av et're 



rL8a Trpocrftacrav epLvew fjueyakw KCU Trapareiva- 
oav OTTicra) TO ifjidnov apai Trvpcrov et? Trjv 
&(T7Tp rjv GvyKeifJLtvov avrfj Trpo? TOU? 
ov&evos aXXou rwv 'it o\irwv elSoros. 81 o KOI 



<yeie(T0ai, rrjv rcov 
a)? KarrJTreiyov ol ap^ovres, aXA^'Xoi'? dvatca\ovv- 
TU>V Kal fji6\i<; 6t? TTJV rdfyv KaQurTa/jie 
6bvra<; Be r&> ^dpcuci TWV 7roXe/ua>z/ ov 
fjievwv Kal Ka0vS6vTO)j> e\eiv TO crparoTre^ov KCU 

5 Bia(f)0ipai TOU? TrXetcTTOf?. TOVTO 8e <yeveadai, rat? 
vvv 'louXtai?, rore e KutVTXtat9 vciivai*}, KCU, rrjv 
dyo/jievr)v eoprrjv vTro/jivrjfjia TT}? 7rpd^eco<f Kivrj<f 
elvai. irpwrov fjiev yap e^iovres dOpooi Sicl TT}? 
TryX^y? TroXXa rwv eTn^wpiwv Kal KOIVWV ovo/j,d- 
TWV ftofi <j)0jyovrai,, Vdiov, MdpKov, AOVKIOV 
Kal ra TOVTOIS o^ota, ^JLifjiOVfjLvoL TTJV rare 
ryevop,evr)v ^era CTTTOI/^^? d\\r}\wv dvdK\r)crtv 

6 eTreira KKocrfj,r)/jiei>ai, Xa^Trpw? at OepaTrat 
Trepuacri vrat^oucrat 8ia aKw^dT^v et? 

. yiverat Se /cat yua^?; Tt? aurat? 
a)? /cal TOTE TOU 777309 TOV9 
vveTriXapftavofjLevais. kariM^vai Be 
K\dBoi<$ crvKrjs attia^o/jLevai' Kal rrjv 
KaTrparivas KoKovviv, a>9 otowrai 
Bid TOV epiveov, d<fi ov Tr]V TraiBicrKrjv TOV Trvpabv 
apav TOV yap epiveov KairpifyiKOv ovofJid^ovGiv. 

7 "ETepot Be TOVTCOV TO, TrXetcrTa BpacrQai, Kal 
\eyea6al fyaaiv evrt ry TOU 

178 



CAM1LLUS, xxxiii. 3-7 

for her purpose, arrayed them in fine raiment and 
gold, and handed them over to the Latins, who were 
encamped near the city. In the night, the rest of 
the maidens stole away the enemy's swords, while 
Tutula, or Philotis, climbed a wild fig-tree of great 
height, and after spreading out her cloak behind her, 
held out a lighted torch towards Rome, this being 
the signal agreed upon between her and the magis- 
trates, though no other citizen knew of it. Hence 
it was that the soldiers sallied out of the city 
tumultuously, as the magistrates urged them on, 
calling out one another's names, and with much ado 
getting into rank and file. They stormed the en- 
trenchments of the enemy, who were fast asleep 
and expecting nothing of the sort, captured their 
camp, and slew most of them. This happened on 
the Nones of what was then called Quintilis, now 
July, and the festival since held on that day is in 
remembrance of the exploit. For, to begin with, 
they run out of the city gate in throngs, calling out 
loudly many local and common names, such as Gaius, 
Marcus, Lucius, and the like, in imitation of the way 
the soldiers once called aloud upon each other in 
their haste. Next, the maid-servants, in gay attire, 
run about jesting and joking with the men they 
meet. They have a mock battle, too, with one 
another, implying that they once took a hand in the 
struggle with the Latins. And as they feast, they 
sit in the shade of a fig-tree's branches. The day 
is called the "Capratine Nones," from the wild fig- 
tree, as they suppose, from which the maid held 
forth her torch ; this goes by the name of capri/icus. 

But others say that most of what is said and done 
at this festival has reference to the fate of Romulus. 

179 



PLUTAKCH'S LIVES 

Kara ravrrjv yap a^avicrd^vai rrjv rj/jiepav avTov 



real 0ve\\rjs a 

&><; 8' eviot, vo/jiL^ovcriv, e/eXen/reco? rfKiov 
Kal rrjv rj/j,epav CLTTO TOV TOTTOV vuivas 
K\rjd>ji'ai, rrjv jap aiya rcdirpav ovo^d^ovcnv o 
Be 'PwyLtuXo? rj$avLcr0ri SrjfjLijyopwv ire pi TO r^? 
alybs eXo? Trpocrayopeuo/jLevov, &>? eV rot? irepl 
e/ceiVQV jeypaTrrat. 

XXXIV. Tov S' erepov \6yov ol TrXeicrroi rwv 
crvyypatyecov ^OKip.d^ovre^ OVTO) \eyovan>. UTTO- 
BiKTarajp TO rpirov 6 KayutA.Xo9 Kal 
TO /jL6Ta T0)i> %i\idp'%wv crTpaTev/jia 
VTTO TWV AaTivcov Kal TwvQvoXov- 
CTKWV, rji'a-y/cdcrOij Kal rou? OVK ev o')pq TOJV ITO\L- 

2 T&v, aXX' 7/87; 7r<z/3>;/3i/TOTa9 KaQoifkicrai. 7Tpie\- 
6u>v Be fiaKpav TrepioSov irepl TO M.dpKiov 0/505 
/cal \a0ajv TOVS TroXe^tou? tSpvcre TTJV <TTpaTLav 
tcaTOTTLv avrwv, Kal Trvpd TroXXa Kavaas Siecnj- 
firjve Trjv eavTou irapovaiav. ol fiev ovv iroXiop- 
Kov/jievoi Bappr}aavTt<s iirikvcLi BLGVOOVVTO Kal 

3 fid^rjv avvdiTTeiv ol Be AaTtvoi Kal OVO\OVCTKOI 
a-vaTei\avTs elVa) TOV %dpctKO<$ eavTOV 

povv ^uXot? 7roXXot9 Kal Bie<f)pdyvvvTO 
6ev TO (TTpaTOTreBov, d^lfBoXoi yeyovoTes VTTO 
7ro\/jLicov Kal TreptjJieveiv eyvwKOTes eTepav oiKodev 
Bvva/jiiv, afjia Be Kal Tvpprjvwv TrpoirBe^o^evoi, 
j3otj@iav. TOVTO 8' al(T06{jivo$ 6 Ka/xtXXo? Kal 

TraOeiv oirep eTroirjaev avro? TOU? TroXe- 147 
KVf\a)crdfjLevo^ eaTrevBe TrpoXaftelv TOV 

4 Kaipov. 6Vro? Be TOV 7repi(f)pdy/j,aTO<f ^v\ivov Kal 

/j,yd\ov KaTiQvro^ diro TWV opwv a/za 



1 80 



CAMILLUS, xxxin. y-xxxiv. 4 

For on this same day he vanished from sight, outside 
the city gates, in sudden darkness and tempest, and, 
as some think, during an eclipse of the sun. The 
day, they say, is called the " Capratine Nones " from 
the spot where he thus vanished. For the she-goat 
goes by the name of capra, and Romulus vanished 
from sight while haranguing an assembly of the 
people at the Goat's Marsh, as has been stated in 
his Life. 1 

XXXIV. But most writers adopt the other account 
of this war, which runs thus. Camillus, having been 
appointed dictator for the third time, and learning that 
the army under the military tribunes was besieged 
by the Latins and Volscians, was forced to put under 
arms even those of the citizens who were exempt 
from military duty by reason of advancing years. 
Fetching a long circuit around Mount Marcius and 
thus eluding the enemy's notice, he planted his army 
securely in their rear, and then by lighting many 
fires made known his presence there. The besieged 
Romans at once took heart and purposed to sally out 
and join battle. But the Latins and Volscians re- 
tired within their trenches, fenced themselves in 
with a great wooden palisade, and barricaded their 
camp on all sides, for they now had a hostile force in 
front and rear, and were determined to await re- 
inforcements from home. At the same time they 
expected aid from the Tuscans also. Camillus, per- 
ceiving their design, and fearful of being himself 
surrounded by the enemy as he had surrounded 
them, made haste to improve his opportunity. The 
enemy's barricades were of wood, and a strong wind 

* Chap, xxvii. 

181 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

, Trvpo{36\a l rrapacrKevacrduevos Kal irepl 
rov opdpov e^ayaycov rrjv Bvva/JLiv rou? [lev aXXou? 
CKeXevae xprjaOai /SdXecri Kal Kpavyfj /ca$' erepov 
/zepo?, avros Be TOI>? TO rrvp afyrjcreiv yu,eXXoz>Ta9 
e(ov oOev elot)0ei /judXtcrra TrpodTTiTrreiv 6 a^e/io? 
W xdpatci TWV TToXeyLttcoi* ave^eve rrjv wpav. eVel 
avve<TTa)crr]<; TT}? /za^?;? o re r/X^o? avrjeu Kal TO 
\afj/rrpov e^eTn-rrre, 



rov aaKOS a<>ova TV 



v Be Tr}? (f)\oyos ev v\r) TTVKVVJ teal 
fiacri ^uXti/ot? dvarpa<peLcrrj<; Kal KVK\W 
fjLevw, ovBev a/co? ovBe c^earripiov e^oi/T6? ot 
Aarlvoi TrapeaKevaiT/jievov, &>? 7rX?}pe9 ^ r/S?; TO 
arparoTreSov vrvpos, eV o\i>yov crv<TT6\\6jJLvoi, 

TOTTOV 



irpo rov %paKos TOI? 
rovrwv 



Be Kara\L(f)0evTa<; ev TO* crrparoTreSfo 
Bie(f)@eipe TO TrOp, fte^yot ou KcnacrfiecravTes ol 

tot Ta xprj/jtara Bo'ipTraaav. 
XXX V. TeyovoTwv Be rovrayv a7ro\i7ra)V efrl rov 



TOI> viov 



rwv av6pu)Trwv Kal ^prjfjidrwv avrbs et? rrjv rwv 
7ro\e/jLLa)v eve/3a\e. Kal rrjv JLlicav&v rrokiv e 
Kal rrpoaayayo^evo^ TOU? QVO\OV(TKOV<; evdus 
rr]V crrpanai' Trpo? TO ^ovrpiov, ovrrw ra cv 
firjKora T0t9 ^ovrpivois TreTrvcrpevos, aXX* w? 
KtvBvvevov(Ti Kal 7ro\iopKov/Jievot,<> VTTO ru>v 
2 prjvwv 0orjdfj(7ai, arrev^wv. ol B' erv^ov ijBr) rrjv 
fjiev TroXti/ TO?? TToXeyutot? TrapaBeBwKores, avrol 

vvpo&6\a conjecture of Sintenis 2 ; irvph vo\\k MSS., 
Sintenis J , and edd. 

182 



CAMILLUS, xxxiv. 4-xxxv. a 

blew down from the mountains at sun-rise. Accord- 
ingly, he equipped himself with fiery darts, and 
leading his forces out towards day-break, ordered 
part of them to attack with missiles and loud cries 
at an opposite point, while he himself, with those 
appointed to hurl fire, took his post where the wind 
was wont to smite the enemy's trenches with the 
greatest force, and awaited the propitious moment. 
When battle had been joined and the sun rose and 
the wind burst forth with fury, he gave orders for an 
onset, and scattered no end of fiery darts along the 
trenches. The flames speedily found food in the 
crowded timbers of the wooden palisades and spread 
in all directions. The Latins had nothing at hand 
with whicSi to ward off or quench them, and when at 
length their camp was full of fire, they were huddled 
together into a small space, and at last forced to 
dash out against an enemy who were drawn up in 
full battle array in front of the trenches. Few of 
them made their escape, and those who were left 
behind in the camp were all a prey to the fire until 
the Romans put it out and fell upon their booty. 

XXXV. This business dispatched, he left his son 
Lucius in command of the camp to guard the captives 
and the booty, while he himself invaded the enemy's 
country. He captured the city of the Aequians, 
brought the Volscians to terms, and straightway led 
his army towards Sutrium. He was not yet apprised 
of the fate of the Sutrians, but thought they were 
still in peril of siege by the Tuscans, and so hastened 
to relieve them. But they had already surrendered 
their city to the enemy, and been sent off in utter 



VOL. ii. Q 183 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrdvTcov erSeet? eV //iartot? fiovov o 

^ o$ov OVTL TO) Ka/ztXXw fjuera iraL^wv KOI 
irrivTwv 6&up6/jLevoi ra? eavrwv ru^a?. 
o Se Ka/uXXo? avros re 7rpo<? T^ o-v/rti/ 7rtK\a- 
l TOU? 'Pw/xatof 5 opw^ e/t^uo/ze^coi/ avrois 
^ovTpivwv BarcpvovTas Kal &vaavacr')(TovvTas 
eirl TO?? yeyevrifjuevois, eyvw /JLIJ TroieiaOai, TT}? 
3 TiLiwpias avaftoXrjV, a\X* ev0v<? a<yeiv TTI TO 
"Zovrpiov Ifcetvrjs rr)? fipepas, Xoyt^o/iez/o? dvdpw- 
TTOI/? ev&aifJLOva KOI TrXovaiav 7r6\LV aprt, 
^>OTa? /cat /jnfieva TWV f jro\ep,Lwv 
ev avrfi /jLrjSe irpocr^e-^o^vov^ e^wOev, e/c\e\vfjbe- 
vov$ iravTaTracri Kal a^>uXaTou? evprjaeiv opOws 
\oyia a /xez/o?. ov *ya/3 povov rrjv %copav e\a6e 
Bie\0(ov, aXXa Kal Trpbs rat? TruXou? yevo/jievos Kal 
ra Tei^r) /caraXa/Scoz/' e'^uXaTre 70/3 ovbeis, aXX' 



ez> oit'ft) ycal GVVOVGICLIS r)crav eV/teSacr/zez/Ofc Kara 
4 ra? olic'ias. 7rel Be rjcrOovro TOL/? 7roXe//,tof5 
Kparovvras rjSr;, oura) BtKivro fjLO^Or^pS)^ VTTO 
7T\rj(T/jLOvr}^ Kal fji0r)s, 0)9 
6p/jLrj(7ai TroXXou?, aXX' eV ra?? 



aurou? rot? TroXe^ttot?. 

vwv TroKiv r)fj,pa fjiia St<? aXoucrai' OUTW crvve 
Kal roi'5 e^o^ra? aTro/SaXeti/, ai TOU? dcfryprj/jLe- 
vovs tnro\a(B.lv Bia Ka/iiXXoi'. 

XXXVI. 'O 8* aTro TOVTCOV OpiafJiftos avrut 
OVK eXarroz/a /cat Koa^o 
Sveiv. Kal jap TOU? Trdvv 



184 



CAMILLUS, xxxv. 2-xxxvi. i 

destitution, with nothing but the clothes on their 
backs. As Camillus came marching along they met 
him, with tneir wives and children, all lamenting 
their misfortunes. Camillus himself was filled with 
compassion at the sight, and noticed that his Romans 
too, with the Sutrians hanging upon their necks hi 
supplication, were moved to tears and anger at their 
lot. He therefore determined to make no postpone- 
ment of his vengeance, but to march straight upon 
Sutrium that very day. He reasoned that men who 
had just taken a prosperous and opulent city, leaving 
none of their enemies in it, and expecting none from 
without, would be found wholly relaxed in discipline 
and off their guard : and he reasoned correctly. He 
not only passed unnoticed through the city's territory, 
but was actually at its gates and in command of its 
walls before the enemy knew it. For not a man of 
them was on guard, but they were all scattered among 
the houses of the city drinking and feasting. And 
even when they perceived that their enemies already 
had the mastery, they were so sluggishly disposed 
by reason of satiety and drunkenness that many did 
not so much as try to flee, but awaited there in the 
houses the most shameful of all deaths, or gave 
themselves up to their enemies. The city of Sutrium 
was thus twice captured in a single day, and it came 
to pass that those who had won it, lost it, and those 
who had first lost it, won it back, and all by reason 
of Camillus. 

XXXVI. The triumph decreed him for these 
victories brought him no less favour and renown than 
his first two had done, and those citizens who had 
been most envious of him and preferred to ascribe 
all his successes to an unbounded good fortune rather 

185 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rivl fjid\\ov T) $>i dperrjv KaTWpOwcrOat,, 
r]]'dyKa^ov at Trpa^et? T/} SeivoTrjTi Kal TO> Spa- 
2 (TTripiw TOV dv^pbs aTroSiSovai, Tr)V So^av. r)v Se 



TWV ia/jaojieixov avr Kal 



Ma/j/co<? MaXXto?, 6 
TOJ)? KeXrou? CLTTO TI]<$ aicpas ore 
VVKTOS l eTreOevro Kal SiA TOVTO 



<yap 

TO? eli/ai TOJZ/ TToXtrwu ^at /u-); Swd/jievos rov 
KttyiuXXoi' aTTo TOU (3e\ricrTov rpoTrov rfj 
3 7rape\0eii', inroOeaLV TVpavvi^os cVot^Varo KOH^V 148 
l crvvrjOr}, S^/jbaywyctyv rovs TroXXou?, 



CTTL TOU? SaveicrTds, TOU? 8' afyaipov- 
rat icw\vwv ciyeaOai TT/OO? TOZ/ VO/JLOV, 
ware TroXXoi;? rwz> d'tropwv ra^u irepl avrov 



TToXtrwi/ pacrvvofMevovs 

4 Tapdrrovras rrjv djopdv. eVe/ ^t' Karao-r 
7rl ravra SiKTarcop Kowz^ro? KaTTiTwXi^o? et? 
r^f elpKTTjv eW/SaXe TOI^ MaXXtov, o 8e Stjfjios 
<yevofjii>ov TOVTOV yu-ere/SaXe T?)^ ecrOrjra, Trpdjaa 
ryivbfievov ejrl a v {up opals /ieyaXaj? ral Brj/uocriais, 
SetVacra TCW Oopvftov f) cruyKXrjros eK&\evcrev 

TOV MaXXtoz^. o 6' ovBev rjv d 
, dXXa ao/Sapcorepov eSij/naywyet, 

Trokir. alpovvrai &rj 
rov KayiuXXoz/. 

tcrayo/zeVwi^ 8e TCOZ> Kara TOV MaXXtou 
/jLeydXa rou? Karriyopovs ejB\a7TTev rj 
6 7ap TOTro?, e'(^)' ot/ y8e/9?;/ccb? o MaXXto? 

1 vu/crbj with S : 5ia 

1 86 



CAMILLUS, xxxvi. 1-5 

than to a native valour, were forced by these new 
exploits to set the man's glory to the credit of his 
ability and energy. Now of all those who fought 
him with hatred and envy, the most conspicuous was 
Marcus Manlius, the man who first thrust the Gauls 
down the cliff when they made their night attack 
upon the Capitol, arid for this reason had been sur- 
named Capitolinus. This man aspired to be chief in 
the city, and since he could not in the fairest way 
outstrip Camillus in the race for glory, he had 
recourse to the wonted and usual arts of those that 
would found a tyranny. He courted, that is, the 
favour of the multitude, especially of the debtor 
class, defending some and pleading their causes 
against their creditors ; snatching others from arrest 
and preventing their trial by process of law. In 
this way great numbers of indigent folk soon formed 
a party about him, and their bold and riotous conduct 
in the forum gave the best citizens much to fear. 
To quell their disorder, Quintus Capitolinus was 
made dictator, and he cast Manlius into prison. 
Thereupon the people put on the garb of mourners, 
a thing done only in times of great public calamity, 
and the Senate, cowed by the tumult, ordered that 
Manlius be released. He, however, when released, 
did not mend his ways, but grew more defiantly 
seditious, and filled the whole city with faction. 
Accordingly, Camillus was again made military 
tribune. 

When Manlius was brought to trial, the view from 
the place was a great obstacle in the way of his 
accusers. For the spot where Manlius had stood 



187 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TT/^O? TOU? KeXrou?, v 



TT}? yopas a7ro rov KaTrtrwXtou /cat 

OLKTOV T04? 6pW(7lV O.UTO? T Ta 

KL(T KCLl Ba/CpVOJV V7T/JiL^iV7J(TK TWV 



dyayvcov, WGT6 TOU? Kpivovras diropeiv Kal TTO\- 
dva(Sd\\ea6ai rr}V Bi/crjv, ^T;T' d<f)ivai 



7rl re/cLtotot? aveols TO 



crOai rw I'oLtft) ^tvvaevov^ ev 



^prjcra 

6 /i/ot? Tr}? Trpa^ect)? oixirj^ 8ia TOI* TOTTOZ/. 
crv/ J i<ppovi]cra<f 6 Ka/uXXo? /juerrfyayev e% 
TO BiKaar^ptov els TO YleT7j\ivov a\<ro<$' oOev ovtc 
6Wo? roO KaTTirwXtou Kara(f)ai>ov<$ o re BLCOKCOV 
TT} KaTTjyopia /cat rot? Kpivovcri, Trape- 
t} ^vr]^ TWV yeyovoTwv d^iav dva\a- 

7TL T0t9 7TapOVO~lV d&LKrjfJLCLGLV. 

MaXXto? aXou? a? TO KaTTtTcoXto^ 
Kal Ka-ra T^? 7reT/oa? axr^e/? TOV OLVTOV 
TOTTOV ecr^e /cat TWV evTV^ea'TaTcov epycov Kal 



o 



oiKiav CLVTOV KaTaa-Kd^lravTes lepov 

Mo^Tai^ Ka\ovai, /cal TO \OLTTOV 
/j,r)8eva T&V iraTpLKtwv eirl TT)<; 

KCITOI/CIV. 

XXXVII. C O Be Ka/xfXXo? eirl 
jv /ca\ovfjivos TraprjTeiTO, yeyovcbs pev f)\iifia<s 
Trpoaca teal TTOV TIVCL Kal $>0bvov SeS/co? xai 

eVt 0^77 Tocravry /cal 
TI Be (j)avepa)TaTrj TWV OITLMV rjv dppwGTKi 
TO?* eTvy)(av yap vocrwv irepl Ta? r]/jLepa<f e/eeivas. 
2 ou fjirfv Tiaprj/cev avTfp Trjv u.px>l v 

1 cra\a#e?7- with S : 
1 88 



CAMILLUS, xxxvi. 5-xxxvn. 2 

when he fought his night battle with the Gauls, 
overlooked the forum from the Capitol, and moved 
the hearts of the spectators to pity. Manlius himself, 
too, stretched out his hands toward the spot, and 
wept as he called to men's remembrance his famous 
struggle there, so that the judges knew not what to 
do, and once and again postponed the case. They 
were unwilling to acquit the prisoner of his crime 
when the proofs of it were so plain ; and they were 
unable to execute the law upon him when, owing to 
the place of trial, his saving exploit was, so to speak, 
in every eye. So Camillus, sensible of all this, trans- 
ferred the court outside the city to the Peteline 
Grove, whence there is no view of the Capitol. 
There the prosecutor made his indictment, and the 
judges were able to forget the man's past services in 
their righteous anger at his present crimes. So then 
Manlius was convicted, carried to the Capitol, and 
thrust down the rock, thus making one and the same 
spot a monument of his most fortunate actions and 
of his greatest misfortunes. The Romans, besides, 
razed his house to the ground, and built there a 
temple to the goddess they call Moneta. They 
decreed also that in future no patrician should ever 
have a house on the Capitoline hill. 

XXXVII. Camillus, called now to be military tri- 
bune for the sixth time, declined the honour, being 
already well on in years, and fearful perhaps of the 
envy of men and the resentment of the gods which 
often follows upon such glorious successes as his. 
But the most manifest reason was his bodily weak- 
ness, for it chanced that in those days he was sick. 
The people, however, would not relieve him of the 



189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



nnrevovros avrov /xr;re 
cv rot? djwai oelaOai, ^ov\Gvo/j,evov Be /JLOVOV /cal 
TTpocTTaTTOVTOS, rjvdy/cacrev VTroffTfjvai rr)V arpa- 
Trjyiav /cal //,$' e^o? TO>Z> avvap^ovTwv AevKiov 
<&ovpiov TOV (rrparbv ayeiv evOvs eVt TOU? 
TroXe/uou?. OVTOI S* rfcrav TlpaivecrTivoi, /cal 
Ovo\ovorffOt /JL6TCI TroXXr}? Sf^a/xew? ir^v av/ji/jLa- 
3 %t^a TW^ 'Pay/iiaiwv iropOovvres. e%e\6wv Be 
/cal TrapacrTpaTOTreSevaas rot? TroXeyittot? auro? 
iov rpifteiv TOV 7ro\/jiOi> xpova), KCLV el 
Beijcreie pcocra? TO crWyLta 
Aev/ciov Be TOV avvapyovTos 



TT/JO? roz/ KLi'Svvov aKaTaa^eTW^ KOI 



ffvvei;opfj.wvTo<; ayua 

T(VI &OKTJ /caropOwfjia /cal 
vewv dvBp&v 



a/co)V KiV(p TrapaTa^ai TTJV Bvvajjitv, ai>TO<; Be 



Bia Trjv acrOeveiav V7re\i(j)0ij ytier' o\iy(ov ev T& 
4 (TTpaTOTreBa). TOV Be Aev/ciov Tr/ooTTtTw? ^prjaa- 
TTJ lAa^rj /cal a<pa\evTOS, alaOofjievo^ TTJV 
TCOV *Pa>/jiat(i)v ov /caTecr^ev avTov, d\\ J 



K T?? <7TiaSo? ctTTijura /zera TCOV 
orraBwv eVt ra? TruXa? TOV %dpa/cos, Bia TWV cfrev- 

a)6ovfjLevo<$ et? TOW? BictJKOvTas, wcrTe TOU? 

vs dvaGTpefyeiv /cal a-vvaKo\ov6eli>, TOU? 
Be TTpocr(j)6pojjLevov$ e^coPev i(TTacr0ai irpo ainov 
/cal avvavTri^eiv, TrapeyyvwvTas aXX/y'Xoi? //.^ 

5 d7TO\6L7r(T0aL TOV (TTpaTiyyOV. TOTS fJLV OVV 

OI/TW? aTrerpaTrovTO TT}? Stcofea)? ot 
8' uo-Tepaia Trpoajaya^v TIJV ^vvayav 6 

190 



CAMILLUS, xxxvn. 2-5 

office. He had no need, they cried, to fight in the 
ranks of the cavalry or the men-at-arms, but only to 
counsel and ordain ; and so they forced him to 
undertake the command, and with one of his 
colleagues, Lucius Furius, to lead the army at once 
against the enemy. These were the Praenestines 
and Volscians, who, with a large force, were laying 
waste the lands of the Roman allies. Marching 
forth, therefore, and encamping near the enemy, he 
himself thought it best to protract the war, that so, 
in case a battle should at last be necessary, he might 
be strong of body for the decisive struggle. But 
Lucius, his colleague, carried away by his desire for 
glory, would not be checked in his ardour for battle, 
and incited the same feelings in the inferior officers 
of the army. So Camillus, fearing lest it be thought 
that out of petty jealousy he was trying to rob 
younger men of the successes to which they eagerly 
aspired, consented, with reluctance, that Lucius 
should lead the forces out to battle, while he himself, 
on account of his sickness, was left behind in the 
camp with a few followers. Lucius conducted the 
battle rashly and was discomfited, whereupon 
Camillus, perceiving the rout of the Romans, could 
not restrain himself, but sprang up from his couch 
and ran with his attendants to the gate of the camp. 
Through the fugitives he pushed his way to their 
pursuers. Those of his men who had passed him 
into the camp, wheeled about at once and followed 
him, and those who came bearing down on him from 
outside, halted and formed their lines about him, 
exhorting one another not to abandon their general. 
In this way, for that day, the enemy were turned 
back from their pursuit. On the next day, Camillus 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

teal crvvdifras f^d^rjv aurou? re vitea tcard, tcpdros 
teal rov %dpatea \a/ji/3dvei, avvziGrfza-wv rot? 
(peuyovGi Kal BiacfiOeipas rou? rrKelcrrovs. IK Be 

rOVTOV TTvQo/JLeVOS TToX-LV ^dTpLdV V7TO T 'v p f)J] L> >M V 



KOI TOU? 



airavTas 6Wa?, r^v ptv TTO\\>]V KOI 
ftapeiav T/}? Sfm/teco? et? 'Pcojjirjv d7re<JT6i\ev, 
auro? Be TOU? aK^a^ovTa^ //-aXt<rra teal Tr 
rdrovs dvakafitov eVe/JaXe rotv rr;^ TTO\LV e 
Tvpprjvois teal icpaTrjcras TOU? fjbev e 
avrwv, TOU? Be dTre/creivev. 

XXXVIII. 'EtTraveXOutv Be /iera 7ro\\wv \a<f>v- 
paiv et? r P(i)jLir)v eVedei^e (fypoi'L/j,(.ordrov<f arrdvrwv 
/zr; (froftrjOevTas daOevetav teal 7r)pa? 7776- 
ej^Treipiav teal ro\/j.av e^ovTOf, aXX' eXo- 
eiceivov atcovra KOI voaovvra yu-aXXo^ ?'} TWV 
ev r)\tKia rou? Beo/jLevovs KOI (nrovBd^ovra^ 
ap%6iv. oib teal Tov(TK\ai>(t)V d^eardvai \eyo- 
fAevwv e/ce\evov eleven TOP Ka/iiXXo^ eV avrovs 

2 eva rwv irevre avcnpa'Trjywv r jTpoae\oi~ievov. o Be, 
Kairrep inravTWV /3ov\o/jiv(ov teal BeojAevcov, eacra? 
TOV? aXXoi"?, TrpoaeiXero Aev/ciov Qovptov ovBevbs 
av TrpoaBofcrjaavTOs. etcelvos yap TJV o Trapa 
<yvc*)/jLrjv TOV Ka/u'XXoL' BtaywvicraafiaL Trpodv- 
fjw)0el<} evayxos KOL Buarvxija'as irepl rrjv fjbd'fflv' 
aXXa (BovXofJievos, 009 eoi/cev, aTrotcpv^at TTJV 
<rvfj.(f)opav KOI rrjv alcr^vvrjv aTraXXa^ai rov 

3 dvBpbs dvrl rt avrwv rovrov Trporjyev. ol Be Tou- 
<TK.\avol rrjv apapriav eTravopOov/jievoi, Travovp- 
70)?, rjBrj /SaSi^or/TO? GTT avrous rov KayLttXXof TO 
/jiev TreBiov dv6 pair rov w? ev elprjvrj yewpyovvrwv 
teal vefjiovrwv eVe7rX?;cjat', ra? Be TruXa? 

192 



CAMILLUS, xxxvn. 5-xxxvin. 3 

led his forces out, joined battle with the enemy, 
defeated them utterly, and took their camp, actually 
bursting into it along with those who fled to it, and 
slaying most of them. After this, learning that the 
city of Satricum had been taken by the Tuscans, and 
its inhabitants, all Romans, put to the sword, he sent 
back to Rome the main body of his army, comprising 
the men-at-arms, while he himself, with the youngest 
and most ardent of his men, fell suddenly upon the 
Tuscans who held the city and mastered them, ex- 
pelling some and slaying the rest. 

XXXVIII. He returned with much spoil to Rome, 
having proved that those citizens were the most 
sensible of all who did not fear the bodily age and 
weakness of a leader possessed of experience and 
courage, but chose him out, though he was ill and did 
not wish it, rather than younger men who craved 
and solicited the command. They showed the same 
good sense, when the Tusculans were reported to 
be on the brink of a revolt, in ordering Camillus to 
select one of his five colleagues as an aid, and march 
out against them. Although all the five wished and 
begged to be taken, Camillus passed the rest by and 
selected Lucius F'urius, to everyone's surprise. For 
he was the man who had just now been eager to 
hazard a struggle with the enemy against the judg- 
ment of Camillus, and had been worsted in the battle. 
But Camillus wished, as it would seem, to hide away 
the misfortune and wipe away the disgrace of the 
man, and so preferred him above all the rest. But 
the Tusculans, when once Camillus was on the march 
against them, set to rectifying their transgression as 
craftily as they could. The.r fields were found full 
of men tilling the soil and pasturing flocks, as in 

193 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



/cal rou? TreuSa? ev rot? SiSa<Tfca\ioi<; 
/jLavOdvovras, roO B Btfaov TO /nev (Bdvavaov eVt 
ro)v epyacrrrjpLwv eoipdro Trepl ra? re^va?, TO S' 
dcnelov eVt TT}? dyopd? ev ifiaTiois' ol 8' 
Trepirjecrav crnovbrj Kara\vcr6i$ TOLS 
eTrayyeXXovres, a><? ovSev KCLKOV 
4 oue cru^eiSoTe?. TOVTWV Se Trparro/jLeifwv iri,- 
a-TLv /jiev OVK eiryei TW Ka/itXXw T?)^ 
Se TT;J; eVt rry TTpoSocria 
e/ceXevcre Trpo? rr/z/ <TvyK\7]TOV 
TrapairelcrOat rrjv opytfv /cal 

auro? d^eOrjvai re rr)i> 7ro\iv airias 
teal //eraXa/Set^ tVoTroXtreta?. avrai 



ovv eyevovro 



XXXIX. MeTa Be ravra KIKIVVIOV Sro 
ev ry TroXet rrjv /JLeyd\Tjv arda-iv eyeipovros, rjv 6 
eVracrta^e TT/JO? rrjv crvyK\rjrov /Sta^oyue^o? 
VTrdrwv KaOicnap.evwv TOV erepov TrdvTO)*; e/c 



elvai teal 



rjpe&rja-av, rd<; 8' vTrariKas dp- 
eXeaQfjisai BiextoXvcrav ol TTO\\OL. 
2 KCLI TWV Trpay/jidrcDv 8t* dvap^ia^ (frepofjievwv e? 
Tapa%ds diro^eiKwrai BiKTarcop 6 Ka- 
/3ov\rjs aKovTi ra> 8?;/zft) TO rerap- 

TOV, OuS' atTO? WZ^ 7rp60UjjLO<? OvBe /3oV\6fJLVO<? 

evavriovaOaL irpos dvOpanrovs Trappy a lav e^o^ra? 
aTTo 7ro\\a)i> teal /neydXwv dycovcov vrpo? avrov, a)? 
ifkeiova per* avrwv 1 BiaTreTrpay/Jievo^ ev crrparrj- 
/aeT TWV TraTpLKiwv ev vroXtTetat?, /cat 

' avroav 8iair*Trpay/j.evos edd., including Sintenis 1 , and S; 
fj.fr' O.VTUV with C. 



194 



CAMILLUS, xxxvin. 3~xxxix. 2 

times of peace ; their gates lay wide open ; their boys 
were at school conning their lessons ; and of the 
people, the artizans were to be seen in their work- 
shops plying their trades, the men of leisure sauntered 
over the forum clad in their usual garb, while the 
magistrates bustled about assigning quarters for the 
Romans, as though they expected and were conscious 
of no evil. Their performances did not bring Camillus 
into any doubt of their intended treachery, but out 
of pity for the repentance that followed so close upon 
their treachery, lie ordered them to go to the Senate 
and beg for a remission of its wrath. He himself 
also helped to make their prayers effectual, so that 
their city was absolved from all charges and received 
the rights of Roman citizenship. Such were the most 
conspicuous achievements of his sixth tribuneship. 

XXXIX. After this, Licinius Stolo stirred up the 
great dissension in the city which brought the people 
into collision with the Senate. The people insisted 
that, when two consuls were appointed, one of them 
must certainly be a plebeian, and not both patricians. 
Tribunes of the people were chosen, but the multi- 
tude prevented the consular elections from being 
duly held. Owing to this lack of magistrates, matters 
were getting more and more confused, and so Camillus 
was for the fourth time appointed dictator by the 
Senate, though much against the wishes of the 
people. He was not eager for the office himself, 
nor did he wish to oppose men whose many and 
great struggles gave them the right to say boldly to 
him : " Your achievements have been in the field 
with us, rather than in politics with the patricians ; 



'95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vvv Bia (f)06vov eKeivwv yprjfjievos vrr 1 avrwv, OTTO)? 
77 Kara\,vaei6 rbv BIJ/JLOV la"%vo"a<; rj Kara\v9eLrj 

3 firj Kparrfcra^. ov p,r]V a\\a 7ret/3o>/zez/o? a^vveiv 
rot? TrapoiHTi, rr]v r)/j,epav yvov$, ev fj vo^oOeTelv 150 
ol Stf/JLapxoL Sievoovvro, Trpoeypatye arpaTia^ /ca- 
TaXoyov teal /jLTKd\ei rov ST}/AO^ e/c rf)<? ay o pas 

et? TO Tre^Lov /J-eyaXas tyi/jiias aTrei\wv KCLTO, rov 

4 firj vTraKovaavTos. TWV Be Brj/^dp^cov eiceWev av 
Trd\iv avravidTafJievwv rat? avreiXai? KOI SIO/JLVV- 
fj-evwv Trevre {JLVpiaGiv apyvplov ^///ztcocreti/, el ^ 
Travcrairo rov brfaov rov vopov afyaipovfjievois Kal 
rr)V ^ij^ov, etre Setcra? (frvyrjv erepav KOI Kara- 
olKrjv, a)9 avSpl rcpecrftvrrj KOI Kareipyacr/jLevo) 
fjieydXa pr) rrperrova-av, elre rov 8ij/j,ov rrjv /3iav 

oixrav KCLI SvcrvLrc'rjrov v7rep{Ba\ea-6ai fjurj 
jitjBe /SouXo/tez^o?, Tore fjiev vTre^a^prjo'ev 
rat? 8' e?}9 ^yue/jat? (7/c^'v^ayLte^o? ap- 
pwcrrelv l^wfjiocyaro rrjv dp%ijv. 

5 f H Be (rvyKXrjros erepov BiKrdropa fcarecrrrjo'e' 

lvos aTToSet^a? 'iirrrap-^ov avrbv rbv i]ye^6va 
crrdcrews %r6\cova irap^Kev emtcvpwcrat, rov 
rbv fj,d\iara \vrrovvra rovs rrarpitcLov<$. 
Ke\evcr6 8' OUTO? fjujBeva rr\e0pwv TrevraicocrLwv 
TrXeiova ^copav K6Krr)(70ai. rore pev ovv \afj,7rpbs 
6 SroXcof eyeyovet, rfj -v/rj/^w /cpar^cra^' b\iyw S' 
vcrepov auro? kakw /ce/cr^/zeVo? oa^v e^ei 
\vev erepovs, KOI Kara rbv avrov vb^ov 



XL. f T7ro\ef7ro/ie^9 Be TT}? rrepi rwv vrrariKwv 



, o r) ^aerru>rarov r>? 
l rr\elcrra 



196 



CAMILLUS, xxxix. 2-xu i 

it is through hate and envy that they have now made 
you dictator ; they hope that you will crush the 
people if you prevail, or be crushed yourself if you 
fail." However, he tried to ward off the threatening 
evils. Having learned the day on which the tribunes 
intended to propose their law, he issued proclamation 
making it a day of general muster, and summoned 
the people from the forum into the Campus Martius, 
with threats of heavy fines upon the disobedient. 
The tribunes, on the contrary, for their part, opposed 
his threats with solemn oaths that they would fine 
him fifty thousand silver drachmas if he did not cease 

V 

trying to rob the people of its vote and its law. 
Then, either because he feared a second condemna- 
tion to exile, a penalty unbecoming to a man of his 
years and achievements, or because he was not able, 
if he wished, to overcome the might of the people 
which was now become resistless and invincible, he 
withdrew to his house, and after alleging sickness for 
several days, resigned his office. 

But the Senate appointed another dictator, and 
he, after making Stolo himself, the very leader of the 
sedition, his master of horse, suffered the law to be 
enacted. It was a most vexatious law for the 
patrician, for it prohibited anyone from owning more 
than five hundred acres of land. At that time, 
then, Stolo was a resplendent figure, owing to his 
victory at the polls ; but a little while after, he him- 
self was found to be possessed of what he forbade 
others to own, and so paid the penalty fixed by his 
own law. 

XL. There remained, however, the strife over 
the consular elections,which was the main problem in 
the dissensions, as it was its first cause, and gave 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IT pay par a TJJ /3ov\fj Trapecrye Biafapopevrj 717)09 
TOV Bfj/jLOV, dyye\iai irpoaeirearov crac^e??, KeX- 
TOU9 avQis CLTTO T>}9 'ABpiaTiKrjs apavras 6a- 
Xacro-/79 fjuvpLacri vroXXat? eVt rrjv 'Pco/^Tjv \au- 
2 i/etz>. a/Jia Be rw \6y(o KCLI ra epya rov TroXe/zou 
Traprjv Tropdov^evr)^ r^? ^coyoa? /fal TCOV av6pa>- 
TTCDV, 6Voi? /i^ paftiov rjv et? r?)^ 'Pcoyu,^^ /cara- 
y ava ra oprj cr/ceSavvvfjievcov. OUTO? o 



KaT7rav(T6 TI-V craa-iv, KOI 



rauTO rot? TroXXofc ot KpdricrTOi real rfj (3ov\r) 
TO Brj/uLoriKov e"\ovro irdvres etc jAias 71^0)^77? St- 
3 Kraropa TO Tre/iTTTOi' Ka/AtXXo^. o 8' ^v ^tei' 
crtyoSpa yepwv KOL jjuxpov cnreXeiirev oySotf/covTa 
t-V?; yeyovevctf cvvopwv Be rrjv dvdyKTjv KOI TOV 
Kii'Bvvov, cure VTTorifjirjcriv eiTrcov, &>? irporepov, 
OVT 7rpo<pd(T6i xpvjcrdfjievos, aXX' avro9ev viro- 
o~Ta? rrjv CT parity Lav KdTeXeye TOI/? fjia%?jcro- 

Be T?)? TO>^ fBapftdpwv d\Krj$ TIJV 



rrrjv ev Ta? /za^atpai? ovcrav, a? apapiicw$ 



Kal cvv ovBe/jLLJ, 
4 /jbd\i(TTa KOI Ke$a\as BieKOTrrov, e%a\rcev(TaTo 
fj,ev xpdvr) TO?? TiXeto-TOi? oXoaiB^pa Kal Xeta Tat? 
TrepHfiepeLais, &>? ii7ro\i<j6aiveiv r) KardyvvcrOai 
Ta? ^ta^atpa?, TO?? Se Ovpeols KVK\W TrepLrjpfjLocre 
\e7riBa ^a\Krjv, TOV v\ov Ka& avro T? 7rX?;7a? 
GTeyovros' avTovs Be TOU? err par LOOT as eBi- 



TO? 

Kara<j)opd<?. 

XLI. 'Evrel Se vrX^o-toz/ rjcrav ol KeXTOt, 
'AvL&va TTorajubv a-rparoTreBov fiapv 

198 



CAMILLUS, XL. i XLI. i 

the Senate most concern in its contention with 
the people. But suddenly clear tidings came that 
the Gauls had once more set out from the Adriatic 
Sea, many myriads strong, and Avere marching on 
Rome. With the word, the actual deeds of war kept 
pace. The country was ravaged, and its population, 
all who could not more easily fly to Rome for refuge, 
scattered among the mountains. This terror put an 
end to the dissension in the city, and brought to- 
gether into conference both the rich and the poor, 
the Senate and the people. All with one mind chose 
Camillus dictator for the fifth time. He was now 
quite old, lacking little of eighty years ; but recog- 
nizing the peril and the necessity which it laid upon 
him, he neither made excuse, as before, nor resorted 
to pretext, but instantly took upon him the com- 
mand and went to levying his soldiers. 

Knowing that the prowess of the Barbarians lay 
chiefly in their swords, which they plied in true 
barbaric fashion, and with no skill at all, in mere 
slashing blows at head and shoulders, he had helmets 
forged for most of his men which were all iron and 
smooth of surface, that the enemy's swords might 
slip off from them or be shattered by them. He 
also had the long shields of his men rimmed round 
with bronze, since their wood could not of itself 
ward off the enemy's blows. The soldiers them- 
selves he trained to use their long iavelins like 

fj *t 

spears, to thrust them under the enemy's swords 
and catcli the downward strokes upon them. 

XLI. When the Gauls were near at hand, being 
encamped on the Amo and encumbered with untold 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Xe/'a9 

Bvvafjiiv iBpvae /car a VCLTCY]^ /laXa/o^? KOI crvy- 
tfXtcret? 7roXXa9 e^ova^, ware TO pev Tr\eiarrov 
aTro/cpvirreadai, TO 8' opw^evov Borcelv VTTO Beovs 
2 et? %&>pta TrpocrdvTrj /caTeiXetaOai. TavTrjv Be 
Tr)v Bo^av avT&v o Ka/ziXXo? av^eiv {BovKo/jievos 
ov Trpocn]fjLVve TWV VTTO TroBas TropOovfjLevwv, dXXa 
TOV ^dpafca (frpaJ;d/jLei>os rjpe/Aei, ftexpi ov TOU? 
/iei> eV TTyooi/Oyttat? eatceBacr/Aei'Ovs KareiBe, TOU? S' 
eV TOO crTpaTOTreBo) Tracrav wpav ep/mTrXa^evov^ 

Tore e VVKTQS 6Tt TOV<} 
e/ATroBoov elvai rot9 



69 TOIV KaiaTa^voi^ KOI 



evdv<j eVe^to^Ta?, /caT6{3i/3a%V opdpov rou? OTT- 
Xtra9 /cat iraperaTTev ev roi? eTrnreBois, TroXXoi/? 
Afat Trpo9v/jiovs, ov% wcnrep ol ftdpfiapoi Trpocre- 
BOKCOV, 0X1701/9 :al aroXyLtou? (/>a^eVra9. 
ovv TOVTO TWV KeXrw^ dverpe-^re TO, 
nrap a^iav eTr^eipetcrdaL 



TrpoaTriTrrovTes ol ^iXot /cat Trpty ?; 
(rvvy0r) \af3elv Koa^ov KCLI Sia/cptOfjvai KCLTO, 
Xo^of9 KIVOVVTZS ai)rou9 ^at {Bia^ojjLevoi TT/OO? TO 
4 avvTV^ov aTaKTOVS r/vdyfcaaav /nd^eaOat. reXo9 
5e roO Ka/>aXXou TOU? 07rXtra9 eirdyovTOs, oi 



irevBov, oi Be rot? vaaols aTrawrwvTes KOI ra 
f^eprj rat9 TrXtjyaLS virofyepovTes 
TOV eK6Lva)V criBijpov p,a\aKov OVTO, 
KOL XCTTTO)? e\r\auivov, wcrre 



KOL iTrovaat, ra? 
200 



CAMILLUS, XLI. 1-4 

plunder, Camillas led his forces out and posted them 
in a gently sloping glade with many hollows, so that 
the largest part of them were concealed, and the 
part that could be seen had the look of shutting 
themselves up in hilly places out of fear. This 
opinion of them Camillus wished to strengthen, and 
therefore made no defence of those who were 
plundered even at his very feet, but fenced in his 
trenches and lay quiet, until he saw that some of the 
enemy were scattered abroad in foraging parties, 
while those in the camp did nothing but gorge 
themselves with meat and drink Then, while it 
was yet night, he sent his light-armed troops for- 
ward to hinder the Barbarians from falling into 
battle-array and throw them into confusion as they 
issued from their camp. Just before dawn, he led 
his men-at-arms down into the plain and drew them 
up in battle-array, many in number and full of spirit, 
as the Barbarians now saw, not few and timid, 
as they had expected. To begin with, it was this 
which shattered the confidence of the Gauls, who 
thought it beneath them to be attacked first. Then 
again, the light-armed folk fell upon them, forced 
them into action before they had taken their usual 
order and been arrayed in companies, and so com- 
pelled them to fight at random and in utter disorder. 
Finally, when Camillus led his men-at-arms to the 
attack, the enemy raised their swords on high and 
rushed for close quarters. But the Romans thrust 
their javelins into their faces, received their strokes 
on the parts that were shielded by iron, and so turned 
the edge of their metal, which was soft and weakly 
tempered, so much so that their swords quickly bent 
up double, while their shields were pierced and 

201 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

L KOI (BapvvecrOat, rwv vcrcrwv e 
5 KOfJLevwv. Bio teal ^Qi(JTa^voi TWV IBiwv OTT\COV 
eTreipwvro rot? e/ceivwv ava-rpe^ecrdaf, /col roi/? 



vacrovs 



ol Be 'Pwfjialoi yv/jbvovjjiei'ovs l opwvres r^Brj rot? 



KOI <)vos JLCV rv TTOU<; rcoi> 



rj Be r&v a\\wv Travra^ocre rov 
yap \6<pov<? KOI ra ui|r^Xa 7rpoKO,T- 
L\r)([)i, Ka^LtiXXo?, TO Be crrparoTreBov Bia rb 
Oapaelv a(>paKTOv e%o^re? ySecrav ov 



6 Tavrrjv rrjv i^oL^rfv erecriv vcrrepov rpta-KaiBe/ca 
\eyovcri T>)? 'Poo/jays aXcouew?, KOI /3e- 
avrrjs fypovrjfjia Kara rwv KeXrw^ eyye- 
'Pw/xa/ot? cr<b6Bpa BeBoiKo&i, rou? fiap- 
fiapovs, a>? TO TrpcoTOV Bio, voaovs KOI 
TrapaXoyovs, ov Kara Kpdros, VTT* avrwv 

OVTCO ' ovi> 6 <o/3o? rjv Icr%vp6<?, ware 
vopov d^elcrOaL TOU? lepeis crrpareLas 
av (Jir) TaXaTitcbs y TroXe^ao?. 
XLII. TWV fjiev ovv crrpaTiwrncwv dywvcov 
OLTO? riymvia-Or) ra) Ka/ztXXa) TeXeuraiO?. rrjv 
yap Qve\npavwv TroXiz' ei\ev ev irapepyco 
rr)? a-rpareias d/jua^el Trpoa-^copijcracrav 

TO)V Be '7TO\LTLK(OV 6 fJieyiCTTOS UTTeXetTTeTO 

^aXeTTcorepo? 2 Trpo? TOZ> Bfjaov la^vpbv e 
tcovra rfi vlicy Kal ffia^oaevov etc BIJJJLOTWV virarov 
l^ai irapa rov KaOearwra vofJiov, dvn 
TT}? /3oi'X?79 Kal rbv Ka/^^XXoz^ OVK 






with S : yv/j.vous. 

x a ^ fir ^ > ' re P os Sintenis 1 , now supported by S: 
re pas. 



202 



CAMILLUS, XLI. 4-xLii. i 

weighed down by the javelins whicli stuck in them, 
Therefore they actually abandoned their own weapons 
and tried to possess themselves of those of their 
enemies, and to turn aside the javelins by grasping 
them in their hands. But the Romans, seeing them 
thus disarmed, at once took to using their swords, 
and there was a great slaughter of their foremost 
ranks, while the rest fled every whither over the 
plain ; the hill tops and high places had been occu- 
pied beforehand by Camillus, and they knew that 
their camp could easily be taken, since, in their 
overweening confidence, they had neglected to 
fortify it. 

This battle, they say, was fought thirteen years 
after the capture of Rome, and produced in the 
Romans a firm feeling of confidence regarding the 
Gauls. They had mightily feared these Barbarians, 
who had been conquered by them in the first instance, 
as they felt, in consequence of sickness and extra- 
ordinary misfortunes, rather than of any prowess in 
their conquerors. At any rate, so great had their 
terror been that they made a law exempting priests 
from military service, except in case of a Gallic war. 

XLI I. This was the last military exploit performed 
by Camillus, for the capture of Velitrae was a direct 
sequel of this campaign, and it yielded to him with- 
out a struggle. But the greatest of his civil contests 
yet remained and it was harder to wage it now against 
a people which had come back flushed with victory, 
and bent on electing a plebeian consul, contrary to 
the established law. But the Senate opposed their 
demands, arid would not suffer Camillus to lay aside 



203 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



airodecrOai rrjv dpxtfv, &>? /JLT Icr^vpa^ KOI 

fieydX.qs eovcrlas TJ}? eiceivov /jLa-)(rjcro/j,eva)V dv 

2 fie\Tiov virep TT)? apMTTO/cparias. eVet Be 

TOV Ka/uX,A,ou real 



eirl TT?? dyopds V7rr]perrj<; Tre/u^^ei? irapa rwv 



a,KO\ovOelv KOI 

r&> GcojjiaTi TTpoariyev o>? aird^wv, Kpavyrj Be teal 
06pv/3os, olo? OVTTCO, Ka,Tea")(6 T)]v dyopdv, TCOV 

7Tpl TOV K.dfJ,L\\OV O)00VVT(i)V ttTTO TOU 

ro? TOI' Srj/jiocriov, TCOV Be Tro\\a)v /cdrcoOev 
e\Keiv 7riKe\ev(>/jLvwv, diropov/jievos rot? TTCL- 
povcn Tr)V fiev (ipx^] v v irpo^KaTo, TOU? Be /3oy- 
Xeura? dva\a/3a>v eftdBi^ev eVt TTJV dvjKXrjrov. 
3 KCU irplv ela-e\0elv /J,eracrTpa$>el? et? TO Kcnri- 
Too\i>oi> ev^aro rot? Oeols KarevOvvai ra irapovra 

7T/50? TO Ka\\LGTOV TeXo?, L'7TOCT^O / uei'O9 VdQV 

iBpixraaQai rfjs rapa^rj^ Karacrrdcnj^ t 
MeyaXou B* dywvos ev TTJ <rvyK\r)TO) yevo- 
TT^OO? Ta? evavTias yvut^a^, 0/^0)9 evLicrfaev 
fcal VTreiKOvcra ra> BtMM xal 



BiBovaa TWV virdrwv rov erepov UTTO TOV TT\IJ- 

4 6(iv<s apxaipecridcrai. TavTa 8' &)? T$ /3ov\fj 
BoKovvra TOU biKraTOpos dveiirovTos ev TO> BijfMro, 
Trapa^pri^a pev, oloi> etVo?, r)B6jj,evoi Trj /3ov\fj 

Bl,r)\XdTTOVTO KOL TOV Kd[jLL\\OV OlKdBe KpOTW 

Kal /3of) TrpoeTrei-LTrov. T-TJ 8' vcrTepaia avve\- 
6ovT<; e^ri^icravTO TT}? fjiev f Oyu,o^ot'a? iepov, 
cbcrTrep ev^aTO Kd/jLi\\o<$, et? Trjv dyopdv Kal Trjv 
eKK\rjcriav CLTTOTTTOV eVt Tot? yeyevr^evoi^ iBpv- 

5 ffacrOai, Tat? Be /faXouaez^at? AaTtVat? fjiiav 
rjfjiepav 7rpoa0evTa$ eoprd^eiv TeTTapa<$ t irapav- 152 

204 



CAMILLUS, XLII. 1-5 

his office, thinking that, with the aid of his great 
power and authority, they could make a better fight 
in defence of their aristocracy. But once when 
Camillus was seated in state and despatching public 
business in the forum, an officer, sent by the tribunes 
of the people, ordered him to follow, actually lay- 
ing hands upon him as though to hale him away. 
All at once such cries and tumult as had never 
been heard before filled the forum, the friends of 
Camillus thrusting the plebeian officer down from the 
tribunal, and the multitude below ordering him to 
drag the dictator away. Camillus, perplexed at the 
issue, did not renounce his office, but taking the 
senators with him, marched off to their place of 
meeting. Before he entered this, turning to the 
Capitol, he prayed the gods to bring the present 
tumults to their happiest end, solemnly vowing to 
build a temple to Concord when the confusion was 
over. 

In the Senate there was a great conflict of opposing 
views, but nevertheless, the milder course prevailed, 
concession was made to the people, and permission 
given them to elect one of the consuls from their 
own body. When the dictator announced this to 
the people as the will and pleasure of the Senate, at 
once, as was to be expected, they were delighted to 
be reconciled with the Senate, and escorted Camillus 
to his home with loud applause. On the following 
day they held an assembly and voted to build a 
temple of Concord, as Camillus had vowed, and to 
have it face the forum and place of assembly, 
to commemorate what had now happened. They 
voted also to add a day to the so-called Latin festival, 
and thereafter to celebrate four days, and that all 

205 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se 0u6iv KOI crre^avij^opeiv 

T&V 8' dp-^aipeaicov 
VTTO Ka/uXXof KareardOricrav VTraroi Ma/)/<:o? 
jj,ev At/itX/o9 ex TraTpiKLwv, Aevtcios Se Se^rio? 
CK &yi/jLOT(ov TrpcoTO?. /cat TOUTO Tre/ja? at Ka- 
IJLI\\OV 7rpd;6is ea")ov. 

XLIII. 'Kl^ ^6 TO) KCLTOTTIV IviCLVTti) 

vocros /jL7re<rovcra rfj 'Pay/Ap rov /JLCV d\\ov 
ov 7repi\r)7TTbv dpiQjjLU) Sie(f)0ip, rwv 
TOL/? TrXetfTTou?. 'ETeXe^T>?<Te Be KOI 



ovve/ca /cal LOV reXeiorrTGS, &>? el 



aXXo? dv9pMTT(i)v wpaios, dvidaas Se 
fiaiov<} <w? oz;Se crv/jbTravres ol Trj voaq* KCLT* 
exeivov TOV ^povov 



206 



CAMILLUS, XLII. 5~xun. i 

Romans at once perform sacrifices with garlands on 
their heads. At the elections held by Camillas, 
Marcus Aemilius was chosen consul from the 
patricians, and Lucius Sextus first consul from the 
plebeians. This was the last public act of Camillus. 
XLIII. In the year following, a pestilential sick- 
ness visited Rome, carry ing off an incalculable number 
of the common people, and most of the magistrates. 
Camillus also died at this time, and he was full ripe 
for death, if any man ever was, considering his years 
and the completeness of his life ; yet his loss grieved 
the Romans more than that of all those who perished 
of the plague at this time. 



207 



ARISTIDES 



API2TEIAH2 



6 



?, rwv Be Bij/j,(ov 'AXwTreKrjQev. 
avrov \oyou Bidcfropoi <yy6va(Tiv, ol 
ft><? ev Trevia GVVTOVU> KaTa$iu>GavTQ<s KOI fjuera 
rrjv reKewrrjV aTroXiTro^ro? Ovyarepas Svo TTO\VV 
2 %povov ai/e/cSoTou? &i aTropcav ryevofjievas' Trpo? 
oe TOVTOV rov \o<yov inro TroXXcov elprjf^evov dvri- 
racro'o/iez'O? o ^aX^peu? A7//ir/T/5to? ev rco Sw/c- 
pdret, *XU>PLOV < &a\.rjpoi ^trfcn jLvcocrKeiv 'ApicrreiSov 
ryvo/j,evov, ev w redaTrrat, KOI reK^pLa r/}? 



TOV OLKOV eviropias ev pev rjyeiTai TTJV 

r)v rjpxev 6 1 Tft) icvdfjiw \a 
TWV ra /^ejtara n/jL^aTa /ceKTij/jievayv, ov<$ 



Trpoa-Tjjopevov, erepov Be TOV 
ov&evl <yap rwv Trevrfrwv, d\\a 
rot? e^ OLKWV re fjL6yd\(ov /cal BLO, yez'Of? oyfcov 
eirufcOovwv ocrrpciKov eTTifyepea-Oai- rpuiov Be KOI 
re\vralov : OTL viKrjs dvadrj/jLara 

ev &LOVIHTOV KaTaXe^onrev, ol /cal 



f & Blass, adopting Sintenis' conjecture : 
2IO 



ARISTIDES 



I. ARTSTIDES, the son of Lysimachus, belonged 
to the tribe Antiochis, and to the deme Alopece. 
As regards his substance, stories differ, some having 
it that he passed all the days of his life in severe 
poverty, and that at his death he left behind 
him two daughters who for a long time were 
not sought in marriage because of their indigence. 
But in contradiction of this story which so many 
writers give, Demetrius of Phalerum, in his 
"Socrates," says he knows of an estate in Phalerum 
which belonged to Aristides the one in which he 
lies buried, and regards as proofs of his opulent 
circumstances, first, his office of Archon Epom/mous, 
which only he could hold who obtained it by lot from 
among the families carrying the highest property- 
assessments (these were called Pentacosiomedimni, or 
Five-hundred-bushellers) ; second, his banishment in 
ostracism, for no poor men, but only men from 
great houses which incurred envy because of 
their family prestige, were liable to ostracism ; 
third, and last, the fact that he left in the 
precinct of Dionysus as offerings for victory some 
choregic tripods, which, even in our day, were pointed 
out as still bearing the inscription : " The tribe 



211 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



evtfca, 



Tour! /lev ovv, KaiTrep elvai SOKOVV 
daOevecTTaTov effTi. /ecu yap 'Ei7ra/jt,iva)vBa<;, ov 
avdpwjrot, yivcoo-Kovcriv ev Trevla KOL rpa- 
o\\fj KOL (3ia>cravTa, /cal TlXdrwv 6 <pi\6- 
cro(o? OVK a$>i\OTi[JLOvs dveSe^avro ^oprjjia^;, 6 
/j,ev avkrjTals dvSpdaiv, 6 Be Traicrl KVK\IOIS 
Xoprjyrjcras, rovrw pev Atwi/o? rov Sf pax over iov 
rr)V SaTrdinjv Trapexovros, 'QTrajAewtovS 

5 irepl He\07ri$av. ov yap ecrn rot? 

dfCrjpVKTOS KOL aCTTTOIvSo? 7T/JO? Ttt? TTapa 

(frfawv Swpea? TroXe/zo?, aXXa ra? et? 

KOI Tr\eove%iav dyevveis ^yovfievoi teal raTreivds, 319 

oaai ^>L\oTifJiLa^ rtz^o? aKep^ovs e^ovrai /cal Xa/t- 

7T/30T7;TO? OVK aTTtoQoVVTai. 

TTafamo? /JLCVTOI Trepl rov rpLTroSos aTrofyalvei, 

6 TOV Aij/jiiJTpLov o/LLcovv/jLia Sityev(T/jLevov' UTTO yap 

TWV M^8t^WI/ 6/5 Tr]V T\VTr]V TOV 

(Tiafcov 7ro\eiJLOV Svo povovs 'A^crretSa? 

ai VLKwvras, (bv ovBerepov eivai 
TOV avrov, d\\a TOV fjbev E,VO(j)i,\ov 
o?, roz^ Be j^povw 7roXA.ro veutTepov, a>? eXey- 
TO, ypd/JL/JiaTa Tr}? /iter' ^vfcXeiBijv 6Wa ypafj,- 

KOI Trpoa-yeypa/jL/iievos 6 
ov ev rot? M^St/co?? ouSet?, eV 5e TO?? 

SiBd<7Ka\ov dvaypd- 



7 To /j,ev ovv TOV HavaiTiou /jf.\Tiov e 



212 



ARISTIDES, i. 3-7 

Antiochis was victorious ; Aristides was Choregus ; 
Archestratus was Poet." 

Now this last argument, though it seems very 
strong, is really very weak. For both Kpaminondas, 
who, as all men know, was reared and always lived 
in great poverty, and Plato the philosopher, took 
it upon themselves to furnish munificent public 
performances, the first, of men trained to play 
the flute, the second, of boys trained to sing and 
dance ; but Plato received the money that he spent 
thereon from Dion of Syracuse, and Epaminondas 
from Pelopidas. Good men wage no savage and 
relentless war against the gifts of friends, but 
while they look upon gifts taken to be stored 
away and increase the receiver's wealth as ignoble 
and mean, they refuse none which promote an 
unselfish and splendid munificence. 

However, as regards the tripods, Panaetius tries 
to show that Demetrius was deceived by identity 
of name. From the Persian wars, he says, down 
to the end of the Peloponnesian war, only two 
Aristides are recorded as victorious choregi, and 
neither of them is identical with the son of 
Lysimachus. One was the son of Xenophilus, and 
the other lived long afterwards, as is proved by 
the inscription itself, which is written in the 
character used after Eucleides, 1 as well as by the 
last name, Archestratus, of whom there is no 
record during the Persian wars, while during the 
time of the Peloponnesian war his name often 
appears as that of a choral poet. 

This argument of Panaetius should be more closely 

1 In 403-402 B.C., when Eucleides was Archon Eponymous, 
the Ionian alphabet was officially adopted at Athens. 

213 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

OTTO)? %X ei ' T $ ^ ovrpaKM Tra? o 
fj 7ei'O9 f) Xoyov ^vva^jiiv virep rot>9 7roXXou9 
vofJLi^onevo? vrreTTiTrrev OTTOV KCU kdpwv 6 Tiepi- 
K\eovs ta<7/caXo9, on TO typoveiv e'So/cet Ti? 
8 etz^at 7re/9TT09, egwcrrpaKia-OTj. KOI /jurjv ap^ai 
76 TOZ^ *Apio-Tei$rjv o 'I^o/Ae^eu? ou Kva^eurov, 

el Se teal 



O>VTO<; 6 



T/oto? yjpa(f), Kal irdvv TTiOavov ecrriv eVl So^j; 
roaavrrj Kal KaTopOtefJiacri Trfkucovrois d^ 
%L dperi]v r)<? Sia TrXovrov 6Tvy)(avov ol 
9 vovres. d\\c), yap 6 ^ev Ary^r/oto? ou JJLOVOV 
L$r)v, d\\a /cal 



Karcov' Kal yap exeivfo tyialv ov povov rrjv oliciav 



, d\\a Kal 



VTTO 



II. *Api<rTeL($r)$ Se K.\eicr06vov$ fjiev rov Kara- 
crr^cr a nevov rrjv 7ro\LTiav fiera rovs rvpdvvovs 
eratpo9 yevo^evo^, tyXcoaas Be Kal flavjudaas 
//-aXtcrra rwv 7ro\iTLKWV dvbpwv AvKovpyov TQV 
AaKeSatjjioviov, ij-^aro fj,ev dpLCTTOKpariKrj^ 7roX- 
Tta9, eV^e S' avTiTacfao^vov vjrep rov 
e/j.i(TTOK\ea rov NeotfX60i/9. evioi JJLZV ovv 



ra9 avrovs Ka avvrecofjievovs CLTT 



TT 'pay fjian Kal \6y<p $i,a(fjepeo'(}ai 777)09 aXX;/Xoi'9, 



viro 



214 



ARISTIDES, i. 7-n. 2 

examined as to its validity ; but to banishment in 
ostracism every one was liable who was superior 
to the common run of men in reputation, or lineage, 
or eloquence. And so it was that Damon, the 
teacher of Pericles, was ostracized because he 
was thought to be rather ext' aordinary in his 
wisdom. 1 Furthermore, Idomeneus says that Aristides 
obtained the office of archon, not by lot, but by 
the election of the Athenians. 2 And if he was 
made archon after the battle of Plataea, as Demetrius 
himself has written, it is certainly very credible 
that in view of such a reputation and such successes 
as he there won, he should be deemed worthy, 
for his valour, of an office which men who drew lots 
for it obtained for their wealth. In fact, Demetrius 
is clearly ambitious to rescue not only Aristides, 
but also Socrates from what he deems the great 
evil of poverty, for he says that Socrates owned 
not only his house, but also seventy minas out at 
interest with Crito. 

II. Aristides was an intimate friend of that 
Cleisthenes who set the state in order after the 
expulsion of the tyrants. He also admired and 
emulated, above all other statesmen, Lycurgus 
the Lacedaemonian. He therefore favoured an 
aristocratic form of government, and ever had 
opposed to him, as champion of the people, Themis- 
tocles the son of Neocles. Some say that even 
as boys and fellow-pupils, from the outset, in every 
word and deed, whether serious or trivial, they 
were at variance with one another, and that by 

1 Pericles, iv. 2. 

a From 508 B.C. to 487 B.C. the archons were elected by 
the Assembly ; after 487, they were once more chosen by lot. 

VOL. n. H 2I 5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rrjv fj,ev ev%epvj KOI 7rapd/3o\ov 



KOI TTCLVOVpyOV OVCTCtV KOL yLter' O^UTr/TO? 7U 



Trdvra paBia)? (frepo/jievrjv, rrjv o' ISpv/jLewtjv ev r\6ei 
iip real vrpo? TO Bi/eaiov drevtj, 1 i^euSo? Be teal 
Kal aTrdrrjv ovB* ev TratSta? TIVL 



' o Keio? e^ epaon/cr)? dp%y}s <yeve- 
crOai <j)^crl /cal TrpoeXOelv eVl roaovrov Tr]v 
3 e%0pav avrcov. Sr^crtXeft) 7/o> o? ^ ^evei 
Keto?, t'Sea re /cal floppy creo/mro? TTO\V TWV ev 
copa \ai-iTrp or aro<$, a^t^OTepou? epacrOevras ov 
eveyfceiv TO Tra^o? ouS' a^aa \rfyovri 
rov 7ratSo9 a7ro6ecr6ai rrjv 

eyyv/jivacrafjievov$ etceivy TT/JO? 



4 'O /u,^ oSi^ QeiJLicrTOK\r}<s et? kraipeiav 

eavrov el%e i 7rp6/3\r]fjLa KOL ^vva/Jnv OVK evfcara- 



ware KOI irpos rov elirovra 
avTov ap^en> 'Adrjvaiwv, avirep tcro? y KOL 
airadi " M^SlTTOTe," elirelv, " et9 rovrov 
KaOicraifjii TOV Opovov, ev <p rrXeov ovSev e^ovaiv 
5 ol (f)L\oi Trap 1 e^ol TWV aXXorpicov" 'ApicrTet^? Be 

/)'' v " f^-vjo./ '/D / ?'i'^V 

Kau eavrov wai/rep ooov uoiav epaoi^e cia 

Trpwrov fjiev ov ^ov\6^evo^ crvvaBi/ceiv 

rj \v7TY)pos eivai /JLIJ 

UTTO TO)V (fiLXcov ^vva/JLiv OVK oXi/you? 
7raipovcrav a^Ltcelv e^vXarrero, fjiova) rw 

1 arevri MSS. and editors, including Sintenis * : arevei after 
Classen. 

216 



ARISTIDES, ii. 2-5 

this very rivalry their natures were straightway 
made manifest, the one as dexterous, reckless, and 
unscrupulous, easily carried with impetuosity into 
any and every undertaking ; the other as established 
on a firm character, intent on justice, and admitting 
no falsity or vulgarity or deceit, not even in any 
sport whatsoever. 

But Ariston of Ceos says that this enmity of 
theirs, which came to be so intense, had its origin 
in a love affair. They were both enamoured of 
Stesilaiis, who was of Ceian birth, and in beauty 
of person the most brilliant of youths ; and they 
cherished their passion so immoderately, that not 
even after the boy's beauty had faded did they 
lay aside their rivalry, but, as though they had 
merely taken preliminary practice and exercise in 
that, they presently engaged in matters of state 
also with passionate heat and opposing desires. 

Themistocles joined a society of political friends, 
and so secured no inconsiderable support and power. 
Hence when some one told him that he would be a 
good ruler over the Athenians if he would only be 
fair and impartial to all, he replied : " Never may I 
sit on a tribunal where my friends are to get no 
more advantage from me than strangers." But 
Aristides walked the way of statesmanship by him- 
self, on a private path of his own, as it were, because, 
in the first place, he was unwilling to join with any 
comrades in wrong-doing, or to vex them by with- 
holding favours ; and, in the second place, he saw 
that power derived from friends incited many to do 
wrong, and so was on his guard against it, deeming 



217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal BtKaia TrpaTTeiv Kal Xeyew dfywv Oappelv TOV 
dyaObv TroXir^v. 

III. Ov UTJV d\\d, 7TO\\a KlVOV/jLeVOV TOV 

Se/jiicrTOK\eov<j 7ra/?a/3oX&>9 KOI 77/209 iracrav 

Tro\iTelav eviarafjievov KOI BiaKoirTovTOS, 320 
TTOV teal auro? ra /u,ev d/AWo/jLevos, ra 



Be KO\OVWV rrjv eteeLvov Bvva/jnv ^dpurt, TWV 
7ro\\a)v av%o/jievr)V V 
o e/ttcrro:X7}9, 
evia T&V av{A(f)p6vTa)i> rbv BTJ/JLOV f) TW fcpareiv 
2 eicelvov ev Tracriv l(r%vpbv <yeveo-dai. reA,O9 Be 

7TOT6 TOV ejJLt,O'TOK\OV<; TTpaTTOVTOS Tl TWV 



dvTiKpovaas Kal Trepiyevofjievos ov /care- 
dirb 



OVK e<jTi awTvjia TO?? ' A.6i~jvaiwv i rrd<^a<Ttv t el 



rj Kal (S)e/ucrTO/eX,ea Kal avTOV et? TO ftdpaOpov 
e/jL/3d\oiev. Trd\iV Be ypd'^a^ Tiva ryva)/j,r]v t9 
TOV Bfj/jiov, dvTi\oyias over?)? 7rpo<f avTrjv Kal 
(f)i\oveiKias, eKparer //eXXo^T09 Be TOV TrpoeBpov 
TOV Bijfjiov eTcepwTav alv0op.evo<s ex TCOV \6ycov 
avTWV TO d<7Vfj,<popov aTrecTTTj TOV 
3 TroXAa/a? Be Kal Bi eTepwv elcrefape ra9 

y TT/OO? avTov o 
W o~va<f)epoi>Ti,. 

r) Be Tt9 e(j)aiveTO ai>Tov Trapa ra9 ev 
Tro\iTela />teTa/3oXa9 77 evcrTaOeia, ya^re rat9 
e7raipo/j,ei'ov 7rpo<f re ra? Bvarjfj,epi,a$ 
s xal Trpdcos e^ovTOf, Kal o 

3lS 



AR1STIDES, n. s-in. 3 

it right that the good citizen should base his con- 
fidence only on serviceable and just conduct. 

III. However, since Themistocles was a reckless 
agitator, and opposed and thwarted him in every 
measure of state, Aristides himself also was almost 
compelled partly in self-defence, and partly to 
curtail his adversary's power, which was increasing 
through the favour of the many to set himself in 
opposition to what Themistocles was trying to do, 
thinking it better that some advantages should es- 
cape the people than that his adversary, by pre- 
vailing everywhere, should become too strong. 
Finally there came a time when he opposed and 
defeated Themistocles in an attempt to carry some 
really necessary measure. Then he could no longer 
hold his peace, but declared, as he left the Assembly, 
that there was no safety for the Athenian state 
unless they threw both Themistocles and himself 
into the death-pit. On another occasion he him- 
self introduced a certain measure to the people, and 
was carrying it through successfully, in spite of the 
attacks of the opposition upon it, but just as the 
presiding officer was to put it to the final vote, per- 
ceiving, from the very speeches that had been made 
in opposition to it, the inexpediency of his measure, 
he withdrew it without a vote. And oftentimes 
he would introduce his measures through other men, 
that Themistocles might not be driven by the spirit 
of rivalry with him to oppose what was expedient for 
the state. 

Altogether admirable was his steadfast constancy 
amid the revulsions of political feeling. He was not 
unduly lifted up by his honours, and faced adversity 
with a calm gentleness, while in all cases alike he 

219 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

xprjvat, rfi TrarpiSi rrape^eiv eavrbv ov 
fjiovov, dXXa KOI 0^9 irpoiKa KOI 
4 dfjuadl 7ro\irev6p.evov. oOev, o>5 eoi/ce, TWV els 



VTT 



ev TO) dedrpq) 

Ov jap Sotcelv Sitcaios, aXX* elvai 6e\ei t 
SaOeiav a\.o/ca 



ra 



et? 'Apia-TeiBrjv, a><? 
aperr) 1 ? Tavrrjs 
IV. Ov JJLOVOV B 7rpo9 evvoiav KOI 






KOLL TTyOO? 6pyr]V KOi 7T/90? G^O pCLV la^VpOTaTO 1 ^ T)V 



Si/caicov dvTKTTfjvai. \ey6Tai jovv 

7TOT6 SltOKCOV e^OpOV V St/taCTT^t^), 

Karriyopiav ov /3ov\o/jieva)v dfcoveiv rov 
OVTOS TWV SiKacrTCOv, aXXa TTJV ^}rr)<f)ov 



alrovvrcov eV avrov, a/'aTrrycra? TO) 



, OTTCO? d/covaOeir} teal TV%OI TCOV 
2 vofjLifj,wv' Trd\iv Se Kplvwv ISiWTats Svai, rov 
erepuv \eyovros, w? vroXXa rv<y%di>6i rov 'Api- 
6 avriSiKOs XeXu^r rj/ccbs "Aey 1 , & '^ya^e," 
fJiaXkov, i TI ere KCLKOV TreTroiijtce' croi 
yap, OVK e/uLavTw, Sifta^co." TWV Se Br)fj,o(ria)v 
aipeOels eVt/ueX^r^? ov /JLOVOV rou? 
* avrov, aXXa /cat TOU? Trpo avrov 



220 



ARISTIDES, in. 3 iv. 2 

considered it his duty to give his services to his 
country freely and without any reward, either in 
money, or, what meant far more, in reputation. 
And so it befell, as the story goes, that when the 
verses composed by Aeschylus upon Amphiaraiis were 
recited in the theatre : 

"He wishes not to seem, but rather just to be, 
And reap a harvest from deep furrows in a mind 
From which there spring up honourable counsel- 
lings," l 

all the spectators turned their eyes on Aristides, 
feeling that he, above all men, was possessed of such 
excellence. 

IV. It was not only against the inclinations of his 
good-will and personal favour that he was a most 
strenuous champion of justice, but also against those 
of his anger and hatred. At any rate a story is 
told, how he was once prosecuting an enemy in 
court, and after he had made his accusation the 
judges were loath to hear the defendant at all, and 
demanded that their vote be taken against him 
straightway ; but Aristides sprang to his feet and 
seconded the culprit's plea for a hearing and the 
usual legal procedure. And again, when he was 
serving as private arbitrator between two men, on 
one of them saying that his opponent had done 
Aristides much injury, "Tell me rather," he said, 
" whether he has done thee any wrong ; it is for 
thee, not for myself, that I am seeking justice." 
When he was elected overseer of the public revenues, 
he proved clearly that large sums had been em- 
bezzled, not only by his fellow-officials, but also by 

1 Seven against Thebes, 592 ff. (Dindorf). 

221 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



aTreBeLfcvve Tro\\a vsvocrfyicriAivovs, fcal 

fJ,d\lO~Ta TOV 06/UCTTO/eXea' 

o<o9 yap avrip, rf)$ Be xeipbs ov 



3 A to KOI cvvayaya)v vroXXou? eVt TOZ> 
ev rat? evOvvais SICOKOOV KNOTTY}* 



Se TUV TrpaiTMV ev rfj TroXet KOL {BeXTicrrcav, ov 
fjibvov a<j>el0rj TT}? ^Vy/xta?, aXAa KOL 7raX.iv ap^wv 
eVl Trjv avrrjv SiOLKrjcriv aTreBei^Orj. TrpocrTrot,- 
ovfjLevos Be rwv irporepwv fjiera^eXeiv avry fcal 
fia\aK(t)T6pov evBiSov? eavrov, I'lpecrxe roi? ra 
Koiva K\e7rTovcriv OVK e^eXey^wv ovS* dx:pi/3o\o- 

4 yOVfJLVO<$, WC7T6 KaTCLTTl /ATrXcLfjieVOVS TWV Srj JJLOG IWV 

TOV 'A/OicrretS?;^ real Be^iovadat rov 
vTrep avrov, (nrov'&a^ovTas ap^'>VTa 
alpedfjvai. fj,e\\bvTwv Be jfeLpOTovelv e 

n ' A /I / ttt/j~\ ^ />>/! 

TOi9 Ac7?;7YUOt?' Ore yuev 70/0, e<p 
teal raXc5? uya?y $IP%<L> irpovTrrjXafcia'dijV' eirel Be 
7ro\\a TWV K.OIVWV KaraTrpoel/jLai rot? K\e7rrovcn 
5 ] av /xacrro? eti/at So:co TroXtr???. auro? 

rfj vvv Tififj fjia\\ov rj rfj 
iKrj, <7vvd%0o/jiai, S' V/JLLV, Trap' Oi? 
Tepov eari TOV (rco^eiv ra Br^oaLa TO ^api^eaO ] ai 
Tot? TTOvrjpois" TavTa B* elTroov teal Ta? /cXoTra? 321 
TOU? /xe^ TOTC fiowvTas virep avTOv /cal 



eTrecrTO/jiicre, TOV S' a\r}0tvov /cal 
Bifcaiov aTTo TW^ {3e\Ti<7Ta)V ejratvov 



222 



ARISTIDES, iv. 2-5 

those of former years, and particularly by The- 
mistocles : 

"The man was clever, but of his hand had no control." 

For this cause, Themistocles banded many to- 
gether against Aristides, prosecuted him for theft at 
the auditing of his accounts, and actually got a 
verdict against him, according to Idomeneus. But 
the first and best men of the city were incensed at 
this, and he was not only exempted from his fine, 
but even appointed to administer the same charge 
again. Then he pretended to repent him of his 
former course, and made himself more pliable, thus 
giving pleasure to those who were stealing the 
common funds by not examining them or holding 
them to strict account, so that they gorged them- 
selves with the public moneys, and then lauded 
Aristides to the skies, and pleaded with the people 
in his behalf, eagerly desirous that he be once more 
elected to his office. But just as they were about to 
vote, Aristides rebuked the Athenians. " Verily," 
said he, " when I served you in office with fidelity 
and honour, I was reviled and persecuted ; but now 
that I am flinging away much of the common fund 
to thieves, I am thought to be an admirable citizen. 
For my part, I am more ashamed of my present 
honour than I was of my former condemnation, and 
I am sore distressed for you, because it is more 
honourable in your eyes to please base men than to 
guard the public moneys." By these words, as well 
as by exposing their thefts, he did indeed stop 
the mouths of the men who were then testifying 
loudly in his favour, but he won genuine and just 
praise from the best citizens. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



V. '.Evret Be Aar*? VTTO kapeiov 7refA<p0el<; \oytp 
6Tn@ivai Bi/crjv 'AQrjvaioi,?, on ^.dpSeis 
, epyo) Se Karacnpityaadai TO 1/9 f/ EX- 



iravrl 



l rrjv yu>pav eiropQet,, rwv Sefca 



ro9 i^atoi? eVl rbv 



pep el'xev a^LwfJia MiXr^aS?;?, 80^77 &e 
2 real Svvd/jLet, Sevrepo? rjv 'A/06<7Tet8?;?. KOI Tore 
Trepl TT}? yua%^5 ryvw/jLy rrj M.i\TidSov 7rpocr6efj,evos 



ov /jiiKpav eTToirjcre poTTijv /cat Trap' rjfiepav 
(rrparrjyov TO /cparo? e^ovros, co? TrepirjXQev 
ai)Tov 77 ap^rf, TrapeScofce 
rot/? (Twdp^ovTa^, OTL TO ireiOecOaL Kal UKO\OV- 
9eiv rot? eu (frpovovcriv OVK ala^pov, a\\a cjj,v6v 
ea"TL real crwrripiov. OVTCD Se irpavvas TTJV <jbtA,o- 
veifciav Kal irpOTpe-^rdfjievo^ avrovs dyaTrdv /j,ta 
yva)/jir) rfj Kparicnrj %pc0/j,evovs, epptocre TOV 
T> aTrepicTTTdo'Ta) rijs et^ovaias I 



<yevoiJievov. %aipeLV jap ewv e/cao-ro? rj TO Trap 



p%eiv e/cevp 
3 'Ez^ 8e rfj l^d^y yuaXtcrTa T&V 'A.0t]vaia)v 

TOV /jieaov TrovrjcravTOS Kal 7r\Gicnov evTavOa 
fiapftdpwv a 



/cal 



Trap a^oi;? o T6 



crTOK\fjs teal 6 'ApicTTetS^?* o pev yap 
4 r)v, o S' ' AvTio^uSo^' eVet Se Tpe^ru/jLevot, TOI/? 
/3ap/3dpov<? i>6/3a\ov et? Ta? vav$ /cal 
OVK eul vr}GU>v eu>pwv, aXX' VTTO TOV 



Kal T^9 ^aXacrcr?;? io~Q) 7T/oo9 
224 



ARISTIDES, v. 1-4 

V. Now when Datis, on being sent by Darius 
ostensibly to punish the Athenians for burning 
Sardis, but really to subdue all the Hellenes, put 
in at Marathon with all his armament and went to 
ravaging the country, then, of the ten generals 
appointed by the Athenians for the conduct of the 
war, it was Miltiades who enjoyed the greatest con- 
sideration, but in reputation and influence Aristides 
was second. By adopting at that time the opinion 
of Miltiades about the battle to be fought, he did 
much to turn the scale in its favour. And since 
each general held the chief authority for a single 
day in turn, when the command came round to him, 
he handed it over to Miltiades, thereby teaching his 
fellow-officers that to obey and follow men of 
wisdom is not disgraceful, but dignified and salutary. 
By thus appeasing the jealousy of his colleagues and 
inducing them to be cheerfully contented in the 
adoption of a single opinion (and that the best), 
he confirmed Miltiades in the strength which comes 
from an unrestricted power. For each of the other 
generals at once relinquished his own right to com- 
mand for a day in turn, and put himself under the 
orders of Miltiades. 

In the battle, the Athenian centre was the hardest 
pressed, and it was there that the Barbarians held 
their ground the longest, over against the tribes 
Leontis and Antiochis. There, then, Themistocles 
and Aristides fought brilliantly, ranged side by side ; 
for one was a Leontid, the other an Antiochid. 
When the Athenians had routed the Barbarians 
and driven them aboard their ships, and saw that 
they were sailing away, not toward the islands, but 
into the gulf toward Attica under compulsion of 

225 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a7ro/3iao/ji6i'ovs, (fro find evres pr) TTJV TTO\IV ep-rjfJLOv 
ra)v d/jLvvo/jiercov, Tat? fiev evvea <fXat? 
TT/QO? TO dcrrv /cal Karrfwaav av0>i/j.epov 
5 ev Be MapaOwvi yu,era TT}? eavrov (f)v\rj<$ ' 



KOL 



rwv \a<f>vp(i)v OVK e^evaaTO TI-JV S6av, d\\a 
%uS?i/ fjiev dpjvpov Kal ^pvaov irapovros, ecrOfjros 
Be TravroBaTrrjs real %pr]/j,dT(i)i> a\\wv djAvdijrcov ev 
rat? o-Kr)vcLL<$ /cal rot? rf^wKoai o-Kaffreaiv vTrap- 
XOVTWV, ovr auro? eTreOv/^rja-e Oi'jeiv ovr a\\ov 
elacre, 7r\r)v el' rives e/ceivov \a0ovTes a)$>e\r)6ricrav 
wv r)V KOI KaXXta? o BaBov^os. 

TOUTW yap Ti9, co? eoitce, r&v /3ap/3dpa>v nrpoa- 
eirea-ev ot?;$el? /SacrtXea Bid rrjv KO/J,^V Kal TO 

7rpo(TKVi>ij(Tas Be Kal Xa./3o/ze^o? 
e'Bei^e TTO\V ^pvalov ev \aKKO) rivl 
6 Be KaXXta? wyLtoVaTo? dvOput- 



7ra>v Ka Trapavo/jLooraros yevfj,evo<; rov p,ev ypv 
dvei\6TO, TOP B* avQpwnov, co? 



7T/905 erepovs, TreKreivev. etc TOVTOV 

\aKK07T\OVTOVS V7TO TWV KWfJLiKWV TOU? (ITTO 

oltilas \ejtcr0ai, (JKWTTTOVTWV et? TOP TOTTOV, ev 
TO ^pvcriov o KaXXta? evpev. 

'ApMTTeiBrjs Be rrjv eTraivvfjiov 
Kaurot <f>ija-lv 6 ^aX^pei/? A?7 / a^T/)to? dp^at, rov 
dvSpa fJiiKpov e/jL7rpocr@ev TOV Qavdrov /xerd 
ev ITXaTa/a?? fid-)(7jv. ev Be Tat? 
fierd /jLev Ha/ d^TTTriBtjv, e^' ov Map 
IlXaTatacrti/, ouS' OfJubvvjjLOV 'ApiaTeiSrjv ev irdvv 



226 



ARISTIDES, v. 4-7 

wind and wave, then they were afraid lest the 
enemy find Athens empty of defenders, and so they 
hastened homeward with nine tribes, and reached 
the city that very day. But Aristides was left 
behind at Marathon with his own tribe, to guard 
the captives and the booty. Nor did he belie his 
reputation, but though silver and gold lay about in 
heaps, and though there were all sorts of raiment 
and untold wealth besides in the tents and captured 
utensils, he neither desired to meddle with it him- 
self, nor would he suffer any one else to do so, 
although certain ones helped themselves without his 
knowledge. Among these was Callias the Torch- 
bearer. 1 

Some Barbarian, it seems, rushed up to this man, 
supposing him to be a king from his long hair and the 
headband that he wore, made obeisance to him, and 
taking him by the hand in suppliant fashion, showed 
him a great mass of gold buried up in a sort of pit. 
Callias, most savage and lawless of men, took up the 
gold ; but the man, to prevent his betraying the 
matter to others, he slew. From this circumstance, 
they say, his descendants are called by the comic 
poets " Laccopluti," or " Pit-wealthies," in sly 
allusion to the place where Callias found his gold. 

Aristides at once received the office of Archon 
Eponymous. And yet Demetrius of Phalerum says 
that it was a little while before his death, and after 
the battle of Plataea, that the man held this office. 2 
But in the official records, after Xanthippides, in 
whose year of office Mardonius was defeated at 
Plataea, you cannot find, long as the list is, so much 

1 One of the highest officers at the celebration of the 
Eleusinian mysteries. 8 479-478 B.C. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

t? \a/3eiv ecm, pera Be QalviTTirov, 1 eft ov 
ev MapaOwvi fjid^v eviKwv, evOvs 'Apio 

dvayeypaiTTai. 

VI. Tlaawv Be TWV Trepl avrbv dperwv 
BtKaiocrvvr} fjuakiara TOtsTroXXot? aia 0rja iVTT 
Sia TO Trjv xpeiav evBe^e^ea-rdrrjv avTrjs real 
Koivordrrjv vTrdp^eiv. odev dvrjp r jrkvr]<$ /cal Srj/uo- 
rt/co? eKTrja-aro rr^v ^aaCkiKwrdrrjv Kal deiordrrjv 
2 Trpocrrjyopiav rbv Aiftaiov b TMV fiaa-iKewv KOI 
rvpdvvwv ovbels eij\a)crei>, d\\d YloXiop/crjral Kal 322 
Kepavvol Kal Nt/eaTope?, zvioi S' 'Aerot Kal 



e^aipov irpocrayopevofJievoi,, rrjv airo TT<? 
Kal TT}? Swaged)?, a>? eoiK6, /na\\ov rj 



CLTTO T?}? dperrj^ S6av dyarra)i>r^. Kalroi TO 
Oeiov, & y\i^ovraL <rvvoiKeiovv Kal avva^o^oiovv 
avTOVs, rpial BoKel Sia(f)epiv, dfyOapcriq KOI 
&vvd/jLi Kal apery, &v Kal 2 crefjivorarov rj dperrj 
3 Kal Oeiorarov ZGTIV. dfyOdprw fj.ev yap elvai Kal 
TW Kevw Kal rot? aTOi'xeioLS a-v/ji^/3^K, Svva/j,iv 
Be Kal creicr/Mol Kal Kepavvol Kal TrvevfjLarwv oppal 
Kal pevfjbdrwv 7Ti(j)Opal /jbeydXrjv e^owi, BLKTJ^ Be 
Kal Oefjii&os ovbev on fti] TW typovelv Kal \oyie- 



o Kal rpLwv ovrcov, a TreTrovOacrtv ol 7ro\\ol 
TO Oelov, %rj\ou Kal (f)6(3ov Kal Tt/^r}?, r]~\,ovv 



avrovs Kal (jLaKapi^eiv eoiKacn Kara TO d- 
(f)Qaprov Kal dt$ioi>, eKTr\r)TTecrQai Be Kal BeBievat, 
a TO Kvpiov Kal BvvaTov, dyafrav Be Kal 



Bekker, Hercher, and Blass with F a S : *a- 
vnrirov. 2 &v KO\ Hercher and Blass with S : uv. 

3 \oyifcff8ai Blass : Xoy'i&aQai rb Qflov reasoning about the 
deity. 

228 



ARISTIDES, v. 7-vi. 3 

as the name Aristides ; whereas immediately after 
Phaenippus, in whose year of office the victory at 
Marathon was won, an Aristides is recorded as 
archon. 1 

VI. Of all his virtues, it was his justice that most 
impressed the multitude, because of its most con- 
tinual and most general exercise. Wherefore, though 
poor and a man of the people, he acquired that most 
Idngly and godlike surname of "The Just." This 
no kings or tyrants ever coveted, nay, they rejoiced 
to be surnamed " Besiegers," or " Thunderbolts," or 
" Conquerors," and some " Eagles," or " Hawks," ' 2 
cultivating the reputation which is based on violence 
and power, as it seems, rather than on virtue. And 
yet divinity, to which such men are eager to adapt 
and conform themselves, is believed to have three 
elements of superiority, incorruption, power, and 
virtue ; and the most reverend, the divinest of these, 
is virtue. For vacuum and the ultimate elements 
partake of incorruption ; and great power is ex- 
hibited by earthquakes and thunderbolts, and rushing 
tornadoes, and invading floods ; but in fundamental 
justice nothing participates except through the 
exercise of intelligent reasoning powers. 

Therefore, considering the three feelings which 
are generally entertained towards divinity, envy, 
fear, and honourable regard, men seem to envy and 
felicitate the deities for their incorruption and per- 
petuity ; to dread and fear them for their sovereignty 
and power ; but to love and honour and revere them 



1 490-489 B.O. 

2 Demetrius Poliorcetes; Ptolemy Ceraunoa} Seleucus 
Nicator; Pyrrhus Aetos ; Antiochus Hierax. 

229 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Kal creiSeaOai KaTa TTJV BiKaio&vvijv. dXXa, 
Kaiirep OVTW Sia/ceifAevoi, r?}? pev dOavacrias, YJV r) 
r)fj,Mv ov Se^erat, teal rr}? SvvdfAecos, ^9 ev 



rfj Tv%7) 1 /ceirai TO TrXeto-roi/, eTTiOvfjuovcri, rr)v 



B aperrjv, o /JLOVOV ecrrl TWV Oeiwv ayaQwv efi 
r]fjilv t ev vcrrepa) TiOevrat,, /car&j? (frpovovvres, w? 
TOP ev Svvdfjiei Kal Ti>%rj yiieyaXr? teal ap^y (Biov rj 
fiev &iKa<o(rvvr) iroiel 0elov, 7; &' dSi/cia 0iipia)Br]. 

fTTl T 1 " ?' * A r ^ ' D \ " 

Vll. 1 a) o ovv Apicrreiorj crvvepr) TO Trpwrov 
Bia Trjv eTTcovvfAiav varepov (frdovel- 
, [jud\iGTa fjLev TOV e/iiaro/cXeou? \6jov et? 
U? TroXXou? SLaBiSovros, 2 <*>$ 'Apia-TeiSiis dvypr)- 
ra BtKaa-Ttjpia TO> icpiveiv airavra Kal Si/cd- 



-rjBrj Be TTOV KOL 6 Brj/j,o<; ejrl Ty 
typovwv teal rcov fjieylaTwv dfywv avTov 
r}-)(OeTO rot? ovo/j,a /cat Bo^av virep rou? 
Covert, teal crvve\BovT<$ et? daTV 
e^oa-Tpatci^ova'i TOV 'ApKTTeiBrjv, ovo/jia T 
T?}? 0^779 (f)6/3ov TvpavviBos Oe/Jievoi. 

Mo^/7/)ta? yap OVK rjv Ko\acri<; 6 ej-ocrTparcHr- 
yLto?, aAA e'/caXetro fj,ev Bi evTrpeiretav oy/cov Kal 
BvvdfjL(i><; (SapvTepas Taireivwais Kal Ko\ovcri<;, rjv 
Be <j)0ovov 'jrapafjivOLa <$>i\dv0p(i)Tro<s, et? dviJKeaTOV 
ovBev, aXX' et? ^-rdcfraaiv CTCOV BGKO, TIJV TT/OO? 



1 TTJ rv\ri Reiske, Hercher, and Blass with F a S : 

2 SiaStSovros Hercher and Blass with F a S : 



230 



ARISTIDES, vi. 4-vn. 2 

for their justice. And yet, although men are thus 
disposed, it is immortality, of which our nature is 
not capable, and power, the chief disposal of which 
is in the hands of fortune, that they eagerly desire ; 
while as for virtue, the only divine excellence within 
our reach, they put it at the bottom of the list, 
unwisely too, since a life passed in power and great 
fortune and authority needs justice to make it 
divine ; by injustice it is made bestial. 

VII. Now, to resume, it befell Aristides to be 
loved at first because of this surname, but afterwards 
to be jealously hated, especially when Themistocles 
set the story going among the multitude that 
Aristides had done away with the public courts 
of justice by his determining and judging everything 
in private, and that, without any one perceiving it, 
he had established for himself a monarchy, saving 
only the armed body-guard. And besides, the 
people too must by this time have become greatly 
elated over their victory ; they thought nothing too 
good for themselves, and were therefore vexed with 
those who towered above the multitude in name and 
reputation. So they assembled in the city from all 
the country round, and ostracized Aristides, giving 
to their envious dislike of his reputation the name of 
fear of tyranny. 

Now the sentence of ostracism was not a chastise- 
ment of base practices, nay, it was speciously called 
a humbling and docking of oppressive prestige and 
power; but it was really a merciful exorcism of the 
spirit of jealous hate, which thus vented its malig- 
nant desire to injure, not in some irreparable evil, 



231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 rb \VTTOVV d7TpeiBo/j,evov BvcrfjLeveiav. CTrel 8* 
ijp^avTo Tives dvOpcoirovs dyevveis KOI Trovrjpovs 
v r jroftak\eiv TW TrpdyjiaTi, Te\evTalov aTravTwv 
"T7rep/3o\ov e^oorTpaKicravTes eTravaavTO. Xeyerat 
Be TOV tf T7rep/3o\ov e^oarpaKLcrOijvai, Bia ToiavTijv 
alriav. y A\Ki(3id&r)<; /cal Nt/cta? /j^eyicrrov ev 
Svvdfjievoi BiecrTaGLa&v. &>? ovv o 

TO oarpaKov KOI 877X0? r\v rov 



ei-epov <yp"wv, ia6%evT<; a^of? KCU ra? 
o-Tacreis e/carepa? 669 ravTO avvayayovTe^ TOV 
4 'T7re/)/3oXo^ eocrTpaKicr0fjvaL TTapecncevacrav. etc 
Be TOVTOV Bva"%epdvas 6 Brjfio^ to? KaOvftpicrjuevov 
TO Trpdj/jia KOI TrpOTre'Tr'rjXaKicrjjLevov dcfrij/ce irav- 



^Hy Be TOLOVTOV, a>? TVTTO) (frpdcrai,, TO 
ocrTpa/cov \a{3cov eVa<7TO9 Kal fypd^a^ ov e'/9ou- 
\TO fieTacrTrjO'aL TWV TTO\ITWV, efyepev et? eva, ro- 
TTOV TT}? dyopa? TrepiTrecfrpay/jievov ev KVK\W 
ol B J ap%ovTes TrpWTOv ftev 



TO crv^Trav ev TCLVTW TWV oaTpaKwv 
el <yap e^aKia-^tXicov eXriVro^e? ol <$>epoi>Te$ l elev, 

TJV o e^ocrTpaKia'^Lo^' eTreiTa rwv 
eteacTTOv IBia Sevres TOV VTTO TWV 



TO, avTOV. 



Se/ca, Kaprrov- 



Tpa(f)OfjLifa)v ovv Tore T&V oo-Tpd/cwv Xeyerai 323 
Tiva TWV dypa/ifjidTcov /cal Trai/reXco? dypoiKwv 
dvaBovTa T& 'ApicrTeiBr) TO oaTpa/cov 0)9 evl TWV 
TV%6vTcov irapaKaX.eiv, 6Va>9 *A.picrTelBr]v eyypd- 
6 ^eie. TOV Be Oav/jLacravTO? Kal TrvOojAevov, JMJ TI 

1 tyipovTfs Blass with F a S : 
232 



ARISTIDES, vn. 3-6 

but in a mere change of residence for ten years. 
And when ignoble men of the baser sort came to be 
subjected to this penalty, it ceased to be inflicted at 
all, and Hyperbolus was the last to be thus ostracized. 1 
It is said that Hyperbolus was ostracized for the 
following reason. Alcibiades and Nicias had the 
greatest power in the state, and were at odds. 
Accordingly, when the people were about to exercise 
the ostracism, and were clearly going to vote against 
one or the other of these two men, they came to 
terms with one another, united their opposing 
factions, and effected the ostracism of Hyperbolus. 
The people were incensed at this for they felt that 
the institution had been insulted and abused, and so 
they abandoned it utterly and put an end to it. 

The method of procedure to give a general out- 
line was as follows. Each voter took an ostrakon, 
or potsherd, wrote on it the name of that citizen 
whom he wished to remove from the city, and 
brought it to a place in the agora which was all 
fenced about with railings. The archons first counted 
the total number of ostraka cast. For if the voters 
were less than six thousand, the ostracism was void. 
Then they separated the names, and the man who 
had received the most votes they proclaimed banished 
for ten years, with the right to enjoy the income 
from his property. 

Now at the time of which I was speaking, as the 
voters were inscribing their ostraka, it is said that an 
unlettered and utterly boorish fellow handed his 
ostrakon to Aristides, whom he took to be one of the 
ordinary crowd, and asked him to write Aristides on 
it. He, astonished, asked the man what possible 

1 About 417 B.C. Cf. Nicias, xi., Alcibiades, xiii 

233 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



/ca/ebv avrbv 'A/otcrrei%7? TreTroirj/eev, " QvBev" 
ov8e yiyvcocrfcco rbv avOpwrrov, aXX' evo- 
Travra^ov rbv Atreaiov dtcovwv" ravra 
dffovcravra rbv ^ApicrreL^v arcoKpivauQai fiev 
ovbev, eyypdtyai Se rouvofia rut oar pare w fcal 

ra? ^etpa? dvareivas TT/JO? rbv ovpavbv ev^aro 
rrjv evavriav, a>? eoireev, ev^v rut 'A^iXXet, 
reaipbv 'AQrjvaiov? /eara\a(3eiv, 65 dvay- 
rbv Srjfjiov 'ApiareiSov avrjadrjvat. 
VIII. TP/T S' erei Eeptov Sid 



/cat Boiwrta? 6\avvovro$ eVl 
craz^re? roi' vopov "^rj(j) icravro rot? 



, yuaXtcrra (f)o/3ov/JievoL rbv 

rol<$ TroXe/itot? Sia^deipr] /ecu 
TroXXou? rroz^ TroXtTw^ TT/JO? 
ftdpftapov, OVK opOcos aro^a^o/JievoL rov 
09 76 al vrpo roO SoyyU-aro? TOUTOU 
Trporpeirwv KOL irapo^vvcov rovs f/ EXX^z^a? 
T^/y eXevdepiav, real [Jiera rb Soy/ma rovro, 
fj,icrTOK\eov<$ a-rpar^yovvTOs avrotcpdropos, 
irdvra crvverrparre Kal crvveftovXevev, vSo6- 
rarov eirl crwrvipiq Koivfj nroiwv rbv e^OiGrov. 

'17? yap d7ro\iTreZv rrjv ^a\a/Mva fiov'kevo- 
fjievcov rwv irepl E>vpv/3id$r)v at, /3ap/3api/cal 
rpujpeis vv/crayp dva^Oeiaai KOI Trepi(3a\ovarai 
rov re Tropov eV KVK\W real ra? vrja-ovs rcarel^ov, 
ovSevbs vrpoeiSoTo? rr)v KVK\W(TLV rjreev 6 'Api- 
air* Alyivr)? 7rapa$6\a)<; Bia rwv 



234 



ARISTIDES, vn. 6-vni. 2 

wrong Aristides had done him. " None whatever," 
was the answer, " I don't even know the fellow, but 
I am tired of hearing him everywhere called 'The 
Just.' ' On hearing this, Aristides made no answer, 
but wrote his name on the ostrakon and handed it 
back. Finally, as he was departing the city, he 
lifted up his hands to heaven and prayed a prayer 
the opposite, as it seems, of that which Achilles 
made l that no crisis might overtake the Athenians 
which should compel the people to remember 
Aristides. 

VIII. But in the third year thereafter, 2 when 
Xerxes was marching through Thessaly and Boeotia 
against Attica, they repealed their law of ostracism, 
and voted that those who had been sent away under 
it might return. The chief reason for this was their 
fear of Aristides, lest he attach himself to the 
enemy's cause, and corrupt and pervert many of his 
fellow-citizens to the side of the Barbarian. But 
they much misjudged the man. Even before this 
decree of theirs, he was ever inciting and urging 
the Hellenes to win their freedom ; and after it was 
passed, when Themistocles was general with sole 
powers, he assisted him in every undertaking and 
counsel, although he thereby, for the sake of the 
general safety, made his chiefest foe the most 
famous of men. 

Thus when Eurybiades wished to abandon Salamis, 
but the Barbarian triremes, putting out by night, had 
encompassed the strait where he lay round about, 
and had beset the islands therein, and no Hellene 
knew of this encompassment, Aristides came over to 
them from Aegina, venturously sailing through the 

1 Iliad i. 407-412. 3 480 B.O. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rro\(JLiu>v vecov Sfe/CTrXeucra?* icai vv/crbs e\0a)i' 
7rl rrjv cncrjvrjv rov /JUO"TOK\OV<? real 
3 avrov ei;(a /JLOVOV "'H/iet?," elrrev, " w 



, el craxfrpovovfAev, tfSr) rrjv /cevrjv fcal 



KCU 



pevot, crwcrai rrjv 'EXXaSa, crv fiev apycov /cal 
(TTpaTijywv, eyai S' VTrovpycov KOI dVfjL^ovKevwv, 

67T61 KOI VVV (76 TTwOciVOfJiai ^LQVOV a'TTTedOai TWV 

apl<TTwv \oyKTfjLwv, Ke\evovra Biavav/jia^eLV ev 

4 TOt? (TTeVol<$ T7)V Ta^L(TTrjV. Kdl (TOl TWV (TVfJL- 

fjLavwv avTLTrpaTTQvrwv ol 7roXe/zto crvvepyeiv 
eoi/caai" rb yap ev KV/C\W real KCLTOTTLV ij&r) 
TreXayo? e/tTreTrX^o-rat vewv TroXeyLttw^, wcrre teal 



elvai Kal fJL<ij(e(j6a^ (frvyrjs yap oSo? ov 
5 XeXetTrrat." TT/?O? ravra 6 e/iucrTo/cXr}? elirev 
" OVK av /3ov\6/jLtiv, w 'A/otcrrefc^, ere rara 
TOVTO I^LOV Kpeirrova yeveaOai, Treipdaofjiai Se 

7T/90? KO\r)V dp-^T]V afJil\\(t)^VO^ V7rp/3d\\(T0(U 

TO?? epyois" d/jia S' avrw fypdcras rr)V LC/>' 
eavrov KaracrKevaaOeldav airdrop TT/OO? 
f3dp/3apov, 7rapefcd\i, ireiOeiv rov Rvpvfii 
/cal Si$dcnctv, 009 d/jLrj%av6v eVrt crwOrjvaL 



avrov a\\ov TTLCTTIV. 



6 o^ei' eV TW av\\6yw rwv crrpar^ycov 
u TOV KopivOiov TT/OO? 



pe&Keiv avrov, 

Trapovra yap <Jiw7rav y avrelirev o 'AptcrretSi;?, 009 
ou/c av eaicoTra pr) \eyovros ra apiara rov 
&[jLL(rroK\eov<f vvv 8' rjo-v^iav ayeiv ov 81 
evvoiav rov dvSpos, aXXa rrjv yvw/JLrjv e 

236 



ARISTIDES, viii. 2-6 

enemy's ships. He went at once by night to the 
tent of Themistocles, and called him forth alone. 
" O Themistocles/' said he, "if we are wise, we shall 
at last lay aside our vain and puerile contention, and 
begin a salutary and honourable rivalry with one 
another in emulous struggles to save Hellas, thou as 
commanding general, I as assistant counsellor, since 
at the very outset I learn that thou art the only one 
who has adopted the best policy, urging as thou 
dost to fight a decisive sea-fight here in the narrows 
as soon as may be. And though thine allies oppose 
thee, thy foes would seem to assist thee ; for the sea 
round about and behind us is already filled with 
hostile ships, so that even our unwilling ones must 
now of necessity be brave men and fight. Indeed, 
no way of escape is left." To this Themistocles 
replied : " I should not have wished, O Aristides, to 
find thee superior to me here ; but I shall try to 
emulate thy fair beginning, and to surpass thee in 
my actions." At the same time he told Aristides of 
the trick that he had contrived against the Barbarian, 
and entreated him to show Eurybiades convincingly, 
inasmuch as he had the greater credit with that 
commander, that there was no safety except in a 
sea-fight. So it happened in the council of generals 
that Cleocritus the Corinthian declared to The- 
mistocles that Aristides also was opposed to his plan, 
since he, though present, held his peace. Aristides 
at once replied that he would not have held his 
peace had not Themistocles counselled for the best ; 
but as it was, he kept quiet, not out of any good- 
will to the man, but because he approved of his 
plan. 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



IX. Ot /Jiev ovv vavapvoi TO*V 'EXX^wz; ravr 
errpaTTOV. 'Apia-TetBrjs B opwv rrjv ^vrrdX-eiav, 
rj irpo TT}? SaXa/ztVo? ev TO) Tropw KelraL vrjcros 
ov fjLeydKrj, TToXt/uwz' dvBpwv jjLe&Trjv ovaciv, 



TOL/? 



KOL fjLa^i/jLO)rdrov<; TCOV iroXn&v Trpocre/Ji^e rfj 
KOL ftd'xyv irpbs TOI/? (Sapftdpovs 
aTreKreive Trdvras, TT\^V oaoi ra)i> eVt- 
Jj\ct)crav. ev Be rourot? rjcrav 
ovo/ua Sai/Sau/c^? rpels TraiSe?, 
01)5 v@u<? aTrecrretXe 77/009 TOI^ (B)eyu-t(7ro;Xea i 
2 /rat Xeyovrcu Kara TL \6yiov, rov fjiavrews 
ILvfypavri&ov K6\ev(7avTOS, to/jbrja-rf] kiorvcrw tcad- 
tepevOrjvai. rrfv Be vrjcrl^a rot? O7r\0i? iravra- 
6 ' ApicrTeiSrjs Tre/oicrTeA^a? e^rjBpeve rot? 



Tiva 



6 yap TT/XetcTTO? d)@tcrfjio$ TCOV vewv KOI 
fjid^ri^ TO KaprepwTarov eoifce irepl rov TOTTOV 
exeivov yeveatiai' Bib KOI rpoTracov earrjicev ev 
rfj ^vrra\eia. 

Mera 8e r^ pdyriv 6 e/iicrroArXf)? aTroTreipa)- 
rov 'ApicrreiBov tcaXov [j.ev eivai KOL TO 
aurot? epyov e\eye, /cpelrTOv Be 
TO \aj3eiv ei> TT; EupcoTT?; T//Z/ \\criav t 
dvaTT\ev<javTa<; ei? 'EXXr/crTro^ro^ rP/^ 
teal TO, ^evy/jLara l &Laico'^ravTa<s. eVet 
GTeiBrjs dvaKpaytov TOVTOV [Jiev eKeXeve rov \6yov 
tcara/BaXeiv, crKorrelv Be KOI tyirelv, oVco? TTJV 
TaylaT^v K/3d\a)<ri TOV M ,Bov eic T?}? 'EXXaSo?, 
fjbi] KaTatc\eicr6el<; drropia (j)vy>)<f pera 

1 TO (fvypMTa. Hercher and Blasa with F a S : rb 
238 



ARISTIDES, ix. 1-4 

IX. While the captains of the Hellenes were 
acting on this plan, Aristides noticed that Psyttaleia, 
a small island lying in the straits in front of Salamis, 

C7 7 

was full of the enemy. He therefore embarked 
in small boats the most ardent and the most 
warlike of the citizens, made a landing on Psyttaleia, 
joined battle with the Barbarians, and slew them 
all, save the few conspicuous men who were taken 
alive. Among these were three sons of the King's 
sister Sandauce, 1 whom he straightway sent to 
Themistocles, and it is said that, in obedience 
to some oracle or other, and at the bidding of 
Euphrantides the seer, they were sacrificed to 
Dionysus Carnivorous. Then Aristides lined the 
islet all round with his hoplites, and lay in wait 
for any who should be cast up there, that no 
friend might perish, and no foe escape. For the 
greatest crowding of the ships, and the most 
strenuous part of the battle, seems to have been 
in this region. And for this reason a trophy was 
erected on Psyttaleia. 

After the battle, Themistocles, by way of sounding 
Aristides, said that the deed they had now 
performed was a noble one, but a greater still 
remained, and that was to capture Asia in Europe, 
by sailing up to the Hellespont as fast as they could 
and cutting in twain the bridges there. But 
Aristides cried out with a loud voice and bade 
him abandon the proposal, and seek rather with 
all diligence how they might most speedily expel 
the Mede from Hellas, lest, being shut in and 
unable to make his escape, from sheer necessity 

1 Cf. Themistocles, xiii. 2. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

SvvdfjLCi)<} rpaTrf) TT/OO? a/jLvvctv U7T* dvdyfcr)?, OVTW 
TTefjLirei irakiv Apvafcyv evvov%ov 6 e/ucrTO/eX?}9 
e/c T&V al'%iJLa\(t)TCi)v /cpixfia, typdaraL TW 
/ceXeucra?, OTL 7T\eiv eVl ra? <ye<f>vpa<; ut 
TOU? r 'EXX7/i/a? avTo? diroa-rpe^reie 
/3acrtXea /SouXoyueyo?. 

X. 'E/c TOUTOU He/o^? /xez> 7re/oi^>o/9o? 



TOl' 



MaoSowo? Se roO crrparov TO ^oKif^corarov l 
Tptd/covra /jivpidSas vTreXeiTrero, KOI 
a?r' tV^upa? r^? Trepl TO Tre^o 
rot? r/ EXX?;cri /cat ypdtywv roiavra' 
2 " NeviKij/care OaXacrcrioLS ^uXoi? %epcralovs dv- 
6p(i)TTov<; ov/c emarTafjLevovs KMTrrjv e\avveiv aXXa 
i/uv TrXareta /t^ 77 erraXco^ 77}, tca\ov Be TO 
BoiWTiOV Tre^iov dya0ol$ iTTTrevcri KOI o7rX(,rat9 
va i ya)VL(Tacr0ai" TT/JO? Se 'A^/^atou? eireiM^rev 
ISia ypd/jL/jiaTa teal Xo7ou? Trapd /SacrfXew?, r^ 
re TTO\LV avTOi<? dvacTTi^aeiv eTrayyeXXo^evov KOL 
Xprj/AdTa TroXXa ScDcreiv /ecu TWV 'EXkrjVwv 
/cvpiovs KaTaaTijcreiv eKTroSoav TOV TroXe/xoL' yevo- 



3 Ot Se Aa/ceSaifjioviot, nrvQopzvoi raura 
SetVaire? enre^'^av 'Adrfva^e Trpecrfieis, 

To>v 'A6riva[(*)V, OTTOJ? iralSas p,ev Kal yvvaircas 
et? ^irdpTrjv aTTOcrretXajcri, rot? Se irpeafivTepois 
rpo^a? Trap' avTwv \afij3 dv&iriv Icr^ypd jap 
rjv diropla Trepl TOV brjfJLov aTroXcoXe/vora /cat 

4 T7i> 2 ct)av /cat Trv TTO\LV. ov jbTjV aXXa T&H' 



1 SOKI/JLVTCLTOV Blass with F a S : 

8 /cal TTJV Hercher and Blass with F a S : 



240 



ARISTIDES, ix. 4-x. 4 

he throw this vast force of his upon the defensive. 
So Themistocles sent once more the eunuch Arnaces, 1 
a prisoner of war, bidding him tell the King that 
the Hellenes had actually set out on a voyage 
to attack the bridges, but that he, Themistocles, 
had succeeded in turning them back, wishing to 
save the King. 

X. At this Xerxes grew exceeding fearful, and 
hurried straight to the Hellespont ; but Mardonius, 
with the flower of the army, to the number of 
three hundred thousand men, was left behind. 
He was a formidable adversary, and because his 
confidence in his infantry was strong, he wrote 
threateningly to the Hellenes, saying : " Ye have 
conquered with your maritime timbers landsmen 
who know not how to ply the oar ; but now. broad 
is the land of Thessaly and fair the plain of Boeotia 
for brave horsemen and men-at-arms to contend 
in." But to the Athenians he sent separate letters 
and proposals from the King, who promised to 
rebuild their city, give them much money, and 
make them lords of the Hellenes, if only they 
would cease fighting against him. 

When the Lacedaemonians learned this, they 
took fright ; and sent an embassy to Athens, begging 
the Athenians to despatch their wives and children 
to Sparta, and to accept from her a support for 
their aged and infirm ; for great was the distress 
among the people, since it had so recently lost 
both land and city. However, after listening to 
the embassy, on motion of Aristides, they answered 

1 Cf. Themistocles , xvi. 2 f. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ypdtyavros, inreKplvavTO Oav/Liaa-rrjv 






, el 



irdvra TT\OVTOV teal ^p^/jbdrmv wvia 

xpelTTov ovoev taaacif, opyi^eaBat B Aa/ceBai- 
iois, on rrjv irevlav /col rrjv cnropiav rrjv vvv 
irapovcrav 'AQijvaLois fiovov opwcn, TT)? S' dperfjs 
KOL TT}? <f)i\OTifjiia<; d/jLvrj/jLovovcnv eVt crtrtot? 
virep r^5 'EXXaSo? dywvi^ea'dai 
5 ravra ypdtyas 'AyOfcrretS^? KOI TOU? 
i9 TT)V KK\r)aiav Trapayaywv, 
fjiev tce\va6 <j)pdeiv, a>9 OVK ecm 

-\ * A tr sp \ >'/!' 'V 

TOCOVTOV 7TA,?;c70? ovu urrep yrjv ovu VTTO 
ocrov 'AGrivcuoi Se^aivro av irpo TT}? TWV 'EX- 
\r)VO)V e\.v9epias. rot? Be irapa WLapB&vLov rov 

r/~* & /. f ( i/ \ * ? > it I f( / 

rjMov oetfa?, A^/Ji ay owro?, 9^, Tavrrjv 
TTopevrjrai rrjv Tropeiav, ^AOrjvaloi 7ro\ii/)cr overt 



uvre/) r>)? SeS^w/ze^? ^copa 1 ^ KOI 
6 rjasfi'qfieveov KOL /caTaKe/cav^evcov lepwv" eri Be 






pa<; 
pv/cevcraiTO M?;Soi9 17 T^ 



'Eyu,/3aXoi'T09 3e MapSoviov TO Sevrepov eh rrjv 
, avdis e/9 %a\afuva BieTrepaaav. ' 
Be irefJiOels e/9 



avTo<$ eveicei Ka r?9 



TO; 



iQov Be 7T/009 Ta e 






7 o*]ev. ravra aKovaavres o 
242 



AR1STIDES, x. 4-7 

with an admirable answer, declaring that they 
could be tolerant with their foes for supposing 
that everthing was to be bought for wealth and 
money, since their foes could conceive of nothing 
higher than these things ; but they were indignant 
at the Lacedaemonians for having an eye only 
to the penury and indigence that now reigned 
at Athens, and for being so unmindful of the valour 
and ambition of the Athenians as to exhort them 
to contend for Hellas merely to win their rations. 
When Aristides had made this motion and had 
introduced the waiting embassies into the Assembly, 
he bade the Lacedaemonians tell their people that 
there was not bulk of gold above or below ground 
so large that the Athenians would take it in 
payment for the freedom of the Hellenes ; and to 
the messengers of Mardonius he said, pointing to 
the sun : " As long as yonder sun journeys his 
appointed journey, so long will the Athenians wage 
war against the Persians in behalf of the land 
which has been ravaged by them and of the 
temples which they have defiled and consumed 
with fire." Still further, he made a motion that 
the priests should solemnly curse all who came to 
a parley with the Medes or forsook the alliance of 
the Hellenes. 

When Mardonius for the second time invaded 
Attica, again the people crossed over to Salamis. 
Then Aristides, who had been sent as envoy to 
Lacedaemon, inveighed against their sluggishness 
and indifference, in that they had once more 
abandoned Athens to the Barbarian, and demanded 
that they go to the aid of what was still left of 
Hellas. On hearing this, the Ephors, as long as 

43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



[lev eBoKOvv rrai^eiv KOI paQvuetv eoprd- 
rjv <yap avrols "TaKii'0ia- VVKTOS Be 



e/cacrro? eTrrd Trepl avrov e f L\wra<$ elftev, ee7re/it- 
tyav OVK elSoTayv TWV 'AOyvaicdv. eVet Be Trd\Lv 
eyKa\,a>v 6 'ApicrretS^? TrpoerjKQev, ol &e vvv 
7eXo)Ti \T]pelv avrov G^CLCFKOV /cal /cadevBeiv, fjBrj 
<yap eV 'Opecrretw TOZ^ crrparov elvai Tropevo/Aevov 
CTTL rou? ^e^ou? (^ez/ou? jap etcaKovv TOVS TTe/ocra?), 
8 ov Kara icaipov ecfrrj rrai^eiv avrov? 6 'ApicrreiBijs, 
avrl ro!)i> TroXe/ucoz; TOU? ^/Xof? e^arrar&vras. 
ravP ol Trepl rov 'ISo/xe^ea \e<yov(n,v. ev Be 
TO> tyrjcfiicr/jLari rov 'ApicrreiBov rrpecrftevrris OVK 
auro?, d\\a KL/JLWV Kal 't^avOircrro^ Kal M.vpa)- 



XI. Xetyooro^^^et? Se crrpar'rjyo^ avroKpdrwp 
lirl ryv jjidj(rjv, Kal r&v* K6r)vaiwv O 

dva\a/3a)i>, r\Kv et? ITXarat 
Ilaucraja'a? 6 TOU crvfAiravros 

(rvve/JLi^ev e^wv TOVS 2<7rapridra$, 
TWV a\\cov 'EXX^z'wi/ erreppei TO TrX^^o?. 
Se ftapftdptov TO yu-ev oXoz^ T/}? crrparoTreBeias 
Trapa rov 'Ao"a)7ro^ Trora/wv TrapeKrerauevr) 1 ? 
ovSels r}V opos Bia TO jjieyeOos, Trepl Be T9 a?ro- 
CTKtvds Kal ra Kvpioorara TeZ^o? rrepiefypd^avro 
rerpdycovov, ov rwv rr\evpwv effda-rrj fjLTJKO^ rjv 
BeKa crraBicov. 

Tlavo-avia [lev ovv Kal TO?? f/ EXX?;(7fc Koivfj 
6 'HXet09 e/navrevaaro, Kal TrpoeiTre 
duvvo/jLevois Kal /JLTJ 



244 



ARISTIDES, x. 7-xi. 2 

it was day, publicly disported themselves in easy- 
going festival fashion ; for it was their festival of the 
Hyacinthia. But in the night they selected five 
thousand Spartans, each of whom had seven Helots 
to attend upon him, and sent them forth without 
the knowledge of the Athenians. So when Aristides 
came before them with renewed invectives, they 
laughed and said he was but a sleepy babbler, 
for that their army was already in Arcadia on 
its march against the "strangers" (they called the 
Persians strangers). But Aristides declared they 
were jesting out of all season, forasmuch as they 
were deceiving their friends instead of their enemies. 
This is the way Idomeneus tell the story. But in 
the decree which Aristides caused to be passed, he 
himself is not named as envoy, but Cimon, Xanthippus, 
and Myronides. 

XI. Having been elected general with sole powers 
in view of the expected battle, he came to Plataea ] 
at the head of eight thousand Athenian hoplites. 
There Pausanias also, the commander in chief of 
the whole Hellenic army, joined him with his 
Spartans, and the forces of the rest of the Hellenes 
kept streaming up. Now, generally speaking, 
there was no limit to the encampment of the 
Barbarians as it lay stretched out along the river 
Asopus, so vast was it ; but round their baggage 
trains and chief headquarters they built a quad- 
rangular wall, whereof each side was ten stadia 
in length. 

To Pausanias and all the Hellenes under him 
Tisamenus the Eleian made prophecy, and foretold 
victory for them if they acted on the defensive and 

1 Spring of 479 B.C. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



3 'ApMTTeiBov Be Trep^avTOS et<? AeX<jf>ou<? aveikev 
6 #eo? 'Adrivaiovs KaOvTreprepovs eaeaOai TWV 
IvavTiwv ev^o/jievovs rco Ad /cal Trj "Hpa rfj 
K.i0aipwvia tcai Tlavl KOI vv/JL$>ais 
KCU OVOVTCLS ijpcocriv 'Av&poKpdrei, 



iSw, KOI TOV KivSvvov ev yd ISia 7roiov/j,evov$ 
lv TO) TreSiG) ra? Aa/^ar/jo? ra? 'EXei/criwa? tcai 

4 ra<? Kopa?. ouro? o xprja-ju-os avev^0el<^ airopiav 
TO) 'ApicrreiSr) 7rape2)^V. ol ftev yap ijpoje^, ot? 
efce\ev Oveiv, ap^yerai TlXaraiewz/ rjcrav, teal 
TO TWV ^(ppayiTi&cov WIA^WV avrpov ev fjua. 
/copv(f)f) TOV KiOaipwvos ecrriv, et? Sucr/za? rfkiov 
Oeptvas TTpa/^/jLi>oi>, ei> w tcai pavTeiov r)i> 
rrpoTepov, w? (fcacn, KOL TroXXol tcaTefyovro TOJI^ 
ITTI \wpiwv, ovs vv/ji<j)o\?l7rTOVs Trpocrijyopevov. 

5 TO Be T?}? 'EXeucrii/fcct? A?^?^T/)09 TreBiov, KOI TO 

\ / ' ' ' ' " 

r?;^ jJLa^rjv ev ioia %ft)/3a Trotof/aez'Oi? rot? 
vaiots VLKTJV BiBoadai, iraKiv et? 
aveKa\LTo teal fjieOicrrtj TOV 7r6\e/AOV. 

o cnpcnriyo 
Kara roi'9 VTTVOVS VTTO TOV Ato? roO 

avTov, 6 TL Brj rrpaTTeiv Beoo/CTai 
TO?? "EXX^crM/, L7Tiv, "Avpiov 6t? 
(TTpaTiav a-nd^o^ev, w SecnroTa, Kal 

TOt? ftapBdpOl? KL KaTOL TO 

6 TOV oti/ 6^60^ <j)dvaL Bia/jLapTaveiv CLVTOVS TOV 

avTodi yap elvai Trepl Ttjv 



ra Trv^o^p^cTTa /cal fyTovi'Ta? dvevprfaeiv. 



TOVTWV evapyw? TCO 'Api/AVija'Ty tyavevTwv %eyp6- 
246 



ARISTIDES, xi. 3-6 

did not advance to the attack. But Aristides sent 
to Delphi and received from the god response that 
the Athenians would be superior to their foes if they 
made vows to Zeus, Cithaeronian Hera, Pan, and 
the Sphragitic nymphs ; paid sacrifices to the heroes 
Androcrates, Leucon, Pisandrus, Damocrates, Hyp 
sion, Actaeon, and Polyidus; and if they sustained 
the peril of battle on their own soil, in the plain of 
Eleusinian Demeter and Cora. When this oracle 
was reported to Aristides, it perplexed him greatly. 
The heroes to whom he was to sacrifice were, it was 
true, ancient dignitaries of the Plataeans ; and the 
cave of the Sphragitic nymphs was on one of the 
peaks of Cithaeron, facing the summer sunsets, and 
in it there was also an oracle in former days, as they 
say, and many of the natives were possessed of the 
oracular power, and these were called nympholepti, 
or " nymph-possessed." But the plain of Eleusinian 
Demeter, and the promise of victory to the Athenians 
if they fought the battle in their own territory, 
called them back, as it were, to Attica, and changed 
the seat of war. 

At this time the general of the Plataeans, Arim- 
nestus, had a dream in which he thought he was 
accosted by Zeus the Saviour and asked what the 
Hellenes had decided to do, and replied : " On the 
morrow, my Lord, we are going to lead our army 
back to Eleusis, and fight out our issue with the 
Barbarians there, in accordance with the Pythian 
oracle." Then the god said they were entirely in 
error, for the Pythian oracle's places were there in 
the neighbourhood of Plataea, and if they sought 
them they would surely find them. All this was 
made so vivid to Arimnestus that as soon as he awoke 

VOL. II. I 247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rd%i(7ra /jLereTre/jL^fraro TOI>? e/jLTreipordrov? 
Kal Trpeafivrdrovs rwv TroXirwv, peP wv Sia- 
Xe70/iei>o? Kal avvBiaTropwv evpev, on, rwv 'Tcrtwp 
7r\7)criov VTTO TOP KiOaipwva mo? laiiv a/j^ato? 
Trdvv l Aij/jirjrpos 'EXevcrm'a? Kal Kop?;? irpocra- 
ev9ij<$ ovv 7rapa\a/3a)v TOV 'Api- 
fjyev 67ri rbv TOTTOV, ev^vecrrarov OVTCL 



Sia ra? V7ro)peia<s rov KiQaipwvos a$>L7nra TTOI- 
ovaas ra KaraXtfyovTa KOI crvyKvpovvra rov 
TreSiov TT/OO? TO lepov. avrov 8* TJV Kal TO rov 
'AvSpOKpdrovs fjp&ov eyyvs, aXcret, TTVKVWV Kal 
8 crva-Kiwv BevSpwv irepLe^o/JLevov. OTTO)? 8e 
e'XX,47re? e^rj TT/OO? rrjv e'XTTtSa T?)? viKrjs o 
eSo^e Tot? Tl\araiev(TLv, 'Api/jLvrfarov 
eiVoi/To?, dve\elv ra TT^O? r^v 'Am/c^v opia rrj? 326 

Kal rrjv %wpav eTTibovvai TO?? 'Adrj- 
vjrep TT)? 'EXXa^o? ev ol/ceia Kara rbv 



9 Tavrrjv /JLCV ovv rrjv (f)L\orifiiav rwv H\araiea)v 
ovrw a-vrefirj TrepijSorjrov yeviaOai,, wcrre Kal 
'AXegavSpov ijBr] ftacriXevovra T^?'Acr/a? vcrrepov 
TroXXot? 6T6CT4 rei^i^ovra T? IlXaTa^a? dvenrelv 
'O\vfj,7ndcriv VTTO Ktjpv/cos, on ravrrjv 6 fia&iXevs 
H\arat,6V(Ti rr}? dv$paya0la<; Kal rfjs 



Tot? r)cnv ev 

rw MrB(,KO) 7ro\ejLW rrv '^av 7reSa)Kav Kal 



7rapeo"%ov 

XII. ' ' A6r)valoi,<$ Be Teyedrai irepl 

rj^iovv, wcnrep dei, AaKe^aifJiovLwv TO 
%6vTa)V Kepas, avrol TO evayvvjjiov 
1 ira.w omitted by Bekker, now found in S. 
248 



ARISTIDES, xi. 6-xn. i 

he summoned the oldest and most experienced of his 
fellow-citizens. By conference and investigation 
with these he discoverd that near Hysiae, at the 
foot of mount Cithaeron, there was a very ancient 
temple bearing the names of Eleusinian Demeter and 
Cora. Straightway then he took Aristides and led 
him to the spot. They found that it was naturally 
very well suited to the array of infantry against a 
force that was superior in cavalry, since the spurs of 
Cithaeron made the edges of the plain adjoining the 
temple unfit for horsemen. There, too, was the 
shrine of the hero Androcrates hard by, enveloped 
in a grove of dense and shady trees. And besides, 
that the oracle might leave no rift in the hope 
of victory, the Plataeans voted, on motion of Arim- 
nestus, to remove the boundaries of Plataea on 
the side toward Attica, and to give this territory 
to the Athenians, that so they might contend in 
defence of Hellas on their own soil, in accordance 
with the oracle. 

This munificence of the Plataeans became so 
celebrated that Alexander, many years afterwards, 
when he was now King of Asia, 1 built the walls of 
Plataea, and had proclamation made by herald at the 
Olympic games that the King bestowed this grace 
upon the Plataeans in return for their bravery and 
magnanimity in freely bestowing their territory upon 
the Hellenes in the Median war, and so showing 
themselves most zealous of all. 

XII. Now with the Athenians the men of Tegea 
came to strife regarding their position in the line. 
They claimed that, as had always been the case, 
since the Lacedaemonians held the right wing, they 

1 331-330 B.O. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7roXX<^ TOVS avrcov Trpoyovow? 

dyavaKTOvvTwv B& T&V 'AQyvaicov 

6 'A/5tcrTet8^9 eiTre' " Teyedrais aev 

Trepl evyeveias /cat dvBpaya0Las o 7rapu>v 

KCLlpOS OV BLBftHTl,, 7T/909 8' V^lds, 0) ^TrapTlCLTai, 

real roi'? aXXou? f/ EXX7;^a? \eyo/ji6v, OIL rrjv dperrjv 
OVK dtyaipeirat, TOTTO? ovSe SiSwcriv r)v 6' av u 
rj/jiiv rd^iv aTToScore TreipacrojjLeOa 
Kal (j)u\drTOVT<? firj Karaivxyvtiv rou? 
2 crfjievovs aywi/a?. rfKOfjuev yap ov TO?? 
o-jacrfacroi/Te?, d\\d fj,a%ovfjLvoi, rot? 
ouS' 7raiv(r6/jLevoi, TOU? Trare/oa?, aXX* 
avSpas dyadovs rfj 'EXXaSt Trape^ovres' &>? OLTO? 
o dycov Beimel /cal TroKiV Kal dp^ovra Kal ISicorrjv 

r f n 'f f?~\ 1 >/.' 1> / 

OTTOGOV rot? I^XMJCTLV a^o? etrrt. raur aKov- 
01 trvveSpoi Kal rjye^ove^ dTrebe^avro rou? 
iov^ Kal Odrepov avrot? Kepas aTrebocrav. 
XIII. OI/CTT;? Se /nerewpov T?}? 'EXXaSo? 
/jLa\i(TTa TOi? 'Adrjvaiois rwv Trpay/ndTwv 
e^ovrcov, dvSpes e OIKWV eirL$>avwv 
fjLeyd\wv Tre^re? UTTO roi) TTO\/JLOV 
Kal Trdcrav ajjia TW TrXoura) T^I/ e*> T^ 
&uva/jLiv avr&v Kal So^av ol^oaevrjv opcov- 
re?, eTepwv Ti/jiw/JLevcov Kal ap^ovrwv, avvri\6ov 
et? oiKiav Tivd TWV eV nXarcuat? Kpixfra Kal 
crvvwfj-ocravTO KaraXvaeiv TOV &~ JJLOV el Be arj 
ir], \v^iav&l(jQai ra Trpdy/jLara Kal rot? 



2 Ylparrofxevcov Se rovrcov ev TW crrparoTreSft) 
<rv)(ywv ijSij Bt,e(f)dapf^V(t)v, aladofjievo^ 6 'A/ot- 
Kal cfrofirjOels TOV Kaipov, eyvm /XT;T* cdv 



250 



ARISTIDES, xn. I-XHI. 2 

themselves should hold the left, and in support of 
their claim they sounded loudly the praises of their 
ancestors. The Athenians were incensed, and 
Aristides came forward and made this speech : " To 
argue with the men of Tegea about noble birth and 
bravery, there is surely no time now ; but we declare 
to you, O Spartans, and to the rest of the Hellenes, 
that valour is not taken away from a man, nor is 
it given him, by his position in the line. Whatsoever 
post ye shall assign to us, we will endeavour to main- 
tain and adorn it, and so bring no disgrace upon the 
contests we have made before. We are come, not 
to quarrel with our allies, but to do battle with our 
foes ; not to heap praises on our fathers, but to show 
ourselves brave men in the service of Hellas. It is 
this contest which will show how much any city or 
captain or private soldier is worth to Hellas." On 
hearing this, the councillors and leaders declared for 
the Athenians, and assigned to them the other wing. 

XIII. While Hellas was thus in suspense and 
Athens especially in danger, certain men of that 
city who were of prominent families and large 
wealth, but had been impoverished by the war, saw 
that with their riches all their influence in the city 
and their reputation had departed, while other men 
now had the honours and offices. They therefore 
met together secretly at a certain house in Plataea, 
and conspired to overthrow the democracy ; or, it 
their plans did not succeed, to injure the general 
cause and betray it to the Barbarians. 

Such was the agitation in the camp, and many 
had already been corrupted, when Aristides got 
wind of the matter, and, fearful of the crisis that 
favoured the plot, determined not to leave the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



dfi\ov/j,vov TO Trpdy/jia iLr)6* arrav KKa\V7rret,v t 
dyvoov/jievov et? ocrov eKjSrjarerai tr\r}do<s o 
rbv rov Si/caiov %r)TMv opov dvrl rov 
3 o,tfT&> 77 nva<$ e/c TroXXcoz/ crvvekafte' Kol TOVTCOV 
Svo fjiev, ol? TrpcoTOt? rj Kpiais Trpoejpdcjjrj, ot KOI 
7r\i(7Tr)v aliiav el^ov, Atcr^ti/?;? ActfjLTrrpevs Kal 
ap^eu9, w^ovro fyevyovTes e/c rov 
, TOU? S' aXXou? a(j)iJK, Oapcrrjaai, 
teal fj,Tayvwvat, rot9 eri \avddveiv olo- 
vTrenrtov &)? peya SiKaaTrjpiov e^ovcn rov 
a7ro\vcrao'6ai, r9 alrl 

rpi^i /3ov\ev6fjievoi. 
XIV. Mera ravra Ma/oSoi'to?, 
eSoKei* $La<f)epeiv, row ( }L\\r)vwv aTreTreiparo, rrjv 
ITTTTOV aOpoav avrols e<^el? KaOe^o^evoi^ VTTO rov 
rov Ki^atpw^o? ev ^a>/?tot? o^upo?? 

7T\r)V M.eyapea)v. ovroi Be 
TO TT\r)Oo<s oVre? ev rot? eViTreSoi? 
ecrrparoTreSevovro, Sib /cat /ca/cco? eiracr^ov VTTO 
rrjs LTTTTOV pV6L(rr)<; eir avrovs Kal rrpoa(3o\a<$ 
2 e%oucr?79 rcavrayoQev. eirefjiirov ovv 
Kara rd%os TT/JO? Hav&avLav ftoriO 
a>9 ou Svvd/jievoi Kaff avrovs VTroa-rfjvai rb r&v 
fSapftdpwv 7r\fj0o<;. ravra Tlavcravia? a.Kovcov t 
ij&rj Be Kal Kadopwv aTTOKeKpufJi^ivov aKOvrta/nd- 
rwv val ro^ev/jidrwv 7T\ij0et rb arparoTre&ov rwv 
Meyapecov Kal avvecrra\iJbevovs avrovs els o\iyov, 
avro9 IJLCV ajJbr'^avQ^ f)V TT/JO? /TTTrora? apvveiv 327 
252 



ARISTIDES, xin. 2-xiv. 2 

matter in neglect, nor yet to bring it wholly to the 
light, since it could not be known how many would 
be implicated by a test which was based on justice 
rather than expediency. Accordingly, he arrested 
some eight or so of the many conspirators. Two of 
these, against whom the charge was first formally 
brought, and who were really the most guilty ones, 
Aeschines of Lamptrae and Agesias of Acharnae, 
fled the camp. The rest he released, affording thus 
an opportunity for encouragement and repentance to 
those who still thought they had escaped detection, 
and suggested to them that the war was a great 
tribunal for their acquittal from the charges made 
against them, provided they took sincere and 
righteous counsel in behalf of their country. 

XIV. After this, Mardonius made trial of the 
Hellenes with that arm of his service in which he 
thought himself most superior. He despatched all 
his cavalry against them as they lay encamped at the 
foot of Cithaeron, in positions that were rugged and 
rocky all except the Megarians. These, to the 
number of three thousand, were encamped the 
rather in open plain. For this reason they suffered 
severely at the hands of the cavalry, which poured 
in tides against them, and found access to them 
on every side. Accordingly, they sent a messenger 
in haste to Pausanias, bidding him come to their aid, 
since they were unable of themselves to withstand 
the host of the Barbarians. Pausanias, on hearing 
this, and seeing at once that the camp of the 
Megarians was as good as hidden from view by the 
multitude of the enemy's javelins and arrows, and 
that its defenders were huddled together in narrow 
quarters, on his own part had no way of rendering 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<pd\ayyi KOI ftapeia rfj 
3 rot? 8' aXXot? o-Tparrjyois Kal \o%ayois TWV 'EX- 
\rjvwv irepi avTov oven TrpouOero V)Xoi> dpeTrjs 
Kal <pi\oTifjLias, el Bij Tives eKovTes dvaoeJ;aivTo 
Trpoaycovicrao'dai, /cal [SorjOyjcrai, rot? Meyapevcri. 
TWV 8' a\\o)v OKVOVVTWV 'A/oicrretS^? a^aSe^a/zez/o? 
VTrep TWV *A0>]vaL(0v TO epyov arroaTe\\ei TOV 



roi9 VTT* avrw reray^efov^ \oydSas 
Kal ro^ora? ava^^i^^vov^ avv 



Tovrwv Be l o^ew? Siao-Kevacrafievwv Kal Trpocr- 
(0v Spo/jbM, Maatcrrio? 6 rwv (BapjSdpwv 
, dvrjp d\/cfj re ^auyuacrro? peyeOei re 
/cal KaXXei crto^aros 7re/3tTTO9, <w? KareiSev, 
IVOLVTIOV eVfcrTpe^a? TOV 'ITTTTOV et? auroi/? i]\avve. 
T0)v 8' dvaa^o/juevcov Kal crviJi(:$a\6vTwv rjv dycov 
Acaprepo?, cb? Trelpav ev TOVTO) TOV TravTO? Xa/A- 
5 SavovTcov. eVel Se TOevOeis o ITTTTO? roz/ Ma- 



Kal ire(TU)V U'TTO /3a/)0f? TCOI> 

OTT\WV aUTO? T6 SvCTKLVrjTO^ TjV dva(j)6pLV Kal TOi? 



7riKi/nev<)i,s Kal 



, ov IJLOVOV ffrepva KOI K6(f)a\rfv, aXXa Kal ra 
yvia xpvaw Kal %a\K(p teal criBrfpw KaTaTre^pay- 
fievos, TOVTOV fjiev y TO Kpdvos V7re<f)aiv6 TOV 
o(^da\fjibv aKorriov crTvpaKi iraiwv ri? dvei\ev, 01 
8' aXXoi Hepvai Trpoe^voL TOV vexppv ecfrevyov. 
6 eyvuxrdrj 8e TOV KaTOp0a)/j,aTOs TO fJieyeOos rot? 
"EiXXrjaiv OVK CLTTO TWL> veKpwv TOV r rr\r)0ov<; ) 
6\iyoi yap ol TreaoyTe? rjaav, aXXa TU> irevdei 

1 TOVTUIV 5e Hercher and Blass with F a S : TOVTWV. 
254 



ARISTIDES, xiv. 2-6 

them aid against horsemen, since his phalanx of 
Spartans was full-armoured and slow of movement ; 
but to the rest of the generals and captains of the 
Hellenes who were about him he proposed, in order to 
stir up their valour and ambition, that some of them 
should volunteer to make contention for the succour 
of the Megarians. The rest all hesitated, but 
Aristides, in behalf of the Athenians, undertook 
the task, and despatched his most zealous captain, 
Olympiodorus, with the three hundred picked men 
of his command, and archers mingled with them. 

These quickly arrayed themselves and advanced 
to the attack on the run. Masistius, the commander 
of the Barbarian cavalry, a man of wonderful prowess 
and of surpassing stature and beauty of person, saw 
them coming, and at once wheeled his horse to 
face them and charged down upon them. Then 
there was a mighty struggle between those who 
withstood and those who made the charge, since 
both regarded this as a test of the whole issue 
between them. Presently the horse of Masistius 
was hit with an arrow, and threw his rider, who 
lay where he fell, unable to raise himself, so heavy 
was his armour ; and yet he was no easy prey to 
the Athenians, though they pressed upon him 
and smote him. For not only his chest and 
head, but also his limbs were encased in gold and 
bronze and iron. But at last, with the spike of 
a javelin, through the eye-hole of his helmet, he was 
smitten to the death, and the rest of the Persians 
abandoned his body and fled. The magnitude of 
their success was known to the Hellenes, not 
from the multitude of those they slew, for few 



255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



fiapfidpwv. Kal yap eavTOu? eKeipav erri r& 
MacrjcTTtft) Kal WTTTOU? Kal rjjjbiovov^y olfiwyfjs re 
Kal K\av0fjiov TO rre&iov everrifJLrr\acrav, &>? avBpa 
7roXt> rrpwrov dperf) Kal Bvvdjj,ei fierd ye Map- 



Boviov avrbv 



XV. Mera Be TVJV tTTTroyu-a^tav a^orepoi yLta 
O"%ovTO %povov TTO\VV afivvo/Jievois jap ol 
ret? viK,r]v Trpovfiaivov IK rwv icpwv OJAOLCOS 
TO?? Tlepcrais Kal Tol<$ t '}L\\ricnv, el 8' e 



b\lywv rd eTririjBeia rrepirfv, ol 8' "EXA^ye? del 
eirippeovrcav r jr\eiove<; eyivovro, Bvcravaa^e- 
(jL^Keri, [JLeveiv, aXXa Bia/3d$ dfj,a fydei 
ov eTriOecrOai T04?' / EXX?7<rii' d 1 
Kal 7rapdyye\/j,a TOi? rjye/jLocriv et 



2 Mecrouo-7;? Se fj.d\icra TT}? WKros dvrjp VTTTTOV 

drpe^a Trpo(reiJLiyvve TW arparoTreBfi) rwv 
vwv evrv)(u>v Be ra?? ^>fXarat9 eVeXeuei^ 
avr<p rrpocre'X.Oe'iv 'ApicrreiBrjv rov 'AQrjvaiov. 
inraKOvcravTOS Be ra%ec0s e^rjcrev " E//u /xei^ 
'AXe^ai'Spo? 6 Ma/ceScov, rf/c&) Se Kivbvrwv rov /j,e- 
ytarov evvoia ry TT/OO? vytta? alpojAevos, w? ytt^ TO 
al<pvLBiov eKrr\i^eiev u/za? %elpov dywvicracrOai. 

3 fjLa^elrai yap v/.uv MapBovios avpwv, ov% VTT 

vBe 0dpcrov<;, aXX' d- 



eet Aral Acivreis etcewov 



tepols Kal \oyioi<? %pr)<r/jiwv elpyovcn fzd^r]<;, Kal 
rov arparov e^ei, ^vaOv/Jbia TroXXrj Kal Kara7r\rj- 



256 



ARISTIDES, xiv. 6-xv. 3 

had fallen, but from the grief of the Barbarians. 
For they shore their own hair in tribute to Masistius, 
and that of their horses and mules, and filled the 
plain with their wailing cries. They felt that they 
had lost a man who, after Mardonius himself, was by 
far the first in valour and authority. 

XV. After this cavalry battle, both sides refrained 
from further fighting for a long time, since only 
as they acted on the defensive would victory be 
theirs so the soothsayers interpreted the sacrifices 
alike for Persians and Hellenes, but if they attacked, 
defeat. At last Mardonius, since he had supplies 
remaining for only a few days, and since the 
Hellenes were ever increasing in number as fresh 
bodies joined them, impatiently determined to 
wait no longer, but to cross the Asopus at day- 
break and attack the Athenians unexpectedly. 
During the evening he gave the watchword to 
his commanders. 

But about midnight a solitary horseman quietly 
approached the camp of the Hellenes, and falling 
in with the outposts, ordered that Aristides the 
Athenian come to him. He was speedily obeyed, 
and then said : " I am Alexander the Macedonian, 
and I am come at the greatest peril to myself, 
out of my good-will toward you, that no suddenness 
of attack may frighten you into inferior fighting. 
Mardonius will surely give battle on the morrow, 
not because he has substantial hope or even courage, 
but because he is destitute of provisions. His sooth- 
sayers, indeed, are trying to keep him from battle by 
unpropitious sacrifices and oracular utterances, while 
his army is full of dejection and consternation*, 
but he must needs boldly try his fortune, or sit 

257 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rj Tr]V ecr^aT^v viro/jieveiv aTropiav 

t+ I / f 1 -x /4- ^ 5P> * 

4 ravra <aaas o A.\avoo<$ eoeiro 



Se 



avTOV eevai tea fjivrj^oveveiv, erepw 
o S' ou /caXw? %iv G^TI ravra 
craviav airoicpv-^aaOai, itcelvrp jap avafcelaOai, 
rjye/jLOviav, TT/JO? Se rou? aXXou? apprjra Trpb 
eBol-ev * eaecrOai, viKwari^ Be TT}? 
ov&eva rrjv 'A.\ej;dv$pov TrpoOvfJiiav KOI 
5 dperrjv ayvorfcreiv. Xe^Oevrwv 8e TOVTWV o re 
T&V Ma/ceSoz/a)^ aTrt'iKavvev oTrica) 
o re 'ApicrraS?;? d(j)iK6fjL6vo<; CTTL rrjv 323 
TOV Tlavcraviov Siijyeiro rou? Xoyou?* 
fieT67T/jL7rovTO TGI/? aXXou? qye/Aovas KGU 
ev /eoa/,ft> TOI/ 



XVI. 'Ei/ rourft) 5', &>9 'H^oSoro? icrTopel, 
TIavaravias 'ApfcrreiS?? Trpoaecfrepe \6yov, d^toyv 
TOU? ' A.6r]valov 9 em TO Se^tou /jLerard^ai /cal 2 
Kara rovs Tlepaas awr IT arrival, /3e\.riov ydp 
dycomelcrdaL TTJS re pdyys e'yu,7ret/3ou9 yeyovoras 
KOI rq> iTpoveviicriKevai OappovvTas, avra) Be irapa- 

ol 
e/ji6~\.\ov. 

Ol fiev ovv d\\OL o-rparrj'yol rwv ' A.O^vaL(ov 
dyvco/jiova Kal (fyopriKov rjyovvro TOV Tlavcraviav, 
el TTJV a\\r)v e&v Ta^iv ev %a>pa [JLOVOVS dvw KOI 
/caret) iie-rafyepei crdpas &o~7rep eiXwTa9, KCLTO, TO 



Bovvai TO evtovvjLov, OTTOV TWV < ^\\ivw 



bracketed by Bekker, omitted by Blass. 
3 fieTTaat Kal MISS., Siuteuis 1 , Coraes, Bekker: 



258 



AH1STIDES, xv. 3~xvi. 2 

still and endure extremest destitution." When he 
had told him this, Alexander begged Aristides to 
keep the knowledge to himself and bear it well 
in mind, but to tell it to none other. Aristides 
replied that it was not honourable to conceal this 
knowledge from Pausanias, since it was on him 

O * 

that the supreme command devolved, but that 
it should not be told the other leaders before the 
battle ; though in case Hellas were victorious, no 
man should remain ignorant of Alexander's zeal 
and valour. After this conversation, the king 
of the Macedonians rode off back again, and 
Aristides went to the tent of Pausanias and told 
him all that had been said. Then they summoned 
the other leaders and gave them orders to keep 
the army in array, since there was to be a 
battle. 

XVI. At this juncture, as Herodotus relates, 1 
Pausanias sent word to Aristides, demanding that 
the Athenians change their position and array 
themselves on the right wing, over against the 
Persians, where they would contend better, he 
said, since they were versed already in the Persian 
style of fighting, and emboldened by a previous 
victory over them ; the left wing, where the Medising 
Hellenes were going to attack, should be intrusted 
to himself and his Spartans. 

The rest of the Athenian generals thought it 
inconsiderate and annoying in Pausanias to leave 
the rest of his line in the position assigned, while 
he moved them, and them only, back and forth 
like Helots, and put them forward where the 

1 ix. 46. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rpo/3a\\6/J,evo<;' 6 8* ' 
SiajAaprdveiv auTou? efyacnce rov Travros, el 
rrputiqv fj-ev vTrep rov TO vcovvfj,ov Kepas zyziv 
$ie(f>i\ori{j,ovvro Teyedrats teal Trpo/cpiQevres eVe- 

3 pvvvovro, vvv 8e, A.aK6&aipovia)V eKovcritos avrols 

rov Be^iou /cal rpoTrov TLVCL TTJV 
TrapaSiSovrwv, ovre rqv S6av a/yaTrco- 
<TLV OUT tcepSos rjyouvrai TO fj,rj TT/JO? 6jiio(j)v\.ov$ 
/cal (Tuyyeveis, a\\a (Bapftdpovs /cal (pvaei TroXe- 
fjLLOVS dywi'ia-ao-Oat. K rovrov Trow Tr 
ol ' 'AOrjvaioi Bir}jjL6L/3ovTO Tot? ^TrapTidrai,? 

4 rd^Lv teal Xoyo? e^copa Si ai)Twv TroXv? d\- 



ovre 
ovre iua? de'ivovs ol 



ev MapaOwvi irpocrlacnv, d\\d ravra p,ev e/cei 
r6a, ravra 8' eaQrjros 7roixi\/jiara real %pvcrb<> 



errl (KJoacri aaXa/cot? /cal 



S' o/Jioia jjiev oVXa real (ra)jj,ara, /Jiel^ov Se Tat? 
vlreais TO Odpcros, 6 8' dya>v ov% virep %a)pas /cal 
fJLOvov, &)? eKelvow, aXX' u7re/9 TWI' eV 
real %a\a/j.lvi rporralwv, co? /t^S' e/ceiva 
Mi\ndo'ov So/cfj real TV)(rj$, aXXa * A.6i)val(av. 
Ovroi jj.lv ovv cTTreuSo^Te? eV djjLetyei rwv 
rjaav alcrOofievoi Be tyq/Baloi reap 1 avro- 
Ma/jSoWft) (frpd^ovcn. Kaicelvo*; ev0v$, elre 
TOV? "A^i/atou?, etVe TO?? 
260 



ARISTIDES, xvi. 2-5 

fighting was to be hottest. But Aristides declared 
that they were utterly wrong ; they had contended 
emulously with the Tegeans, but a little while 
back, for the occupation of the left wing, and 
plumed the mselves on being preferred before those 
rivals ; but now, when the Lacedaemonians of 
their own accord vacated the right wing for them, 
and after a fashion proffered them the leadership 
among the Hellenes, they neither welcomed the 
reputation thus to be won, nor counted it gain 
that their contention would thus be, not with men 
of the same tribes and kindreds, but rather with 
Barbarians and natural enemies. Upon this the 
Athenians very willingly exchanged posts with 
the Spartans, and the word passed from lip to 
lip far through their ranks that their enemies 
would attack them with no better arms and with 
no braver spirits than at Marathon, nay, with 
the same kind of archery as then, and with the 
same variegated vesture and gold adornments to 
cover soft bodies and unmanly spirits ; " while 
we have not only like arms and bodies with our 
brethren of that day, but that greater courage 
which is born of our victories ; and our contest is 
not alone for land and city, as theirs was, but 
also for the trophies which they set up at Marathon 
and Salamis, in order that the world may think 
that not even those were due to Miltiades only, 
or to fortune, but to the Athenians." 

The Spartans and Athenians, then, were busily 
engaged in exchanging posts ; but the Thebans 
heard of it from deserters and told Mardonius. He, 
at once, whether through fear of the Athenians or 
out of ambition to engage with the Lacedaemonians, 

261 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<j)i\OTi{jLOv/jL6vos, dvmrape^rjye 
Ilep<Ta9 eVl rb Se^iov, TOU? Se "EXX^a? 



avr> Kara TOU? 



6 yevo/Jievrjs Be T^9 yuera:oo'^.>;cre<w9 fcaracfravovs o 
re Tlavcravias aTrorpaTret? av9is eVt roO 
Karearr], KOI MapSo^/o?, cbcnrep el^ev 
dve\a{3e TO evwvvjJLOv Kara rou? 



ij re fjfjiepa Bi6^n\0ev dpyrj. /cal roi? 
j3ov\6VO/jLevoi<? e'So^e Troppwrepci) 

KCLI Kara\a(3elv evvSpov 
ra 7r\r)criov va^ara icaOvftpia-TO teal Sie- 

TWV (3ap(Bdpwv LTnroKparovvwv. 
XVII. 'E7reX$oi;<r?79 8e VVKTOS teal TWV crrparrj- 
dyovrcov eVl T^ aTro&eSeiy/jievrjv crrpaTO- 
ov irdvv irpoOvfjiov r)V eireaOai /cal 
TO ir\r)6o<^, aXX' co? tvecrTr](7av etc rwv 
VfjLdrwv e<$>epov~ro TT^OO? TT/Z^ vroXt/' T&>^ 
ot TroXXot, :al Oopvftos rjv eicel Bia- 
real KaraffKrfvovvTwv aTa/cTft)?. Aa/ce- 
Be crvvelSaivev l aicovcn /uo^ot? 

2 TrevQai TWV aXXcov 'A/zo/^c6apeTO9 

Kal <j)i\ofciv$vvos, t'/cTraXat vrpo? 
(nrapywv teal ^apvvo^evo^ Ta? TroXXa? 
dva/3o\a<? /cal fi > 6\\>]<Tis, rore o?) iravrdTracrL rrjv 
(jLeravdaTacriv ffrvyrjv d7rotca\MV KOI aTro 
OVK efir) \eityeiv rrjv rd^LV, aXX' avroOi 
fjiera TMV eavrov \O^LTWV v7rorrr^(To-0at MapSo- 

3 viov. cb? Se Ylavo-avias 7re\0wv e\eye ravra 
Trpdrreiv etyr)(f)i<T/jL6i>a /cal Be8oy/j,e^a rots f 'R\\rj- 
civ, dpa/jbevof ralv ^epoiv Trerpov fieyav 6 

Blass, adopting the conjecture of Sintenis 1 : 



ARISTIDES, xvi. 5 -xvn. 3 

counterchanged his Persians to the right wing, and 
ordered the Hellenes with him to set themselves 
against the Athenians. When this change in his 
enemy's order of battle was manifest, Pausanias 
returned and occupied the right wing again, where- 
upon Mardonius also resumed his own left wing, just 
as he stood at the beginning, facing the Lacedae- 
monians. And thus the day came to an end without 
action. The Hellenes, on deliberation, decided to 
change their camp to a position farther on, and to 
secure a spot where there was plenty of good water, 
since the neighbouring springs were defiled and 
ruined by the Barbarians' superior force of cavalry. 

XVI I. Night came on, and the generals set out to 
lead their forces to the appointed encampment. The 
soldiers, however, showed no great eagerness to 
follow in close order, but when they had once 
abandoned their first defences, most of them hurried 
on toward the city of Plataea, and there tumult 
reigned as they scattered about and encamped in no 
order whatsover. But it chanced that the Lacedae- 
monians were left alone behind the others, and that 
too against their will. For Amompharetus, a man of 
a fierce and venturesome spirit, who had long been 
mad for battle and distressed by the many post- 
ponements and delays, now at last lost all control 
of himself, denounced the change of position as a 
runaway flight, and declared that he would not 
abandon his post, but stay there with his company 
and await the onset of Mardonius. And when 
Pausanias came up and told him that their action 
had been formally voted by the Helleues in council, 



263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



teal /caTaftaXcov Trpb rwv TroBwv rov 
Tlavcraviov ravrr\v etyij i|r/}(oz> auro? Trepl TT}? 329 
rlOecrBat,, rd Be rwv aXXa>i> Bei\.d /3ovXeu- 
KOI Soy/iara yjiipziv edv. d7ropov/j,ei>o<; Be 
Havcravias rw Trapovn TT/JO? pev TOU? ' KO^vaiov^ 
aTnovras ^Brj, TrepLpeivat, Seo/xevo? /cal 
i^eiv, auTO? Se TTJV a\\r)v Svvapiv 7776 
7T/J09 ra? riXarata? a>? ava(nr)<T(j)V rov 'A/io/t- 

(f)dp6TOV. 

4 'Ei/ TOUT&J &e fcareXduJSavev y/jiepa, /cal M.ap- 
Sowo? (ov ^a/j e\aOov r^v (TTparoTreBeiav K\e\oi- 
TTore? ot f/ E\X,^^e?) X 0)V <TWT6Tayfjiei>r]v rrjv 
Svva/Jiiv e7re(f>epero rot? AafceSaifAOviots floy TroXX?; 
/cat Trardjco TWV fiap/Sdpcov, &>? ov yaa^?;? eVo- 
/jLevrj^y aXXa (frevyovras dvapTracrofjLevwv rou? 
^EXX^ya?. o jjiiKpas poTrrjs eSerjcre yev^crQcn,. 

5 tcariScov yap TO yivofievov o Tlavcravias ea^ero 
/j,V TT}? Tropeias xal rrjv eVt fidxy Tafyv eKe\evare 
\afji(3dv6iv e/caarov, eXaQe 6' avrov, el0* inro 



TOi' 



TWV TroXejAiwv, crvvQrjfjLa fjirj Sovvat, 

f/TT'-v -\ f '/l tf * 'Z1^ "'/)' 

T0t9 li(XX7;(7fz/. ouev OVT evuvs ovr aupooi, 



KCLT 



ev 



6 f il9 5e fiwo/teyo? ou/c drcaXXiepei, 

AaKe>ai/jLovLoi<; ra9 daTTiSas Trpo 
ovs drpifjia fcaOe^ecrdai Kal Trpoazyjciv avr(p, 
a TWV vroXeyLtta)^ dfjivvo/jiivov^t avros Be 
7rd\iv e&^ayid^ero. Kal irpoaeTTLTrrov ol I 
-tjBr) Be /cal /5eXo9 e^t/cvelro Kal Tt9 

7 TCOZ^ ^TrapTiarwv. ev TOVTW Be Kal 

264 



ARIST1DES, xvn. 3-7 

Amompharetus picked up a great stone and threw it 
down at the feet of Pausanias, saying that was his 
personal ballot for battle, and he cared not a whit 
for the cowardly counsels and votes of the rest. 
Pausanias, perplexed at the case, sent to the Athe- 
nians, who were already moving off, begging them 
to wait and make the march in company with him, 
and then began to lead the rest of his troops 
toward Plataea, with the idea that he would thus 
force Amompharetus from his position. 

At this point day overtook them, and Mardonius, 
who did not fail to notice that the Hellenes had 
abandoned their encampment, with his force in full 
array, bore down upon the Lacedaemonians, with great 
shouting and clamour on the part of the Barbarians, 
who felt that there would be no real battle, but that 
the Hellenes had only to be snatched off as they 
fled. And this lacked but little of coming to pass. 
For Pausanias, on seeing the situation, though he 
did check his march and order every man to take 
post for battle, forgot, either in his rage at Amom- 
pharetus or his confusion at the speed of the enemy, 
to give the signal for battle to the confederate 
Hellenes. For this reason they did not come to his 
aid at once, nor in a body, but in small detachments 
and straggling, after the battle was already joined. 

When Pausanias got no favourable omens from his 
sacrifices, he ordered his Lacedaemonians to sit quiet 
with their shields planted in front of them, and to 
await his orders, making no attempt to repulse their 
enemies, while he himself went to sacrificing again. 
By this time the horsemen were charging upon 
them ; presently their missiles actually reached them, 
and many a Spartan was smitten. And then it was 

265 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



t>v ISea re KaXXiarov 'EXXT^toy KOI aa)jj,aTi 
ev etcetva) ro> crrpara) yevecrOai \eyovcn, 
Kal OVIJCTKWV OVK e(f>r) TOV ddvarov 
o&vpecr0ai, teal yap e\0eiv o'tKodev inrep T?}? 
*EXXao? d7ro0avov[Avo<?, aXV OTA dwq&KGi rf) 



Beivov, 77 8' eyKpareia Oavfjiacnri TWV 

ov yap rjiJivvovro TOV$ 

a\\a TOV Trapa TOV 6eov KOI TOV 

/caipov avajj,vovTs ^vei^ovTo ^a\\ofJLevoL KOL 

TTlTTTOVTeS V Tat? TCL^eCTLV. 

8 "E*viOi Be <paai TO> Ylavcravia 

s QVQVTI teal KaTV%o/Ji6vq) TWV 
afyvw TrpocTTrecrovTas apTrd^eiv KCLI Siappi- 
TCL irepl T^V OvcrLdv, TOV Se Yiavcraviav Kal 
TOV$ Trepl avTov OVK e^ovTas O7r\a pdfiSois Kal 
Traieiv Sib Kal vvv efceivrjs TT}? 7rio'pOfjif)<; 

a? 7Tpl TOV 
TO)V e(f)r)/3cov Kal Tt]V 



XVIII. &.va(j)opa)V ovv 6 TlavcravLas TO?? Trapov- 
ak\a TOV /jLavTecos ITT a\\oi<$ lepeta KCLTO,- 

, TpeireTai TT/JO? TO 'Hpaiov 
evos, Kal Ta? p^etpa? dvaa"%a)v 
la "Hpa Kal Oeols aXXot?, o'l 

yr)v eypvo'iv, el /JLY) TreTrpcoTai Tot? f 'EjX\^cn VLK&V, 
aXXa SpdcravTas ye TI iraOelv Kal &eit;avTas epyw 
Tot? vroXe/itot?, <w? CTT' avSpas dyaOov? Kal fid%- 
crOai fjLe^aOrjKOTa^ ecrTpaTevcrav. TavTa TOV 
Ylavcraviou 0tOK\vTovvTO$ ttytta Tat? ei)vat? 
TO, iepa Kal VLKIJV 6 [jidvTis e<f>pae. Kai 

266 



ARISTIDES, xvn. y-xvui. 2 

that Callicrates, said to be the fairest of the Hellenes 
to look upon, and the tallest man in their whole 
army, was shot, and, dying, said he did not grieve at 
death, since he had left his home to die for Hellas, 
but at dying without striking a single blow. Their 
experience was indeed a terrible one, but the restraint 
of the men was wonderful. They did not try to 
repel the enemy who were attacking them, but 
awaited from their god and their general the favour- 
able instant, while they endured wounds and death 
at their posts. 

Some say that as Pausanias was sacrificing and 
praying, a little to one side of his line of battle, 
some .Lydians suddenly fell upon him and rudely 
hurled away the sacrificial offerings ; and that 
Pausanias and his attendants, being without weapons, 
smote the intruders with the sacrificial staves and 
goads ; wherefore, to this day, in imitation of this 
onslaught, the ceremonies of beating the young 
warriors round the altar at Sparta, and of the pro- 
cession of the Lydians which follows this, are duly 
celebrated as rites. 

XVI II. Then, in distress at this state of affairs, 
while the seer slew victim after victim, Pausanias 
turned his face, all tears, toward the Heraeum, and 
with hands uplifted prayed Cithaeronian Hera and 
the other gods of the Plataean land that, if it was 
not the lot of the Hellenes to be victorious, they 
might at least do great deeds before they fell, and 
show to a certainty that their enemies had marched 
out against men who were brave and who knew how 
to fight. While Pausanias was thus calling on the 
gods, right in the midst of his prayers, the sacrifices 
showed themselves propitious and the seer announced 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arravras rov TrapayyeX/jiaros KaOiaracrOai 

7T/9O9 TOL'9 TToXefjilOVS, Yf TG (f)d\ay OljfLV O")(eV 

al$>vi&iu>s evo<$ tyoov 6vnoeiov<$ 77/009 a\KY]V 

r PETTO pevov KOI $>pi%avros, TO?? re ftapftdpois 

Tore Trapeo-rr) \oyio~jji6s, o>9 ?r/909 av$pa<? 6 ayu>v 

3 ecrotro jLaovji6vovs a> L Qavd~rov. 810 /cat 



ycppwv 

. ol &e Tr)povi>T<? a/ma TOV crvva- 
iirkftaivov, teal irpoaireaovTe^ 
rd yeppa, KOL rot? Sopaai TVTnovres 
KOI criepva TWV Tlepcrco^ 7ro~\Xov<; Karef3aK\ov, 
OVK aTrpaKTw? ovSe a0v/J,cos 7Tt7TTO^Ta9. /cal ydp 
dwriX-afJiftavoiJievoi, T&V Bopdrtov rat9 %e/)crt yvjj,- 
vals avveOpavov rd rr\elcrra, /cal 7rpo9 r9 330 

OVK dyws, d\\d rai<; re 



KOTTLCTk /COL T0t9 CLKlVaKCLlS pd)/jiVOl KO,l 



rrapaaTrwvres KOI 
rro\vv dvrel^ov. 

4 Oi 8' ^KOrivaloi Te&>9 pev rjrpefAovv 

TOL'9 Aatce$at{jiovLov<;, eVet Be tcpawyr) re rrpocre- 
mrrre rro\\^ ^a^o^vwv /cal Traprjv, 
rrapd Ylavcrai'iov rd yLVo^e 
Kara rd%o<? ftorjOelv. /cal rrpo^wpov- 
avrols Bid rov rre&lov -77/009 rrjv fiorjv e 

5 povro rwv r EtX\,ijvu>v ol fjL 

Be rrpwrov fJLev, 009 elBe, TTO\V rrpoe\6(0v e'/3oa, 
fiaprvpbfjievos f EXX?7^tou9 Oeovs, drrkyevQai yu,a^9 
Kal fjbr] crfyicriv efjiTroBwv elvat /jLrjBe Ku>\veiv 
eTTa/JLvvovras ro?9 rrpoKivbvvevovcriv vrrep rfjs 
'EXXaSo9, eVel 8' ecopa /jurj rrpocre)^ovra^ avrw 



o-vvrerayfJLevovs errl rrjv fjLd^tjv, ovrco rs 
1 eis TOUS Hercher and Blass with S : TOVS. 

268 



ARISTIDES, xvin. 2-5 

victory. Word was at once passed all along the 
line to set themselves in motion against the enemy, 
and the phalanx suddenly had the look of a fierce 
beast bristling up to defend itself. The Barbarians 
then got assurance that their contest was to be with 
men who would fight to the death. Therefore they 
made a rampart of their wicker targets and shot 
their arrows into the ranks of the Lacedaemonians. 
These, however, kept their shields closely locked 
together as they advanced, fell upon their foemen, 
tore away their wicker targets, and then, smiting the 
Persians in face and breast with their long spears, 
they slew many, who nevertheless did great deeds of 
courage before they fell. For they grasped the long 
spears with their naked hands, fractured them for 
the most part, and then took to short-range fighting 
with a will, plying their daggers and scimetars, tear- 
ing away their enemies' shields, and locking them in 
close embrace ; and so they held out a long time. 

The Athenians., meanwhile, were quietly awaiting 
the Lacedaemonians. But when the shouts of those 
engaged in battle fell loud upon their ears, and there 
came, as they say, a messenger from Pausanias telling 
them what was happening, they set out with speed 
to aid him. However, as they were advancing 
through the plain to his aid, the medising Hellenes 
bore down upon them. Then Aristides, to begin 
with, when he saw them, went far forward and 
shouted to them, invoking the gods of Hellas, that 
they refrain from battle, and oppose not nor hinder 
those who were bearing aid to men standing in the 
van of danger for the sake of Hellas. But as soon 
as he saw that they paid no heed to him, and were 



269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 






crvve(3a\e rovrois 
6 rrepl rrevraKLcr^vplov^ ovcnv. d\\a TO fiev 
7r\ei(TTOV ev0vs eveBfD/ce /cal dTre^o^prjcrevt are 
Brj /cal rwv ftapfidpwv d7ri]X\.ay/u,eva)V, 97 Be 
fid^rf \eyerai /jid\to~ra Kara ri(Saiov<s yeveaOai, 
IT pi 0v fMorara rwv TrpaiTwv KOL Svfarwrd'rwi' Tore 
'nap avrols firi^>i^6vrwv teal TO 7rX/)^O5 ov Kara 



XIX. OVTO) Be roO 

irpwroi /jLV ea>cravTO TOV? Ylepcras ol Aarce&ai- 
/cal rov Mapbovtov dvrjp STrapriarT;? 
5 aTTOKrivvva-i, \L6w rrjv ice- 
wcnrep avrw 7rpoe<Tijfj,av6 TO 
Iv ' A/A(f)idp6(i) /jLavreiov. eTre/jL-^e yap avftpa 
AvSov evravOa, Kdpa Be erepov et? Tpcxfiwviov 
6 1 MapSowo?* /cal TOVTOV /j,ev 6 7rpo<j)iJTijs Kaputy 

2 <y\a)(Tcrr) TrpovelTrev, 6 Be AuBos ev TO> GT'TJKW rov 
*Ap(f)idpea) KarevvaaOeis ebo^ev VTrrjperrjv riva 
rov 6eov irapatTrrjvai KCLI Ke\eveiv avrov amkvai, 

ov\o/jievov Be \i6ov et? TJ)V K<pa\r)v ljji&a\elv 
, ware Bo^ai rrKi^yevra rtOvdvai rov av9pu>- 
rrov /cal ravra JACV ovrw yeveaQai \eyerai. 
Be (frevyovras /<? Ta %v\iva rei^rj 

'OXt/yw S' v&repov ^AOrjvaloi TOL/? 
rpeTTOvrat,, rpia/co(riov<; roiis emfyaveardrovs /cal 

3 TrpcuTOLM? Bia<j)0Lpavr<; ev avrfj rfj /^u^/rj. ye- 
yev?)fMevr}<; Be Tr}? TpoTrr}? t']Kev auTot? ayyeAo9 
7ro\iopK6i(T0ai, TO (BapjSapLKOV et? ra re'i^ri Kara- 



1 6 bracketed in Sintenis 2 ; Blass reads els rb nnSov 6 with 
S, after Herclier, thus agreeing with Herodotus viii. 135. 

270 



ARISTIDES, xviii. 5~xix, 3 

arrayed for battle, then he turned aside from rendering 
aid where he had proposed, and engaged with these, 
though they were about fifty thousand in number. 
But the greater part of them at once gave way and 
withdrew, especially as the Barbarians had also 
retired, and the battle is said to have been fought 
chiefly with the Thebans, whose foremost and most 
influential men were at that time very eagerly 
medising, and carried with them the multitude, not 
of choice, but at the bidding of the few. 

XIX. The contest thus begun in two places, the 
Lacedaemonians were first to repulse the Persians. 
Mardonius was slain by a man of Sparta named 
Arimnestus, who crushed his head with a stone, even 
as was foretold him by the oracle in the shrine of 
Amphiaraus. Thither he had sent a Lydian man, 
and a Carian besides to the oracle of Trophonius. 1 
This latter the prophet actually addressed in the 
Carian tongue ; but the Lydian, on lying down in the 
precinct of Amphiaraiis, dreamed that an attendant 
of the god stood by his side and bade him be gone, 
and on his refusal, hurled a great stone upon his 
head, insomuch that he died from the blow (so ran 
the man's dream). These things are so reported. 
Furthermore, the Lacedaemonians shut the flying 
Persians up in their wooden stockade. 

Shortly after this it was that the Athenians routed 
the Thebans, after slaying three hundred, their most 
eminent leaders, in the actual battle. After the rout 
was effected, and more might have been slain, there 
came a messenger to the Athenians, telling them 
that the Barbarian force was shut up and besieged 

1 According to Herodotus, viii. 135, Mys the Carian visited 
the shriue of the Ptoan Apollo, overlooking Lake Copais. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KfC\ei(r/jLei'OV. OVTW Br/ (T(t)%(T@ai TOU9 " 

edaavres /3o?j@ovv 777309 ra Teijffl' /cal rot? 

iravTaTracriv apyw? TT/OO? rei^o- 
teal ciirelpw^ e^ovcnv liri^avevre^ alpovcn 
TO crrpaTOTreSov (f)6va> 7TG\\a) TWV 

4 \ejovrai, jap diro rwv TpiaKOvra 

(frvyeiv crvv 'Apra/Sa^co, T&V 8' 
TT}? 'EXXttSo? ayMvicra/Aevoov eireerov ol 
eVt %t\tOi? e^JKOvra /cal rpia/cocnoi. 
'AOrjvaioi fjiev rjcrav Bvo Kal Trevrrj/covTa, 
IK Try? AtaimSo? (pv\r)s, w? </>??cri KXet- 

5 ^/xo?, a<ywvL(Tajjievri^ apiara' Bib /cal Tatv 
%(j) pay inert vv/Atpais edvov AlavriSat rqv 7rv66- 

Ovcriav VTrep rf)<; V'LKTIS, e/c B^/jioa-iou TO 
a \afji ft dvovres' AaKeSaifjiovioi 6' evl 
TCOI' evevritcovra, Teyedrai S' e 

TO 'HpoooTOf, TTW? 



/cal <yap TO 

TWV ireaovTWv /j,aprvpei /cal ra fJivrj/JLara 
6 KOIVOV yevecrOai TO fcaropdoy/jia' /cal TOV /3a)/j,bv 
OVK av eireypa^rav ovrcos, el fjbovai rpeis 7ro/\,et9 
r)<ywvi(ravTO, TWI> aXXcoz/ drpe/na 

TovBe 7ro^' f/ EXXr;z/e? w/m9 /cpdrei, 



KOLVOV 



iBpvtravro A/09 /Sayjubv e\ev9epiov. 



1 Coraes and Bekker insert after this verse the pentameter : 
fvr6\fjLca i|/ux s A^M aTl jrt'0oM eI/ot > folltncing the bold impulse of 
their spirit', found in the Palatine Anthology, vi. 50. 

272 



ARISTIDES, xix 3-6 

in their stockade. So they suffered the Hellenes in 
front of them to make good their escape, while they 
themselves marched to the stockade. They brought 
welcome aid to the Lacedaemonians, who were 
altogether inexperienced and helpless in storming 
walled places, and captured the camp with great 
slaughter of the enemy. Out of three hundred 
thousand, only forty thousand, it is said, made their 
escape with Artabazus. Of those who contended 
in behalf of Hellas, there fell in all one thousand 
three hundred and sixty. Of these, fifty-two were 
Athenians, all of the Aeantid tribe, according to 
Cleidemus, which made the bravest contest (for which 
reason the Aeantids used to sacrifice regularly to the 
Sphragitic nymphs the sacrifice ordained by the 
Pythian oracle for the victory, receiving the expenses 
therefor from the public funds) ; ninety-one were 
Lacedaemonians, and sixteen were men of Tegea. 

Astonishing, therefore, is the statement of Herod- 
otus, 1 where he says that these one hundred and fifty- 
nine represented the only Hellenes who engaged the 
enemy, and that not one of the rest did so. Surely the 
total number of those who fell, as well as the monu- 
ments erected over them, testifies that the success was 
a common one. Besides, had the men of three cities 
only made the contest, while the rest sat idly by, 
the altar would not have been inscribed as it was : 

"Here did the Hellenes, flushed with a victory 

granted by Ares 
Over the routed Persians, together, for Hellas 

delivered, 

Build them an altar of Zeus, Zeus as De- 
liverer known." 

1 ix. 85. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tavrrjv rrjv f^d^rjv e/jLa^ecravro ry rerpdBi rov 
Bo^Spo/xfwz^o? io~ra/utevov /rar' 'AO^vaiovs, Kara 
Be BoftoTou? rerpdBi rov Tlave^ov fy6Lvovro<s y fj 331 
/cal vvv en rb ' E,\\TJI>IKOI> ev H\araiai<t dOpoi- 
(rvveSpiov KOI Ovovcri ru> e^evOepiw 

vrrep rr;? VIKTI^. rrjv 8e rwv rj 
avcDfjia\iav ov Oavjjiacrreov, orrov KOI vvv 
ev 



fjir]vos p^riv /ca reeur ayovcriv. 

XX. 'Er rovrov ru>v 'AGrfvaicdv ro apia-relov 
ov TTapa&i&ovrwv rot? ^Trapridrais ovSe rpo- 
laiavai (rv^^wpovvrwv eVetz-'Ot?, Trap 
av rf\6ev evOvs airo\k(jQai ra Trpdyjjiara 
'EXX^'z/w^ ev rot? oVXcu? Siacrrdvroyv, 
el pr] TroXXa 7rapr)yopa)V KOI BiBdcrKwv TOU? 
6 'AHcrretS??, LtaXtcrra 8e Aea>- 



/cprr) /ca vpMvirjv, ea^e /ca avveTreiae rrjv 
2 KpicrLV (f)Lvai, rot? " E\\r)(Tii>. evravOa /3ov\evo- 
rwv f \L\\r)V(ov Qeoyeiraiv JJLGV o Me7apeu? 
, &>9 erepa 1 TroXei Screov ei^ rb dpiareiov, 
el yu-r/ (BovXovrai avvrapd^ai iroXe^ov e fjifyvXiov' 
eVt rovrw 8* dvacrrd? KXeo/cpiros 6 I&.opiv6io<; 
&6av yikv irapicr\ev cov iopiv6iois alnjcraiv rb 
dpiaretov r)V yap ev a^iw^an /jLeyicrry /zera rrjv 



teal ra? 'A^//Va? 77 Kopiz^o?" eiTre Be 
dpeaavra /cal Oav/j,acrrbv \6yov vTrep 
T[\araL(t)v, real crvveftovKevcre rrji> <$>i\oveiKiav 
dve\elv eVeu'Oi? TO dpuareiov diroBovras, 049 
3 ouSere/oof? rifAWjuevois d^OeaOai. prjOevrwv Be 



rovrwv 



1 tTf'p? Bekker has ouSerepcf. neither city, adopting a conjec- 
ture of iluretus. 

274 



ARISTIDES, xix. 7 xx 3 

This battle was fought on the fourth of the month 
Boedromion, as the Athenians reckon time ; but 
according to the Boeotian calendar, on the twenty- 
seventh of the month Panemus, 1 the day when, 
down to the present time, the Hellenic council 
assembles in Plataea, and the Plataeans sacrifice to 
Zeus the Deliverer for the victory. We must not 
wonder at the apparent discrepancy between these 
dates, since, even now that astronomy is a more 
exact science, different peoples have different be- 
ginnings and endings for their months. 

XX. After this, the Athenians would not grant 
the Spartans the highest meed of valour, nor allow 
them to erect a general trophy, and the cause of the 
Hellenes had certainly gone at once to destruction 
from their armed contention, had not Aristides, by 
abundant exhortation and admonition, checked his 
fellow-generals, especially Leocrates and Myronides, 
and persuaded them to submit the case to the 
Hellenes for decision. Thereupon, in the council of 
the Hellenes, Theogeiton the Megarian said that the 
meed of valour must be given to some third city, 
unless they desired the confusion of a civil war. At 
this point Cleocritus the Corinthian rose to speak. 
Every one thought he would demand the meed of 
valour for the Corinthians, since Corinth was held in 
greatest estimation after Sparta and Athens. But to 
the astonishment and delight of all, he made a 
proposition in behalf of the Plataeans, and counselled 
to take away contention by giving them the meed of 
valour, since at their honour neither claimant could 
take offence. To this proposal Aristides was first to 

1 About August 1, 479 B.C. 

275 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

virep TWV 'AOrjvaicov, eTretra Havcravias virep 
TWV Aa/ceBai/jLOViwv. OVTCO 6^ Sia\\ayVT<; 
oySorjKovTa raXavra rot? TlXaraieixriv, 
wv TO Trfi 'A^m? dvwKo^ofji7)(Tav 1 lepov KOI 
TO e'So? e<TTr)crav /cal ypafyals TOV veaiv 8t,efc6- 
at ^\jpi vvv atc/JLa^ovcrai $iafj,evovcriv, 
8e TpoTraiov IBia fj,ev AaKeBaifj,6vi,oi, 
8' *A6r)vaioi. 

4 Ylepl be Ovalas epo/jievoi^ aurot? dvei\V 6 
TIv0ios Ato? \ev0epiov /Say/jibv iSpvcraadat, 6v<rai 
Se yu,r; Trporepov rj TO KaTa Trjv ^/copav Trvp O.TTO- 
aftea'avTas co? UTTO TWV ftap/Bdpcov /jLe/ja 
evavcrao-0ai /cadapbv /c AeX^>w^ CLTTO T/}? 
ecrr/a?. ol fj,v ovv ap^ovTes TWV ( Ej\\rfva)v 

ev6v<s rjvdy/ca^ov diroa ftevvvvai T& irvpa 
TOVS wfjievov^;, ex $6 l]\aTaia)V Eu- 



5 TO Trapa TOV deov Trvp rjrcev ei? AeX^ou?. 17- 
z/tcra? Se TO crw/za teal Trepippavafjievos e(7T(j)avco- 
8d<j)vr)' /cal Xa/Sa>i/ OLTTO TOV ^W^JLOV TO irvp 
7rd\LV et? T? ITXarata? ecojet /scat 



crraStOL'9 KaTavvvas. acrTracrayue^o? 
rou? TroXtra? /tat TO TTU/O irapaoovs 
eTrecre KCLI /u-era jui/cpov e^e-rrvevo'ev. djd^evot 
8' avTov ol IlXaTtuei? eOa^rav ev T& iepq> TTJ<; 
Eu/cXeta? 'AjOT6/itSo9, eTriypd-ilravTes ToSe TO 



Ta8* av0ij/jLp6v. 

Hercher and Blass, following Stephanas, 
and favoured by F a S : (j5i 

276 



ARISTIDES, xx. 3-5 

agree on behalf of the Athenians, then Pausanias on 
behalf of the Lacedaemonians. Thus reconciled, they 
chose out eighty talents of the booty for the Platac.-ans, 
with which they rebuilt the sanctuary of Athena, and 
setup the shrine, and adorned thetemple with frescoes, 
which continue in perfect condition to the present 
day; then the Lacedaemonians set up a trophy on their 
own account, and the Athenians also for themselves. 
When they consulted the oracle regarding the 
sacrifice to be made, the Pythian god made answer 
that they were to erect an altar of Zeus the 
Deliverer, but were not to sacrifice upon it until 
they had extinguished the fire throughout the land, 
which he said had been polluted by the Barbarians, 
and kindled it fresh and pure from the public hearth 
at Delphi. Accordingly the commanders of the 
Hellenes went about straightway and compelled all 
who were using fire to extinguish it, while Euchidas, 
who promised to bring the sacred fire with all 
conceivable speed, went from Plataea to Delphi. 
There he purified his person by sprinkling himself 
with the holy water, and crowned himself with 
laurel. Then he took from the altar the sacred fire 
and started to run back to Plataea. He reached the 
place before the sun had set, accomplishing thus a 
thousand furlongs in one and the same day. He 
greeted his countrymen, handed them the sacred 
fire, and straightway fell down, and after a little 
expired. In admiration of him the Plataeans gave 
him burial in the sanctuary of Artemis Eucleia, and 
inscribed upon his tomb this tetrameter verse : 

" Euchidas, to Pytho running, came back here 
the selfsame day." 



277 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



6 Trjv ' JLvfcXeiav ol fiev 7ro\\ol KOI /ca\ovcrt 
teal vop,L^ovcnv "Kprefjiiv, eviot Be fyaaiv 'Upa- 
/c\eovs pev Ovyarepa /cal Mvprov? yeveaOai, TT}? 
"Mevoiriov uev Qvyarpos, 1~Iarpo/c\ov S' SeA.<?}9, 
reXevTijcracrav Be irapOevov e%eiv Trapd re Boto>- 
rot? real AoKpols Tf/xa?. /3&)/zo? jap avrfj /cal 
aja\/jLa Kara Trdcrav dyopav ?$pvT(U, KOL irpo- 
Ovovau a!i re ja/nov/JLevai /cal ol 
XXI. 'E/c TOVTOV 



crvvikvai pev et? ITXaram? Ka9^ GKacrrov eviavrbv 
airo TT}? 'EAAa'So? 7rpo/3ouXou? :at 
ajecrOai Be Trevraer^pLKov a^/wva ra>v 
6epiwv. elvai Be crvwra^iv 'IZXXrjviKrjv /j,vpia$ fi>ev 
aaTTiBas, %I,\LOVS Be tTTTrou?, vaus B* eKarov eVi 
rbv 7T/30? fiapfidpovs irokefjiov, ITXaTate?? 
acruXou? al tepou? dfalcrOai ry 6ew 
virep TT}? 'EXXaSo?. 
2 KvpwOevTcov Be TOVTGW ol Tl\araiel<; vireBe- 332 

rot? Trecrovai KCU Kei/Aevois avroOi TWV 
V evayi^eiv /cad' eKacrrov eviavrov. /cal 
Tovro f*>expi> vvv Bp&cri rovBe l rov Tpoirov rov 
Mai/jLa/CTTjpiwvos /AT/Z^O?, 09 ecrn Trapa 
'A\a\/cojjiei>ios, rf] e/crrj evrl Be/ca Tre/unrovcri 
TTTJV, ^? TrporjyelraL fjiev a//.' rj/jiepa 
ey/ce\ev6ijLvo<s TO TroXe/JLitcov, eirovrai 8' ci 
fMVppirt^ fiearal KOI <7Teca*>a)/.iaT&>z> /cal 
TaOpo9 Kal %oa9 oivov /cal yaha/cros ev d 
e\aiov re /cal pvpov /cpcoo-crovs veavicTKOi 

e\ev6epor Bov\a> yap ovBcvbs e^ecrri rwv 
Hercher and lilass with F a S : TOVTOV. 



ARIST1DES, xx. 6-xxi. 3 

Now Eucleia is regarded by most as Artemis, and 
is so addressed ; but some say she was a daughter 
of Heracles and of that Myrto who was daughter of 
Menoetius and sister of Patroclus, and that, dying in 
virginity, she received divine honours among the 
Boeotians and Locrians. For she has an altar and 
an image built in every market place, and receives 
preliminary sacrifices from would-be brides and 
bridegrooms. 

XXI. After this, there was a general assembly of 
the Hellenes, at which Aristides proposed a decree 
to the effect that deputies and delegates from all 
Hellas convene at Plataea every year, and that every 
fourth year festival games of deliverance be cele- 
brated the Eleutheria ; also that a confederate 
Hellenic force be levied, consisting of ten thousand 
shield, one thousand horse, and one hundred ships, 
to prosecute the war against the Barbarian ; also that 
the Plataeans be set apart as inviolable and con- 
secrate, that they might sacrifice to Zeus the 
Deliverer in behalf of Hellas. 

These propositions were ratified, and the Plataeans 
undertook to make funeral offerings annually for the 
Hellenes who had fallen in battle and lay buried 
there. And this they do yet unto this day, after the 
following manner. On the sixteenth of the month 
Maimacterion (which is the Boeotian Alalcomenius), 
they celebrate a procession. This is led forth at 
break of day by a trumpeter sounding the signal for 
battle ; waggons follow filled with myrtle-wreaths, 
then comes a black bull, then free-born youths 
carrying libations of wine and milk in jars, and 
pitchers of oil and myrrh (no slave may put hand to 



n. K 279 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irpl rrjv Sidxoviav etceivrjv TrpoudtyacrPat SLCL TO 

4 rot"? dv&pas uTrodaveiv inrep eXevOepias' ercl TTCLCTL 
B ra)v Yl\arai(t)v o dp^wv, a> rov d\\ov %p6vov 
ovre (ri&rjpov diyeiv e^ecrriv ovd* erepav eadrjra 

fjs dva\.a/3eiv, rore ^irwv 
apd/Jievos re vBpiav CLTTO rov 
<pv\afciov ^Kfrrfpris errl rou? ra^oi;? Trpodyei 

5 yLtecrr;? T?}? 7roXea>?. elra \a/3a)V vbcop diro 

auro? a7ro\ovei re ra? TT?;Xa9 teal 

ravpov ei? r^v irvpav crcfid^as teal 
Au' teal 'Rppfj 
TOI)? dyaOovs avopas TOL? vTrep rr}? ' 

errl TO SeiTrvov KOI rrjv alfJLOKOvpiav. 
/cparrjpa Kepdcras OLVOV teal ^ea/zet'o? eVi- 
\eyet,' " UpOTrivay rot? avBodw rot? virep T^? 
rwv 'EXX^fo)^ aTroOavovo'L" ravra 
ovv GTL KOL vvv Sia(f)v~\.dTTov(riv oi llXaraet?. 
XXII. 'E?rel 8' dva-^wprjcravras et? TO darv 
TOU9 *A9r)vaiou<$ 6 'AyOicrTetSr/? ewpa ^^rovvra^ 
rrjv Bij/jLOKpariav aTroXa/Selv, a^a ^v CL^LOV rjyov- 
Sid rrjv dv^payaOiav eVtyLteXeia? TOV 
6" OVK eri pdciov Icr^vovra TO?? oVXot? 
/aya (ppovovvra Tat? VLKCLL^ K/3iacr6)jvai, ypdfai 
KOIVTJV elvai rrjv Tro\ireiav Kal rov$ 
e^ 'A6r]i>aia>v rcdvrwv 
2 e/>6i(7TO/cX6ou? $e 7T/30? To 

uXeu/xa /cat yvMfjurjv d7r6ppt]rov, &)</>e'- 
rfj 7ro\ei /cal aw>rr\piov, Ke\V(rav 
Ovov aKovcrai Kal <ruvSoKt/j,da-ai. 

280 



ARISTIDES, XXL 3-xxn. a 

any part of that ministration, because the men 
thus honoured died for freedom) ; and following all, 
the chief magistrate of Plataea, who may not at 
other times touch iron or put on any other raiment 
than white, at this time is robed in a purple tunic, 
carries oil high a water-jar from the city's archive 
chamber, and proceeds, sword in hand, through the 
midst of the city to the graves ; there he takes water 
from the sacred spring, washes off with his own hands 
the gravestones, and anoints them with myrrh ; then 
he slaughters the bull at the funeral pyre, and, with 
prayers to Zeus and Hermes Terrestrial, summons 
the brave men who died for Hellas to come to the 
banquet and its copious draughts of blood ; next he 
mixes a mixer of wine, drinks, and then pours a 
libation from it, saying these words : " I drink to the 
men who died for the freedom of the Hellenes." 
These rites, I say, are observed by the Plataeans 
down to this very day. 

XXII. After the Athenians had returned to their 
own city, Aristides saw that they desired to receive 
the more popular form of government. He thought 
the people worthy of consideration because of its 
sturdy valour, and he saw also that it was no longer 
easy to be forced out of its desires, since it was 
powerful in arms, and greatly elated by its victories. 
So he introduced a decree that the administration ot 
the city be the privilege of all classes, and that the 
archons be chosen from all the Athenians. 

Themistocles once declared to the people that he 
had devised a certain measure which could not be 
revealed to them, though it would be helpful and 
salutary for the city, and they ordered that Aristides 
alone should hear what it was and pass judgment on 

281 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



<j>pdcravTO$ Be rat 'ApHTTeiBr} TOV 
Co? BiavoeiTai TOV vavaTaOfjiov e/jLTrprj&at, TWV 'EX- 
\rjvwv , OVTCO yap ecrecrOaL /jueyiarov^ KOL Kvpiovs 
rovs ' AOrjvaiovs, rrape\6u>v et? TOV 
6 'ApKTTetS?;? (py] rfjs irpd^ew^, rjv &C/JLI- 



* dSi/c 



repav arfv fjujr i/ccorepav evai. 
aKovcravres ol 'AOrjvaloi Travaao-Oai TOV 
crTOK\ea Trpoaeragav. OVTW ^kv o S?}yu,05 rjv 

<^>tXoSt/C<Zt09, OVTCO Be TO) SljfjLO) TTtCTTO? O CLVrjp 

KOI /Se/3ato?. 

XXIII. 'Evrel 8e crTpaTijybs eKTre^Oel^ /HCTO, 
KtyLtw^o? eVt TOV 7r6\fMOV ewpa TOV re Ylavcra- 
vlav KOI TOU? aXXou? aovTas TWV 



auro? T Trpao)? A:ai <fyi\av6pu>TCw<; OJJLL\MV KCLL 
TOV Kifjiwva Trape-)(wv evdpfjioa-Tov avrols KOI 
KOLVOV ev rat? frr/oaretat? e\aOe T&V AaiceSai- 



evyvco/uiocrvvr) Be KOI Tro\iTeia> TTJV f)y[i,oviav 

2 TrapeXo/^fc^o?. TrpoarfyiKels yap 6Wa<? TOU? 'AOrj- 
vaiovs rot? f/ EXX77(7t 8ta T^I/ ' ApiffTeLBov Sitcaio- 
trvvrjV Kal Trjv Kt/zwi'o? eTTieiKeiav ert /JLa\\ov r] 
TOV Havcravlov rr\eove%[a /col (BapvTri<$ TroOeivovs 
eTTOiet,. rot? re ^ap dp^ovcri TO>V ffv/n/jid^wv del 
/JLCT 1 op7>}? eveTvy-^ave /cal r/oa^ew?, TOU? re 
TroXXoi/9 e/c6\a^e TrX^yat? >} aiB^pdv dytcvpav 
eTUTiOels t}vdyKa^ev earTavat, Bi o\rjs rr}? rj/jiepas. 

3 CTTiftaBa S' ou/c 7;^ \afteiv ovBe ^opTOv ovSe 
Kprjvr) 7rpo(re\0elv vBpeuo/itevov oiiBeva rrpo TWV 

, dXXa /j,daTiyas e 



282 



ARISTIDES, xxn. 2-xxni. 3 

it. So Themistocles told Aristides that his purpose 
was to burn the naval station of the confederate 
Hellenes, for that in this way the Athenians would 
be greatest, and lords of all. Then Aristides came 
before the people and said of the deed which 
Themistocles purposed to do, that none other could 
be more advantageous, and none more unjust. On 
hearing this, the Athenians ordained that Themis- 
tocles cease from his purpose. 1 So fond of justice 
was the people, and so loyal and true to the people 
was Aristides. 

XXIII. When he was sent out as general along 
with Cimon to prosecute the war, 2 and saw that 
Pausanias and the other Spartan commanders were 
offensive and severe to the allies, he made his 
own intercourse with them gentle and humane, 
and induced Cimon to be on easy terms with 
them and to take an actual part in their campaigns, 
so that, before the Lacedaemonians were aware, 
not by means of hoplites or ships or horsemen, 
but by tact and diplomacy he had stripped them 
of the leadership. For, well disposed as the Hellenes 
were toward the Athenians on account of the 
justice of Aristides and the reasonableness of 
Cimon, they were made to long for their supremacy 
still more by the rapacity of Pausanias and his 
severity. The commanders of the allies ever met 
with angry harshness at the hands of Pausanias, 
and the common men he punished with stripes, 
or by compelling them to stand all day long with 
an iron anchor on their shoulders. No one could 
get bedding or fodder or go down to a spring 
for water before the Spartans, nay, their servants 

1 Cf. Thenwtodes, xx. 1-2. 478 B.a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOU? Trpoaiovras aTrri\avvov. virep &v roO 

KOI 



crvvayaytov TO Trpocrwrrov o 
OVK efyri a^oXd^eiv ouS' rJKOVcrev. 

*E/e TOUTOU Trpoaiovres ol vavap^oi KOI o"rpa- 333 
rr^yol TWV r EAA,?;y&>z/, /j,d\icrra Se Xtot /cat 
t Ae(r/3ioi, rbv ' Apt,a~reiSr)i> GTrei 

TTJV r)jfjLOviav /ecu TrpocrayayecrQcu 

TraXat ^eo/xe^ou? d7ra\\ayf)vat, TWV 
real ^TCLra^aaQai TT/JO? TOU? 'A^T;- 
valov<$. diroKpivafJievov S' CKGLVOV TO?? /tei; \6yois 
avrow TO Te avayicalov evopav KOI TO SIKCUOI>, 
epyov Be SelffOai rrjv TTLO-TIV, o irpay^jdev OVK edcrei 

5 7rd\iv fjLTa(3a\e(r9ai TOU? TroXXou?, OUTCO? ot 

TTCjOi TO!' ^djjLlOV OvXldS^V KOL TOV XtOV 'A.VTO,- 

yopav <rvvofj,oa-dfjivoi Trepl Qv^dvnov efji/3d\- 

\ovcriv et? TTJV rpirjprj rov Ilavo-aviov, 

ovaav ev fjiecrw Xa/So^re?. a>? Se KCITI&GOV e/ 

e^avecrrrj Kal ^T' opyrjs ^TretX^crev 

TOU? ai'S/oa? eTTLBei'^eiv OVK et? T^Z/ avrov vavv 

e///3eySX7;:oTa?, aXX' et? Ta? t'8ta? irarpioas, 

K\evov avrov aTrievat Kal dyairdv rrjv avvayco- 

VLdafjiivrfv TV^TJV ev UXaTarat?* eKeivrjv yap eri 

TOU? f/ EXX7;^a? alcr^vvo /ieWu? /A^ 

d^iav &LKr)v Trap 1 avrov' TeXo? 6" 

W%OVTO Trpo? TOU? 'A^r/iWou?. 

6 "Ev^a 5^ /cat TO (frpovrjpa T^? ^Trdprrj? 



f . . . 8i5a{au Hercher and Blass with F a S : ITOT' 
Xtffcn KO! StSo^cu 



ARISTIDES, xxin. 3-6 

armed with goads would drive away such as 
approached. On these grounds Aristides once 
had it in mind to chide and admonish him, but 
Pausanias scowled, said he was busy, and would 
not listen. 

Subsequently the captains and generals of the 
Hellenes, and especially the Chians, Samians, and 
Lesbians, came to Aristides and tried to persuade 
him to assume the leadership and bring over to 
his support the allies, who had long wanted to 
be rid of the Spartans and to range themselves 
anew on the side of the Athenians. He replied 
that he saw the urgency and the justice of what 
they proposed, but that to establish Athenian 
confidence in them some overt act was needed, 
the doing of which would make it impossible for 
the multitude to change their allegiance back again. 
So Uliades the Samian and Antagoras the Chian 
conspired together, and ran down the trireme of 
Pausanias off Byzantium, closing in on both sides 

J ' O 

of it as it was putting out before the line. When 
Pausanias saw what they had done, he sprang 
up and wrathfully threatened to show the world 
in a little while that these men had run down 
not so much his ship as their own native cities; 
but they bade him be gone, and be grateful to 
that fortune which fought in his favour at Plataea ; 
it was because the Hellenes still stood in awe of 
this, they said, that they did not punish him as he 
deserved. And finally they went off and joined 
the Athenians. 

Then indeed was the lofty wisdom of the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

o><? 7^0 ycrOovro rq> fxeyedei 



avTv rot"? 
etcovcriws TTJV rjye/Jioviav KOI 7re///7roi>T9 



TOV 

aipovfjievoL Q-wfypovovvTas e^eiv /cal rot? eOecnv 
rou? TroXt'ra? 77 TT}? 'EXXaSo? 



XXIV. Ot S* ''EXXr^^e? ereXovv JJLGV rtva KOA 



TOV 



7ro\fjLOV, ra^drjvai Be (3ov\6/ji6voi Kara ITO\IV 



TO /JieTpiov riTr)<javTn Trapa rwv 
vaiwv 'AicrTL$'rv, KOI Trocreraav avrw 



re fcal 7rpocr68ov<$ eTricrKe-^rdfjievov opicrai TO /car' 
2 d%iav etcda-TW /cat Svva/j,iv. 6 



/cvpios <yevfjLevos KOI Tporrov TLVCL T>)? 
eV avTw JJLOVW TO, Trpdy/jiaTa rrdvTa 
rkvris fj,ev erj\0V t 67ravrj\06 Be rreve- 
ov jjiovov /caOapws KOI &iKaiw<$ ) d\\a KCU 
Trdcri /cal a/o^toStct)? TTJV e7Tiypa(f>r)i> 

? ydp oi Tra\aiol 

TOV errl Kpovov (3iov, ovrw? ol 
'AOyvaicov TOV CTT 'ApLaTei&ov (j)6pov 
Tivd TT}? 'EAAttSo? 6vo/JLd%ovT<? v/nvovv, /cal 
ov iro\vv yovov 






3 etr' avOis Tpi,7r\acriacr6evTo<;. ov fiev ydp ' 






eTa^ev, rjv et? J-ijfeovTa /cal TeTpa/cocnwv 
Ta\dvTO)v \6yov TOVTM Be TlepiK\.f)s [lev eire- 
OrjKev o\iyov Betv TO TPLTOV fjiepo<$' e^afcocna ydp 
TaXavTa Qov/cvBiSr)? (frrjcrlv dp^ofjievov TOV 7ro\e- 
/JLOV Trpocnevai rot? 'AOrjvaioi? diro TWV 

Ylept,K\eov<t B* aTroO avovTOs S 



286 



ARIST1DES, xxiii. 6-xxiv. 3 

Spartans made manifest in a wonderful way. When 
they saw that their commanders were corrupted 
by the great powers entrusted to them, they volun- 
tarily abandoned the leadership and ceased sending 
out generals for the war, choosing rather to have 
their citizens discreet and true to their ancestral 
customs than to have the sway over all Hellas. 

XXIV. The Hellenes used to pay a sort of con- 
tribution for the war even while the Lacedaemonians 
had the leadership, but now they wished to be 
assessed equably city by city. So they asked the 
Athenians for Aristides, and commissioned him 
to inspect their several territories and revenues, 1 
and then to fix the assessments according to each 
member's worth and ability to pay. And yet, 
though he became master of such power, and 
though after a fashion Hellas put all her property 
in his sole hands, poor as he was when he went 
forth on this mission, he came back from it poorer 
still, and he made his assessments of money not 
only with purity and justice, but also to the 
grateful satisfaction and convenience of all concerned. 
Indeed, as men of old hymned the praises of the 
age of Cronus the golden age, so did the allies 
of the Athenians praise the tariff of Aristides, 
calling it a kind of blessed happening for Hellas, 
especially as, after a short time, it was doubled 
and then again trebled. For the tax which Aristides 
laid amounted to four hundred and sixty talents 
only ; but Pericles must have added almost a 
third to this, since Thucydides 2 says that when 
the war began the Athenians had a revenue of 
six hundred talents from their allies. And after 

1 478-477 B.O. ii. 13. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ol Sr/fjiaycoyol Kara fjuicpov et? %I\.LO)V /cal rpia- 
Kocrlwv Ta\dvTQ)v K<f>d\aiov dv>]yayov, ov% OVTW 
TOV TroXe/iou Sia {IT}KO<; /cal TV)(as BaTravrjpov 
yevojjievov Kal TroXureXoO?, to? TOV Bfj/juov et? oia- 



Kal Kara<7Kva^ 



Kal lepuv Trpoayayovres. 



Meya 8' ovv ovoj^a TOV 'ApifTTeiSov Kal 6av- 
eVt TTJ SiaTa^et, TWV fyopwv o 

KaTaye\av, a>? OVK 
TOV e-naivov, aXXa OV\CLKGV 

d[ivv6/jLVO<; TYJV 'ApiffTeiOov 



w yap l etVo^ro? TTOTC TOV 
^v r)yelcr0ai /LueyLfTTrjv (TTpaTrjyov TO ytvco- 
Kal 7rpoai(70dv6cr0ai TO, /3ofXeuyLtar 
, " TOUTO /ie^," eiTreiv, " dvayKalov 

?, Ka\ov Be Kal o~TpaTrjyiKbv d\ij- 
Tcepl ra? %elpa<s eyKpaTeia" 
XXV. f O 8' 'A/oicrretS^? wpKicre ftev rou? 

/a? Kal w/jiocrev vTrep TWV ^Ad^vaiayv, /JLV- 334 
Gfji/3a\a)V eVt rai? dpals et9 TTJV 6d\aTTav, 
v&Tepov Be TWI> TrpayftdTcov ap%et,v eyKpaT- 



eoircev, K/3iao/jieva)v eKeXeve rou? 
Tr]v GTTiopKiav TptyavTas ei? eavTov 2 



(7vp(j)epei %pYja6ai rot? Trpdy/nacn. KaO^ o\ov 
' o eo<^/3a(TT09 <J)r)(Ti TOV avBpa TOVTOV Trepl TO. 
Kal TOVS TroXtra? a/c/oa>? 6Vra Bi/caiov ev 



1 ei<fiv<f> ykp Hercher and Blass with F a S : 
9 lawTiv Heroher and Blass with F a S : avrbv. 



288 



ARISTIDES, xxiv. 3~xxv. 2 

the death of Pericles the demagogues enlarged 
it little by little, and at last brought the sum 
total up to thirteen hundred talents, not so much 
because the war, by reason of its length and 
vicissitudes, became extravagantly expensive, as 
because they themselves led the people off into 
the distribution of public moneys for spectacular 
entertainments, and for the erection of images 
and sanctuaries. 

So then Aristides had a great and admirable 
name for his adjustment of the revenues. But 
Themistocles is said to have ridiculed him, claiming 
that the praise he got therefor was not fit for 
a man, but rather for a mere money-wallet. He came 
off second best, however, in this retort upon the 
plain speech of Aristides, who had remarked, when 
Themistocles once declared to him the opinion 
that the greatest excellence in a general was the 
anticipation of the plans of his enemies: "That 
is indeed needful, Themistocles, but the honourable 
thing, and that which makes the real general, is 
his mastery over his fingers." 

XXV. Aristides did, indeed, bind the Hellenes 
by an oath, and took oath himself for the Athenians, 
to mark his imprecations casting iron ingots into 
the sea ; but afterwards, when circumstances, 
forsooth, compelled a more strenuous sway, he 
bade the Athenians lay the perjury to his own 
charge, and turn events to their own advantage. 
And in general, as Theophrastus tells us, while 
the man was strictly just in his private relations 
to his fellow-citizens, hi public matters he often 



289 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOI? KOivols TroXXa Trpd^ai TT/JO? frjv V7rodeo~iv 
T?;? vraT/uSo?, &>? crv^vr)^ KCU dSiKias Beo/mevrjv. 1 
real yap ra xprffjuard (j)r)<nv etc A^Xou /3ov\evofj,e- 
va^e Ko/j,i<rai Trupd ra? GvvQr}Ka<$, /cat 2 
larrjyov/jL6i>a)v, eiTreiv eicelvov, a')? ov 
3 &L/caiov [lev, a-vpfyepov Se TOUT' ecrTt. :al TeXo? 
t? TO ap%6t,v avQptoTTWv Toerovraiv /caTa<7T?;cra9 
Tr/t' TroKiv auTo? ev/Aii>e rf) frevia real Tr)v CLTTO 
TOV Trevrjs elvat Sogav ov&ev rjrrov dyaTrwv 



CLTTO TO)V 



KaXXta? o SaSoO^o? T^V avru> yevei, 
TOVTOV ol e^dpol Oavdrov SicoKOvres, eVet 
&v eypdtyavro fAeTpicos Karrjyopi^crav, elirov Tiva 
\oyov e%(09ev TOLOVTOV TT/OO? TOV? 
4 " 'Apt<7T6/S7?^," tyrja-av, " lave TOV 

ev Tot? "RXkrjcri.' TOVTCD TTO)? oleaOe 



ra KCLT OIKOV e^eiv opwvres avrov ev 



Trpoep^o^evov et? TO ri/jioaiov; ap OVK 
el/cos eo-ri rov piyovvTa fyavepws Kal Treivdv OIKOI 
/cal TU>V a\\cov CTriTrj^eicov (nravi^eiv; TOVTOV 
fiVTOi KaXXta?, dve^riov OVTO, 7r\ovo~icoTaTO<s wv 
'AOijvaicov Trepiopa yueTa TGKVWV Kal ryvi'aiKos 
TroXXa K^prj/jLevo^ TU> dvbpl Kal 
avTOV TT}? 7ra/3* VIM,V Su^a/ieco? a-TroXe- 
5 Xau/cco?." o Be KaXX/a? opcov eVl TOUTW 

1 al a5t/ci'at 1>to/j.fvr)v Blass, favoured by F a S : 
' 2 Kal bracketed by Sintenis 8 . 



290 



ARISTIDES, xxv. 2-5 

acted in accordance with the policy which his 
country had adopted, feeling that this required 
much actual injustice. For instance, he says that 
when the question of removing the moneys of the 
confederacy from Delos to Athens, 1 contrary to 
the compacts, was being debated, and even the 
Samians proposed it, Aristides declared that it 
was unjust, but advantageous. And yet, although 
he at last established his city in its sway over so 
many men, he himself abode by his poverty, and 
continued to be no less content with the reputation 
he got from being a poor man, than with that 
based on his trophies of victory. This is clear 
from the following story. 

Callias the Torch-bearer was a kinsman of his. 
This man was prosecuted by his enemies on a 
capital charge, and after they had brought only 
moderate accusations against him within the scope 
of their indictment, they went outside of it and 
appealed to the judges as follows: "You know 
Aristides the son of Lysimachus," they said, " how 
he is admired in Hellas ; what do you suppose 
his domestic circumstances are when you see him 
entering the public assembly in such a scanty 
cloak as that ? Is it not likely that a man who 
shivers in public goes hungry at home, and is 
straitened for the other necessaries of life ? Callias, 
however, who is the richest man of Athens (and 
his cousin at that), allows him to suffer want with 
his wife and children, though he has often had 
service of the man, and many times reaped advantage 
from his influence with you." But Callias, seeing 

1 454 B.C. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rovs Si/cao-Tas Kal ^aXe-Trw? TT/DO? 



avrov eXpVTd? eVaXet TOV 'ApiaTeiBrjv, d 
/jLapTvptjcrcu Trpo? TOI>? BiKaards, on 7roXXa/a9 
avrov TroXXa KOI BiSovTos /cat Seopevov \aftelv 



OVK reiaev drroKi,v6JLevo<;y a>? ia\\ov aur 



Bia ireviav fjieja typoveiv rj KaXXta Sia TT\OVTOV 
TrpocnJKd' TT\OVTU> fjiev jap ecrri TroXXou? tSeti^ 
ev re Kal Katcws ^pwfievov^, Trevlav 6e <f>epovri 
ryevvaLO)? ov pabiov evrv^elv alcr'xyveaOat, 8e 
6 Trevlav rou? a/covaia)^ Trevofj-evov^. ravra &e TOV 
' Apicrreibov ry KaXXta irpocr/iJiapTVpijo-avTOf ov- 



aKOVovrwv, o? ou/c 



elvai /3ov\6/jL6vo^ fj TT\OV- 
relv to? KaXXta?. raOra /itez> ow x Alcr^ivTj^ 6 
^(otcpaTLKos dvayeypafa. Tl\a.TO)v Be TMV jjueyd- 

\WV SofCOVVTOOV KOI OVO[JLa(TTWV 'A0rfvrj(Tl fJLOVOV 

a%iov \6yov TOVTOV a,TTo$aivei rbv avSpa" 0eyLtt- 
ffroK\ea fiev jap KOL Kt/iw^a /cal Y\.epiK\ea 
crrowv Kal xprj/jbdraiv Kal $\vapia<; TroXX?}? e/t- 
7r\fjcrai Tr)v ir6\iv, 'ApicrTeiSrjv Be TroXiTevaacrOai 
Trpo? dpenjv. 

Me7aXa S' avrov Kal rd TT/OO? 6fJLicrroK\ea 
T?}? eTrieiKeias a-r^ela. xprja-dfiievos jdp avry 
irapd iracrav Ofiov rrjv TroXireiav e%0pq> Kal Si 
eiceiyav e^oaTpaKicrOefa, eVet rrjv avrrjv 



o dvrjp ev atria jevopevos TT/JO? rrjv 
7ro\iv, OVK e/jLvya-ifcdKrjo-ev, aXX' 'AX/e^at'cofo? Kal 



l 7ro\\a)v a\\wv e 



KarrjjopovvTdJV /ioi/o? 'Apio-reiBrjs ovr' 
ovr eiire n <f>av\ov, ovS 1 dire\avcrev e 

1 p.tv olv Hercher and Blass with F a S : /* 
292 



ARISTIDES, xxv. 5-7 

that his judges were very turbulent at this charge, 
and bitterly disposed toward him, summoned Aristides 
and demanded his testimony before the judges that 
though often proffered aid from him and importuned 
to accept it, he had refused it, with the answer 
that it more became him to be proud of his 
poverty than Callias of his wealth ; for many were 
to be seen who use wealth well or ill, but it 
was not easy to find a man who endured poverty 
with a noble spirit ; and those only should be 
ashamed of poverty who could not be otherwise 
than poor. When Aristides had borne this witness 
for Callias, there was no one of his hearers who 
did not go home preferring to be poor with Aristides 
rather than to be rich with Callias. This, at any 
rate, is the story told by Aeschines the Socratic. 
And Plato l maintains that of all those who had great 
names and reputations at Athens, this man alone 
was worthy of regard. Themistocles, he says, and 
Cimon, and Pericles, filled the city with porches 
and moneys and no end of nonsense ; but Aristides 
squared his politics with virtue. 

There are also strong proofs of his reasonableness 
to be seen in his treatment of Themistocles. This 
man he had found to be his foe during almost all his 
public service, and it was through this man that he 
was ostracized ; but when Themistocles was in the 
same plight, and was under accusation before the 
city, Aristides remembered no evil ; nay, though 
Alcmeon and Cimon and many others denounced 
and persecuted the man, Aristides alone did and 
said no meanness, nor did he take any advantage of 

1 Gorgiaa, pp. 518 f., 526. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

, tocnrep ovB* evrj/JLepovvri vrporepov 

XXVI. Te\evrrja-at, Be 'Apia-reiBijv OL fiev ev 
Tlovrw (j)a<rlv K7r\evcravra irpd^ewv evetca 
, ol S' y A.0r]vr](Tt, ytfpq>> n/JLto/Jievov KOI 

V7TO r)V 7TO\t,TO)V. K/OaTy009 S' O 

Toiavrd TIVCL Trepl rr}? TeXeur^? rov a^S/oo? eiprjfce. 
a yap ryv e/JiicrTOK\eov<; fyvyrjv (frrjcrtv wcnrep 
ier aura rov Sfj/juov avafyvaai, vrX^^o? GTVKQ- 
ot TOU? apicrrov^ KOI SwaTwrdrovs 
dv&pa? SicoKovres V7ref3a\\ov rw fyOovw TWV TTO\- 335 

2 \&v 7raipo/jiV(i)v UTT' euru^ta? teal 8vvd/4w<;. ev 
rouroi? /cal 'ApKTTeiSrjv d\wvai SaypoSotcias, Ato- 
(frdvrov rov ^Afji(j>Lrpo7r^dev Karrjyopovvros, &>?, 
ore TOW? (fropovs erarre, irapcl rwv 'Icovwv xpij- 
fiara \a/36vTO<?' eKrlcrai $ OVK e^oirra rrjv /cara- 

TrevT/jKovra fjivwv ovcrav e/tTrXeucrat KCLI irepi 
'IcovLav a,7ro0avelv. TOVTCOV Be ovBev ey- 
ypa<f)ov o K/oa re/30? re/c^piov Trapeo-^fjKei', ovre 
SiKrjv ovre ->/r?;^)fcr//,a, Kaiirep elaOoas eTrieitccos 
ypd<f)iv ra roiavra /cal TtapariOecrOai rovs i&ro- 
povvras. 

3 Ol S* O\\OL Trdvres, CB? eVo? elirelv, ocroi, r& 

a ry B^JULW irepl roi>? (rrparrjyovs 
r>jv n*ev /JUCTTOK\OV<? (f)vyrjv teal ra 
$ea-/j,a /cal rrjv TiepiK\eov<; fyjjdav KCLI 
rov ITa^T/TO? eV T&5 Si/caa-rrjpiqy Odvarov, dv\6v- 
TO? avrov eVt rov /S^'/iaro? tw? ^XtV/cero, Kal 
7ro\\a roiavra (rvvdyovan Kal dpvXovaii', 'Api- 
Be rov /.tev ej~ocrr paicicr JJLOV 
Be roiavrrjs ouBafiov 



294 



ARISTIDES, xxv. y-xxvi. 3 

his enemy's misfortune, just as formerly he did not 
grudge him his prosperity. 

XXVI. As touching the death of Aristides, some 
say he died in Pontus, on an expedition in the 
public service ; others at Athens, of old age, honoured 
and admired by his countrymen. But Craterus the 
Macedonian tells something like this about the death 
of the man. After the exile of Themistocles, he 
says, the people waxed wanton, as it were, and 
produced a great crop of sycophants, who hounded 
down the noblest and most influential men, and 
subjected them to the malice of the multitude, now 
exalted with its prosperity and power. Among 
these he says that Aristides also was convicted of 
bribery, on prosecution of Diophantus of the deme 
Amphitrope, for having taken money from the 
lonians when he was regulating the tributes ; and, 
further, that being unable to pay the judgment, 
which was fifty minas, he sailed away and died 
somewhere in Ionia. But Craterus furnishes no 
documentary proof of this, no judgment of the 
court, no degree of indictment, although he is 
wont to record such things with all due fulness, and 
to adduce his authorities. 

All the rest, as I may venture to say, all who 
rehearse the shortcomings of the people in dealing 
with their leaders, compile and descant upon the 
exile of Themistocles, the imprisonment of Miltiades, 
the fine of Pericles, the death of Paches in the court 
room, he slew himself on the rostrum when he 
saw that he was convicted, and many such a case, 
and they put into the list the ostracism of Aristides, 
but of such a condemnation as this for bribery they 
make no mention whatsoever, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXVII. Kal i-ieuToi KCLI ra<o? ecrrlv avrov 
i>v/jii>o<;, ov <f>acn Karaa-Kevdaai rrjv 
ai)Tu> fjirjft vrd<f)ia Kara\i7roi>ri. KOI ra? 
Ovyarepas i&Topovcrtv e/c rov Trpvraveiov TO<? 

oOrjvai Sr)/ J ioo'ia, TT}? 7ro\6ft)9 
eyyvaxyr)? ical nrpOLKa rpia"%i\ias 
KaTpa tyTjfpio-a/jLevrjf;, Aucrt/^a^ft) Be TCO viS) 
fj,ev efcarov apyvpiov real yrjs rocravra iT\edpa ire- 
(frvrev^evT)? eSco/cev 6 87)^09, aXXa? 8e &pa%/j,a<; 
2 recrcrapa? 6t9 rj/jiepav e/cdarriv aTrera^ev, 'A\/ci- 
TO "^nj(f)icr/jia ypdtyavTOs. en, 8e AVGI- 
flvyarepa HoXv/cpirrji/ a r TTO\Lir6vro^ ) co? 
(frrjai, real ravrrj crirrfaiv OGIJV teal 
'QXvjmTTioviKais 6 S^/u-o? e^T/^tcrar 
8' o ^a\rfpev^ KOI 'lepayvv/JLOS 6 'PoBio? 

6 ILOVGLKOS Kal ' ApicrroTe\r]<; (e/ 
TO 76 x Ilepl evyeveias /3tj3\i,ov ev Tot? 
'A/9crTOTeXoi>9 Oereov) laropovcri M.upTa) Ovya- 
rpi&TJv 'Apiarei&ov ^.(o/cpdreL ry cro(j)M <rvvoi/ef)(Tai, 
yvvai/ca /j,ev erepav e^ovri, ravrrjv S' dva\a/36vri 
8ia ireviav Kal TWV dvay/caicov evBeo- 



3 fJLevrjv. Trpos fjv ovv TOVTOVS icavws 
ev Tot9 vrepl ^(OKpdrovs dvreiprjKev 6 Se 
ev TW ^(OKpdrei <pr)crl fAvrj/Aoveveiv 'ApicrreiBov 
OvyarpiBovv ev /zaXa Trev^ra Avcri/JLa^ov, 09 
eavrbv jj,v 2 e/CTTii'dKiov TWOS oveipoKpnitcov Trapa 



TO aK^eov ,ey/JLVOV Ka eo [jievos /ocr/c6. rj 
Be fjLrjrpl Kal rfj ravrr]^ dBe\<pfj tyrjcfricr/jLa ypd^ra^ 
rov Brj/jLOV Tpofirjv B/Sovai Tpi(t)/3o\ov 

o 



1 r6 yt Hercber and Blass with F a S : rJ. 
Hercher and Blass with FS : 



296 



ARISTIDES, xxvii. 1-3 

XXVII. Moreover, his tomb is pointed out at 
Phalerum, and they say the city constructed it for 
him, since he did not leave even enough to pay for 
his funeral. And they tell how his daughters were 
married from the prytaneium at the public cost, the 
city bestowing the dowry for the marriage and voting 
outright three thousand drachmas to each daughter, 
while to Lysimachus his son, the people gave one 
hundred minas in silver, as many acres of vineyard 
land, and besides this a pension of four drachmas 
per diem, all in a bill which was brought in 
by Alcibiades. And further, Lysimachus left a 
daughter, Polycrite, according to Callisthenes, and 
the people voted for her a public maintenance, in 
the style of their Olympic victors. Again, Demetrius 
the Phalerean, Hieronymus the Rhodian, Aristoxenus 
the Musician, and Aristotle (provided the book 
"On Nobility of Birth" is to be ranked among the 
genuine works of Aristotle) relate that Myrto, the 
granddaughter of Aristides, lived in wedlock with 
Socrates the Sage. He had another woman to wife, 
but took this one up because her poverty kept her 
a widow, and she lacked the necessaries of life. To 
these, however, Panaetius, in his work on Socrates, 
has made sufficient reply. 

And the Phalerean says, in his " Socrates," that 
he remembers a grandson of Aristides, Lysimachus, 
a very poor man, who made his own living by means 
of a sort of dream-interpreting tablet, his seat being 
near the so-called laccheium. To this man's mother 
and to her sister, Demetrius persuaded the people to 
give, by formal decree, a pension of three obols per 



297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvrl Tpio)j36\ov Bpa%fjiT]v e/carepa 



Kal ovSev ecrri 6avfJLCL<TTOv OUTW fypovricrat, 
ev a<TTei TOP St'j/jioi', OTTOV OvyaTpi&rjv ' A-pHrroyei- 
TOVOS ev Atf/JLV<p 7rv06fjLvoi TdTTeiva Trpdrreiv 
dvSpbs aTTopoixrav Sta irevlav Kanjyayov *A.@ijvae, 
real crvvoiKiuavTes dv&pl TWV ev yeyovorajv TO 
IIora/jLol ^wpiov e/9 <f>epvi]v GTreS&Kav. 775 <pi\av- 
0pci)TTia<; teal ^/J^CTTOT^TO? en iro\\a KOL teaO* 

K(pepova'a 



teal 



298 



ARISTIDES, xxvn. 3-4 

diem ; though afterwards, in his capacity of sole 
legislator, he himself, as he says, assigned a drachma 
instead of three obols to each of the women. 

It is not to be wondered at that the people took 
such thought for families in the city, since on 
learning that the granddaughter of Aristogeiton was 
living humbly in Lemnos, unmarried because of her 
poverty, they brought her back to Athens, consorted 
her with a well-born man, and gave her the estate 
in Potamus for her dowry. For such humanity and 
benevolence, of which the city still gives illustrious 
examples even in my own day, she is justly admired 
and lauded. 



*99 



MARCUS CATO 



MAPKO2 KATON 

I. MdpKw Be Kar&w fyacnv cnro Tovcr/cXov TO 
yevos elvai, Biairav Be KOI (Blov %iv rrpb ra>v 336 
crpareiwv /cal rrjs 7roXtT6ta9 eV ^wptot? Trarpyoi^ 
irepl ^aftivovs. TO>V Se irpojovwv iravraTracnv 
dyvcixTTcov yeyovevai SOKOVVTCW at>ro? o Karty^ 
teal rov Trarepa Mdpicov a>9 a<ya,6ov avSpa /cal 
crpaTKOTL/cov eiraivel, /cal Karawa rov irpoTraTr- 
TTOV apiffreltov TroAAatft? rv^elv (f>r)cn KCU irevre 
LTTTTOVS ev fid^ai^ a.7ro/3aXo^ra rrjv 
aiTo\a(3elv etc rov brj/jLOcriov Si dvSp- 
2 ayaOiav. elwObrwv 8e TU>V 'Pay/jLaicw rou? CLTTO 



ov/c 



Si? avrwv tcaivovs rrpocrayopeveiv 
dv0pa)7rovs, wcrrrep /cal rov Kara>z/a 
yopevov, auro9 e\ey /caivbs elvai 77^009 
/cal &6%av, epyois $e rrpoyovwv /cal dperais 
7ra/A7raXato9. e/caXetro Be r&> rpirw rwv ovo~ 
fidrcov Trporepov ov Kdrwv, aXXa 
varepov Be rov Kdrwva *n?9 Bwd/jLecos e 
ecr%' 'Pw/xatof yap rov eprreipov /cdrov 
fyvcriv. 

*Hv Be TO /iev elBos VTrbrcvppos /cal 

302 



MARCUS CATO 

I. THE family of Marcus Cato, it is said, was of 
Tusculan origin, though he lived, previous to his 
career as soldier and statesman, on an inherited 
estate in the country of the Sabines. His ancestors 
commonly passed for men of no note whatever, but 
Cato himself extols his father, Marcus, as a brave 
man and good soldier. He also says that his grand- 
father, Cato, often won prizes for soldierly valour, 
and received from the state treasury, because of his 
bravery, the price of five horses which had been 
killed under him in battle. The Romans used to 
call men who had no family distinction, but were 
coming into public notice through their own achieve- 
ments, " new men," and such they called Cato. 
But he himself used to say that as far as office and 
distinction went, he was indeed new, but having 
regard to ancestral deeds of valour, he was oldest of 
the old. His third name was not Cato at first, but 
Priscus. Afterwards he got the surname of Cato 
for his great abilities. The Romans call a man who 
is wise and prudent, caius. 

As for his outward appearance, he had reddish 
hair, and keen grey eyes, as the author of the well- 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 






o>9 o 7rot7/cra? TO 7riypafjL/jLa.Ti,Gv ov/c 



YLvppov, TravBa/ceT'rjv, y\avfco/jijAaTOV, ovBe 

Oavovra 
TlopKiov et9 atBrjv Qepcrefyowr) Be^erai. 

Trjv Be rov <r<WyU,aTO? e%iv avrovpyia real Biairy 
(rwtypovi KOI (TTpareiais cur a/0%^9 crvvrpotyov 
76702^0x05 TTCLVV %pr)a"TiKr}v el")(e, KCU vrpo? la-^vv 

4 ^al 7T/90? vjteiav o/xaXw? o-vveo-rwaav. TOV 8e 
\6yov, axTTrep Sevrepov crcoyita /tat rcoi' 

01) fiovov TWV dvajKauwv l opyavov dvBpl 
TaTre/yw? ^iwa-o^evw fjurfS* aTTpd/crw^, e^jprvero 
KOI Trapeo-Keva^ev ev rat? TrepioiKia-i KCti/mais teal 

TOi? TTOXt^I/tOt? Kd(TTOT CrVV^lKtoV TOt? SeO^eVoi? 

/tai Trpwrov aev a/y&mcrTr/? eli'ai &OKMI> 7rp60u/j,o<>, 
elra Kal ptjTcop Iicav6<;. etc Se TOUTOU 
rot? ^pw^evoi^ /care^aivero ySa/oo? rt ;al 
i/7/yCta 7re/9t avrov ijdovs irpajfjidTcov /jieyd\(ov Kal 

5 TroTUTeta? Seo/jievov rjye/jLOVifcfjs. ov yap {JLOVOV, 
a>? eoi/ce, jjLiff&apvias KaOapov eavrov eVl ra? 

al rou? dywva? jrapel^ev, aA,V ouSe 
a>? /jLyi(TTOV dyaTrwv ediaivero ryv cnro 
TOIOVTCOV dyojvwv, TTO\V Be /jid\\ov ev r 
rat9 77^09 TOL/9 TroXe/A/oL'9 :al rat9 crrpareiais 

/SofXo/A6^O9 V&OKl/JLLV eTL fJL6lpuKlOV WV 

6 rcoz/ TO a)jj.a /xearov evavriwv eix l 
ai)T09 eTTTa/caiBeKa yeyovws err) rrjv 
a-Tparevcracrflai trrpaTeiav irepl bv *Avvij3a<> 

7re(f)\eye TTJV '}ia\Lav. 

Hercher and Blass, with Bekkcr : 
Kouoy. 

304 



MARCUS CATO, i. 3-6 

known epigram ill-naturedly gives us to under- 
stand : 

Red-haired, snapper and biter, his grey eyes 

flashing defiance, 

Porcius, come to the shades, back will be 
thrust by their Queen. 

His bodily habit, since he was addicted from the 
very first to labour with his own hands, a temperate 
mode of life, and military duties, was very service- 
able, and disposed alike to vigour and health. His 
discourse, a second body, as it were, and, for the 
use of a man who would live neither obscurely nor 
idly, an instrument with which to perform not only 
necessary, but also high and noble services, this 
he developed and perfected in the villages and towns 
about Rome, where he served as advocate for all who 
needed him, and got the reputation of being, first a 
zealous pleader, and then a capable orator. Thence- 
forth the weight and dignity of his character 
revealed themselves more and more to those who 
had dealings with him ; they saw that he was bound 
to be a man of great affairs, and have a leading 
place in the state. For he not only gave his services 
in legal contests without fee of any sort, as it would 
seem, but did not appear to cherish even the repute 
won in such contests as his chief ambition. Nay, he 
was far more desirous of high repute in battles and 
campaigns against the enemy, and while he was yet 
a mere stripling, had his breast covered with honour- 
able wounds. He says himself that he made his 
first campaign when he was seventeen years old, at 
the time when Hannibal was consuming Italy with 
the flames of his successes. 1 

1 217 B.O. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
S* 



avrov ev ras /Ji^ais rj pep 

, r& S& TTO&l fJLOVUJ-OV KOI 

Be TW TrpocrooTrq)' \6yov 6" d-rreiXf) /cal 
7T/50? TGI/? 7ro\e/j.iovs e^prjTO, 

/cal SiSda-Kcav, OTI TroKKaKis ra 
TOiavra rov ^t'^ou? fj,a\\ov Kara7r\r)TTeraL TOU? 
7 evavriovs. ev 5e rat? Tropeiats auro? e/3a 
(pepcov ra oVXa, al Oepdirwv et? ewrero ra 
biairav avra> KO/JLI^COV, c5 \eyerat /jurf 
SvcrKO\avai ftr)$e /jLe^^faffdai Trapadevri apiarov 
rj SeiTTvov, dXXa /cat <rv\\afMf3dveiv auro? ra 
/cat (TVfjLTrapaaKevd^eiv CLTTO TWV crrpa- 
yei'6/jivo<{ epycov. vScop S' eirtvev e 
, t jr\r)V etTrore St^/yVa? TrepityXey 
alnj<reiev l r) r?^? tV^uo? vSi&ovcnis eVtXa/Sot 337 
fii/cpov olvdpiov. 

II. 5 Hi> 8f ir\r]criov avrov rwv dypwv r} yevo- 
fj,vr) Mawou Koupiov TOV rpl? 
7rav\is. eVl ravrrjv (rvve-^w^ jSabi^wv KOI 



row re 'Xwpov rrjv f^tKporrjra /cat 



TO \ITOV, evvoiav ekdfijBave rov d 
on 'Pa)/jiaia)V /j,eyicrTO<; yevo/jbevos /cal ra pa 
rara rwv eOvwv V7rayayo/jivo<; /cal Hvppov 



TOUTO TO toi$iov atTO9 



a/ca7rr /cal ravrrfv rrjv eirav\iv wfcei /juera rpels 

2 BpidpfBovs. evravOa TT/OO? eV^a/oa 

avrov e-fyovra yoyyv\i8a<? evpovres ol 

Trpeorfieis eSi&ocrav TTO\V ^pvvlov o 

tyaro <prjcra<$ ovSev %pv(rlov &iv a> SeiTrvov dpicel 

roiovrov, avry pevroi rov ^pvcriov fyeiv /cd\\iov 

elvai TO VIKCLV TOU? %ovras. ravQ* o K.dra)V 

1 aur+iffsitv Blp.sa, with Bekker : p 

306 



MARCUS CATO, i. 6-n. 2 

In battle, he showed himself effective of hand, 
sure and steadfast of foot, and of a fierce counten- 
ance. With threatening speech and harsh cries he 
would advance upon the foe, for he rightly thought, 
and tried to show others, that often-times such action 
terrifies the enemy more than the sword. On the 
march, he carried his own armour on foot, while a 
single attendant followed in charge of his camp 
utensils. With this man, it is said, he was never 
wroth, and never scolded him when he served up a 
meal, nay, he actually took hold himself and assisted 
in most of such preparations, provided he was free 
from his military duties. Water was what he drank 
on his campaigns, except that once in a while, in a 
raging thirst, he would call for vinegar, or, when his 
strength was failing, would add a little wine. 

II. Near his fields was the cottage which had once 
belonged to Manius Curius, a hero of three triumphs. 
To this he would often go, and the sight of the 
small farm and the mean dwelling led him to think 
of their former owner, who, though he had become 
the greatest of the Romans, had subdued the most 
warlike nations, and driven Pyrrhus out of Italy, 
nevertheless tilled this little patch of ground with 
his own hands and occupied this cottage, after three 
triumphs. Here it was that the ambassadors of 
the Samnites once found him seated at his hearth 
cooking turnips, and offered him much gold ; but he 
dismissed them, saying that a man whom such a 
meal satisfied had no need of gold, and for his part 
he thought that a more honourable thing than the 
possession of gold was the conquest of its possessors. 
Cato would go away with his mind full of these 



307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ev6vfJLOV}JLVO^ amf)l, KOL TOV dVTOV rrd\iV OtKOV 

etyopwv Kal %(opia Kal OepdiTovTas Kal Biairav 
7rerei,ve rrjv avrovpyiav Kal irepieKOirre rrjv 
7ro\vre\eiav. 

3 <&a/3Lov Be M.ai/jLOV rrjv Tapavrivwv 7ro\iv 
eXo^ro? erv^e fJLev o Kdrwv crrpaTeuo/Aevos VTT* 
avrw KOjjii&fj fjLeipdfciov wv, Nea/o^w Be TLVL 
TIvOayopiKcov ^evy xpricrd/Aevos eaTrovSacre 
\6ywv /AeraXa/Selv. aKovcras Be ravra 

TOV dvSpos, ol? /ce^T/rat /cal H\dr(i)i> } rrjv 
a\oyv ^.eytcrTOV KCLKOV &6\eap, 
Be rfj "^v^y TO trw/^a Trpwrrji', \vcriv Be 
l KaOapjJiov ot? /^aXicrra ^wpi^ei Kal a(piffT7fa i tv 



aitTrjv TWV rrepl TO crw/^a 



eri yttaXXoz/ rjyaTrrjcre TO XtToi/ Kal rrjv eyxpareiav. 
4 aX,Xa>? Be 7ra< Betas ' 
\eyerai, Kal Troppco 



CLTTO 

TO prjropiKov M^e^dr/vai. ra jAevrot, avyypdfj,- 
Kal Boy/jtacriv 'EXX?; viKols Kal 
BiaTreTroLKikrai,' Kal 



a Kara \e%iv ev Tot? d7ro<f)Qey/j,aa-i Kal 



III. ' Hz/ Be TIS dvrjp evTrarpiBrj^ fjiev ev Tot? yua 
o~Ta 'P '&) i-iaiwv Kal Bui'ar6<j,dper^v Be <f>vo{j.ein]v fjie 
alcrOdvea-dai Beivos, ev/JLevrjs Be Kal 0pe^aL Kal 



trpoayayev 

OUTO? el^ev o^opovvra ywpia Tot? 
Trvdofievos Be rrjv avrovpyiav Kal Biairav avrov 
Trapa rwv OLKCTCOV Kal Oav^daa^ e^rjyov/jievcov, ori 

1 Tj\jK/ay eArj\o;cu>s Hercher and Blaas with S : fi\iittas. 
308 



MARCUS CATO, n. 2-111. i 

things, and on viewing again his own house and 
lands arid servants and mode of life, would increase 
the labours of his hands and lop off his extrava- 



gancies. 



When Fabius Maximus took the city of Tarentum, 1 
it chanced that Cato, who was then a mere stripling, 
served under him, and being lodged with a certain 
Nearchus, of the sect of the Pythagoreans, he was 
eager to know of his doctrines. When he heard 
this man holding forth as follows, in language which 
Plato also uses, condemning pleasure as " the greatest 
incentive to evil," and the body as " the chief 
detriment to the soul, from which she can release 
and purify herself only by such reasonings as most 
do wean and divorce her from bodily sensations," he 
fell still more in love with simplicity and restraint. 
Further than this, it is said, he did not learn Greek till 
late in life, and was quite well on in years when he 
took to reading Greek books ; then he profited in 
oratory somewhat from Thucydides, but more from 
Demosthenes. However, his writings are moderately 
embellished with Greek sentiments and stories, and 
many literal translations from the Greek have found 
a place among his maxims and proverbs. 

III. There was at Rome a certain man of the 
highest birth and greatest influence, who had the 
power to discern excellence in the bud, and the 
grace to cultivate it and bring it into general esteem. 
This man was Valerius Flaccus. He had a farm 
next to that of Cato, and learned from Cato's servants 
of their master's laborious and frugal way of living. 
He was amazed to hear them tell how Cato, early in 

1 209 B.O. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rrpwit }ikv t? ayopav fSaBi^eL KOI rrapicrrarai rot? 

2 Seo/jLevot,?, 7rave\0a)V 8' et? TO ^(apLov, av fj,ev rj 

%iu(i>v, e^w/jiiBa \aftu>v, Qepovs Be yvjjivbs epyaad- 



rwv ol/cerMV eaOiei, rov avrbv aprov 



Ka0ij/jivo<i teal Trivet rov avrov olvov, a\\rjv 
re iro\\r}v eTTteiKeiav avrov real fj,erpi6rr)ra real 
rivas KOI \6yov$ a7ro(j)0yjuLariKov^ 8ia/j,vr)fjLOvev6v~ 

3 rwv, K6\vcre K\rjdrjvat, TT/OO? TO Sel-rrvov. IK Se 
rovrov %pa>fjivo<; teal Karavowv ripepov 
aarelov 77^09, wcnrep <f>vrov acr/crfo-eco? Kal 
7Ti,(j)avov<i Seopevov, Trpoerpe^aro KOI 
atyaadai rij<; ev 'Pco/jirj TroXtreta?. Kare\6wv 
ovv ev6v<; TOU? fiev avros e/craro 0av/jLaara$ 
Kal (j)i\ov<; $ia rwv a-vvrjyopLwv, 7ro\\rjv Be 
TOV Ova\\piov TI^/TIV /cal Svva/jiiv avra> Trpocr- 
riOevros ^L\iap^ia<; erv%e Trpayrov, elra erafjiiev- 

4 <rev. ex rovrov Be \a/j,7rpb<; tov ijBr) Kal Trepityavr} 1 ? 
avrw ry Ova\\epiw rcepl Ta? /j,<yicrra<; crvvege- 

v a/o^a?, vrraros re /ACT' exeivov Kal rca\iv 



Twv Be Trpecrftvrepwv 7ro\ira)V 

Trpocreveifjiev eavrov, evBo^ordrtp {lev ovri Kal 
fjLejicrrrjv e^ovn Bvvafjiiv, /JLO\,\OV Be rov rporrov 
avrov Kal rov fiiov co? Kd\\ia~ra TrapaBeuy/jLara 
5 Trpode/Aevos. Bio Kal ^KrjTTiwvi ru) fieydXri), vero 338 
/jLev ovn rore, TT/OO? Be rtjv 4>a/3tou Bvra/Jiiv avrai- 
povn Kal (j)0oi'elcrdai Borcovvn, reap ov&ev eTronj- 
<raro yeveaOai Sta$o/?o?, d\\a Kal raffias avr< 
rov ev Aifivy 



310 



MARCUS CATO, HI. 1-5 

the morning, went on foot to the market-place and 
pleaded the cases of all who wished his aid ; then 
came back to his farm, where, clad in a working 
blouse if it was winter, and stripped to the waist if 
it was summer, he wrought with his servants, then 
sat down with them to eat of the same bread and 
drink of the same wine. They told Valerius many 
other instances of Cato's fairness and moderation, 
quoting also sundry pithy sayings of his, until at last 
Valerius gave command that Cato be invited to dine 
with him. After this, discovering by converse with 
him that his nature was gentle and polite, and 
needed, like a growing tree, only cultivation and 
room to expand, Valerius urged and at last persuaded 
him to engage in public life at Rome. Accordingly, 
taking up his abode in the city, his own efforts as an 
advocate at once won him admiring friends, and the 
favour of Valerius brought him great honour and 
influence, so that he was made military tribune first, 
and then quaestor. After this, being now launched 
on an eminent and brilliant career, he shared the 
highest honours with Valerius, becoming consul with 
him, and afterwards censor. 

Of the elder statesmen, he attached himself 
most closely to Fabius Maximus, who was of the 
highest reputation and had the greatest influence, 
but this was more by way of setting before himself 
the character and life of the man as the fairest 
examples he could follow. In the same spirit he did 
not hesitate to oppose the great Scipio, a youthful 
rival of Fabius, and thought to be envious of him. 
When he was sent out with Scipio as quaestor for 
the war in Africa, 1 he saw that the man indulged in 

1 204 B.O. 
VOL. ii. L gll 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ecopa rfj o-vvtfdei 7ro\vre\ia XpcD/jievov TOV avBpa 
Kal fcara^opriyovvra rot? (TTpaTevnaaiv a^et^co? 

6 TCOV ^pt^/j-UTOiv, eTrappijcrid^eTO irpos avTov, ov TO 
TT}? BaTrdvrjs ueyicrTOV elvai <})d/j.evos, dXX* cm 
SiafyOeipei TTJV irdrpiov evre\tav rwv 

</>' 1780^9 real rpv^a*; TW irepiovrt, r?)? 

Tp7TO[l,eVCDV. l7TOl>TO<i $6 TOV ^.K^TTiMVOf, 

Sev BeoiTO ra/iiiov \iav dfcpi/Sovs TrXryo-tcrTto? 
TOV 7r6\/jLov fyepo/jLevos, Trpd^ewv ydp, ov 

7 TWV, rfj 7r6\et \6yov 6cf)ei\iv, (nrri\0ev o 

e/c St/feXta?, Ka\ yitera TOV Oa/St'of Karaffowv ev TW 

<TWeBpi(p (frdopdv T Xp7]/JidTCi)l> d/J,vd)JTO)V V7TO TOV 

^.KriTriwvos Kal Starpt/Sa? aurov 
7ra\ai(TTpais KOI OeaTpois, bxnrep ov 
TO?, aXXa iravrjiyvpi^ovTos, e^eipjdcraTO 
vai Brj/jLap-^ov^ eV CLVTOV a^oi/ra? el<f 

8 avTrcp dX^et? at xaTriyopiai <pavw(Tiv. o fjiev ovv 

ev TTJ TrapacrKevfj TOV 7TO\e/JLOV TTJV 
TriBeiJrd/jLevos, Kal (fiavels 7781;? fj^ev eVt 
avvelvai <f>iX.oi<f, ov&a/jLov Be TU> <f)i\av- 
TT)? SiaiTrjs et? TO, cnroi' Bata Kal fj^jdXa 
, ej;7r\vo~6v eVl TOV TroXe/nov. 
IV. Tw oe KUTCOVL TroXXr/ JJLCV CLTTO TOV \6yov 
To, Kal 'Pcu/uaZo/^ avTov ol vroXXot 
Trpo&rjyopevov, o oe ySt'o? fJLa\\ov 
rjv avTov Kal 7repi@6rjTo<t. f) fjiev yap 
cv TW \eyeiv OCIVOTIJS TrpoviceiTo TO?? vzois dyca- 
VKT/jia KOivov fj&rj Kal Trepio~7rov&a(TTOv, 6 oe TIJV 
irtiTpiov avTovpyiav vTro/Aevcav KCLI oelTrvov ac^eXe? 
Kal apicrTOV aTTVpov Kal XiTr;i/ eadrJTa Kal Srjao- 
TIKTJV do-Tra^o/Aevos oiKTjaiv Kal TO /j>rj Belo~Qai 

312 



MARCUS CATO, m. 5-iv. i 

his wonted extravagance, and lavished money with- 
out stint upon his soldiery. He therefore made bold 
to tell him that the matter of expense was not the 
greatest evil to be complained of, but the fact that 
he was corrupting the native simplicity of his soldiers, 
who resorted to wanton pleasures when their pay 
exceeded their actual needs. Scipio replied that he 
had no use for a parsimonious quaestor when the 
winds were bearing him under full sail to the war; 
he owed the city an account of his achievements, 
not of its moneys. Cato therefore left Sicily, and 
joined Fabius in denouncing before the Senate Scipio's 
waste of enormous moneys, and his boyish addiction 
to palaestras and theatres, as though he were not 
commander of an army, but master of a festival. 
As a result of these attacks, tribunes were sent to 
bring Scipio back to Rome, if the charges against 
him should turn out to be true. Well then,, Scipio 
convinced the tribunes that victory in war depended 
on the preparations made for it ; showed that he 
could be agreeable in his intercourse with his friends 
when he had leisure for it, but was never led by his 
sociability to neglect matters of large and serious 
import ; and sailed off for his war in Africa. 

IV. The influence which Cato's oratory won for 
him waxed great, and men called him a Roman 
Demosthenes ; but his manner of life was even 
more talked about and noised abroad. For his 
oratorical ability only set before young men a goal 
which many already were striving eagerly to attain ; 
but a man who wrought with his own hands, 
as his fathers did, and was contented with a cold 
breakfast, a frugal dinner, simple raiment, and a 
humble dwelling, one who thought more of not 

313 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

paXXov ff TO tcKTTJ<r0ai 

2 GTcdvios rjv, rjBr) Tore TT}? TroXirem? TO Kadapov 
VTTO fjL6yeOov<; oi> $>v\aTTOVcrri<$, aXXa TW Kparelv 

TToXXwz/ Kal dvOpoiTcwv irpo^ TTO\\CL 
e@r] Kal fiicov TrapaBeiy/jbaTa TravTO^a- 

OfjieVTJ^. lKOTW<f OVV eOaVfJLCL^OV TOV 

, Toi9 /j.ev aXXou? UTTO TWV irovwv Opavo- 
Kal yLtaXatrcro/te^ou? UTTO 1 TWV rjSovwv 

3 6pa)VTs, eicelvov Be I/TT' apfyoiv dr^TTrjTov, ov JJLOVOV 
ecu? Ti vcos Kal <f)i\oTifjLO<; Tjv, d\\a Kal yepovTa 
Kal 7ro\iov rj&ij fieO* inraTeiav Kal Qpla^ov, wa-Trep 
a0\rjTrjv viK7j<p6pov, eyxapTepovvTa Ty Ttigei rr}? 



yap ovBewoTe fyrjcn fyopecrai TTO\V- 
T\o~Tepav CKaTov Spax/j-wv, TTIGLV Be Kal o~Tpa- 



Kal vTraTevcav TOV aiiTov olvov rot? epyd- 



Be irapaffKevd^ecrOai Trpbs TO Selirvov 
ej; dyopas do~crapia)V TpiaKOVTa, KOI TOVTO Sia 
TTJV 7r6\iv, OTTW? Icryvoi TO o-w/na 7rpo<; ra? 
4 (TTpaTia<t. e7ri,/3\r)fjLa Be TWV iroiKiKwv Ba/3f- 



K K\rovojiia<; /CTcraue^o? evOix; CLTCO- 



B&o~0at, TWV Be eirav\ewv avTov fjLfjBe^iav elvai 
KKOvia[jievr}v, ovBeva Be TrcoTrore Trpiaadai Bov\ov 
VTrep ra? %tXta? Bpa%/jLa<; Kal Tre^ra/cocrta?, co? 
av ov Tpv(j>epa)v ovB' GDpaicov, aXX' epyariKwv Kal 
crrepewv, olov ITTTTOKO/J-COV Kal ftoiyXaTwv, Beo- 

Kal TOUTOU? Be Trpeff^vrepovj 
Beiv dTToBiBoaOai Kal /JLIJ /36(TKiv d 
6'Xa>9 Be fjLijBev evcovov elvai TWV irepiTTwv, a\X* 
ov Tt? ov BeiTai, KO.V dcraapiov 

1 iirb Heroher and Blase with 8 : KC& v 

3M 



MARCUS CATO, iv. 1-4 

wanting the superfluities of life than of possessing 
them, such a man was rare. The commonwealth 
had now grown too large to keep its primitive 
integrity ; the sway over many realms and peoples 
had brought a large admixture of customs, and the 
adoption of examples set in modes of life of every 
sort. It was natural, therefore, that men should 
admire Cato, when they saw that, whereas other 
men were broken down by toils and enervated by 
pleasures, he was victor over both, and this too, not 
only while he was still young and ambitious, but 
even in his hoary age, after consulship and triumph. 
Then, like some victorious athlete, he persisted in 
the regimen of his training, and kept his mind 
unaltered to the last. 

He tells us that he never wore clothing worth 
more than a hundred drachmas ; that he drank, 
even when he was praetor or consul, the same wine 
as his slaves ; that as for fish and meats, he would 
buy thirty asses' worth 1 for his dinner from the public 
stalls, and even this for the city's sake, that he 
might not live on bread alone, but strengthen his 
body for military service ; that he once fell heir to 
an embroidered Babylonian robe, but sold it at once ; 
that not a single one of his cottages had plastered 
walls ; that he never paid more than fifteen hundred 
drachmas for a slave, since he did not want them to 
be delicately beautiful, but sturdy workers, such as 
grooms and herdsmen, and these he thought it his 
duty to sell when they got oldish, instead of feeding 
them when they were useless ; and that in general, 
he thought nothing cheap that one could do without, 
but that what one did not need, even if it cost but a 

1 The as corresponded nearly to the English penny. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



7TO\\OV VOfJLi^etV KTCL(T0ai & TCt <T7Tlp6/J,Va 

ve/AO/jieva fj,d\\ov ?} TCL paivopeva Kal aaipo/jLva. 

V. Taura S' ol /Aev els fjuKpoXoylav eriOevro TOV 
dv&pos, ol S' a>9 7rl Siopdoocrei Kal cr 
TWV a\\wv evSorepw (Tva-reXXovros eavrov a 

TO TOfc? OLKT(IL<; O>5 VTT 

eVt 7^/00)5 eXavveiv fcal 
(T/ceiv arei/oO? ayav ij&ovq eytaye nOe/jiai, Kal 339 
/xrjBev avOpcoTrw TT/OO? avOpwrrov olopkvov KOU'(O- 
2 vrj/jia r?}? xpeias tr\eov vTrdp^eiv. icaiToi rrjv 
^prja'TOTrjra rrjs BiKaiocrvvT]*; 7T\arvrpnv TO- 
TTOV 6pa)/46v eTTiXafjLftdvovcrav VO/JLW pev yap 
teal TW SiKaiw TT/JO? dv6 pwirovs fiovov 
7T(f>VKafJLev, Trpbs euepyecrta? Be teal 



ore Ka Ai ra)v wv a>rov uxiTre /c 



TrXoL'crta? airoppel T?}? ^ 
yap imrcav aTretpriKOTwv inro %p6vov rpotyal Kal 
Kvva)v ov crKV\aKiat /JLOVOV, d\\a Kal 



'O Se * 



TOV 



rot? TToi^ot? eyKaprepova-as, aTreXucrev 
ve(JL<T0ai Kal a^e'rou?, wv /jbiav (fracrl KaTa(3ai- 
vovcrav a<* eavTrjs irpos ra e/07a TO?? dvdyovcn, 
ra? dfjid^as vTro^vyiots et? aKpoTroXiv 
Kal Trporjyel(j9aL KaOdirep e 



Kal Gwe^opfjuMcrav, r)r/ /cat 



4 /J^xpi TeXeur?)? e'-v/r^^tcra^TO. rai^ 8e Kt'//,ct>i;o9 
LTTTTcav, at9 'OXuyu,7Tta T|0t9 VtKrj(T6, Kal Ta<f>al 

316 



MARCUS CATO, iv. 4 -v. 4 

penny, was dear ; also that he bought lands where 
crops were raised and cattle herded, not those where 
lawns were sprinkled and paths swept. 

V. These things were ascribed by some to the 
man's parsimony ; but others condoned them in the 
belief that he lived in this contracted way only to 
correct and moderate the extravagance of others. 
However, for my part, I regard his treatment of his 
slaves like beasts of burden, using them to the 
uttermost, and then, when they were old, driving 
them off and selling them, as the mark of a very 
mean nature, which recognizes no tie between man 
and man but that of necessity. And yet we know 
that kindness has a wider scope than justice. Law 
and justice we naturally apply to men alone ; but 
when it comes to beneficence and charity, these 
often flow in streams from the gentle heart, like 
water from a copious spring, even down to dumb 
beasts. A kindly man will take good care of his 
horses even when they are worn out with age, and 
of his dogs, too, not only in their puppyhood, but 
when their old age needs nursing. 

While the Athenians were building the Parthenon, 
they turned loose for free and unrestricted pasturage 
such mules as were seen to be most persistently 
laborious. One of these, they say, came back to the 
works of its own accord, trotted along by the side of 
its fellows under the yoke, which were dragging the 
waggons up to the Acropolis, and even led the way 
for them, as though exhorting and inciting them on. 
The Athenians passed a decree that the animal be 
maintained at the public cost as long as it lived. 
Then there were the mares of Cimon, with which he 
won three victories at Olympia ; their graves are 

317 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tr\t]criov el<ri r&v eiceivov jAvrj/jidrcov. tevvas St 
crvvrpofiovs yevopevovs real crvv)]6eis d\\oi re 
real t^dvOnnros o rrakaios rov et? 
rfj rpufjpet, rrapav^dfjievov, ore rrjv 

7TO\IV 6 SrjfJiOS e'eXe7rei>, 7Tl TTJS a/Cpa? 

rjv Kvi/o? a-fj/jua ^\pi vvv Kakovcnv. 

5 Ov yap a><? vTroSij/jiacriv r\ GKevecri rot? 

%pr](TTOv, Koirevra KOI KararpiftevTa rat? 
dTroppiTrrovvras, aXX' el Sia /JLIJ$V 
aXXo, /teXeTT;? eve/ca rov <f)L\avdpa)7rov irpoeOi- 
<TT6ov eavrov ev rourot? irpaov elvai /cal 
eya> /nev ovv ov&e {3ovv av epydrrjv Sid 
dTTO&oifjirjv, fJLri TI ye Trpecrfivrepov avpwirov, 
etc %(*)pa<; avvrpbfyov KOI Stair*]*; crvvi]6ov<$ 
e/c Trarpt'So? /jLeOiGrd/Jievov dvrl Kep/Jbdrwv 
axprjGTOv ye rot? (jovovpevois wcnrep rot? 

6 crKovai yevijaofjievov. 6 e KaTwi/ axjTrep veavi- 
evofjievo? eVt TOVTOL? KCLI rov 'irrrrov, c5 rcapd 
ra? frr/oare/a? vrrarevwv e^pr^ro, <f>rjcrlv ev 
'Iftrjpia fcara\i7reiv, 'iva firj rfj 7ro\et ro vavXov 
avrov \oyia^rat. ravra (lev ovv eire fj^ya\o- 
Tfrv%ia<; etre fJLLKpoKoyLa^ Oereov, e^ecm r& irel- 
dovn %pr)(7Qai \oyia~ /aw. 

VI. TT)? S' a\\rjs eyKpareias vrrepfyvw*; OCLV/JLO,- 
<rTO? o dvrjp' olov on, (rrparrjywv e\d/Ji^avev 
eavry KOI rols rrepl avrov ov rr\iov t? rov 
fjLYjva rrvpwv rj rpels 'Am/covs fjieSi/Avovs, et? 
Se rrjv rj/jiepav KpiOwv rot? vrro^vyioi^ e\arrov 
2 rpiwv rjfjLi/jLeSifjivcov. C7rapj(iav Se \aftcov 2apS6va, 
rwv rrpo avrov crrparrjywv elwQorwv 



MARCUS CATO, v. 4 -vi. 2 

near the tombs of his family. Dogs also that have been 
close and constant companions of men, have often been 
buried with honour. Xanthippus, of olden time, gave 
the dog which swam along by the side of his trireme 
to Salamis, when the people were abandoning their 
city, honourable burial on the promontory which is 
called to this day Cynossema, or Dog's Mound. 1 

We should not treat living creatures like shoes or 
pots and pans, casting them aside when they are 
bruised and worn out with service, but, if for no 
other reason, for the sake of practice in kindness to 
our fellow men, we should accustom ourselves to 
mildness and gentleness in our dealings with other 
creatures. I certainly would not sell even an ox 
that had worked for me, just because he was old, 
much less an elderly man, removing him from his 
habitual place and customary life, as it were from 
his native land, for a paltry price, useless as he 
is to those who sell him and as he will be to those 
who buy him. But Cato, exulting as it were in such 
things, says that he left in Spain even the horse 
which had carried him through his consular campaign, 
that he might not tax the city with the cost of its 
transportation. Whether, now, these things should 
be set down to greatness of spirit or littleness of 
mind, is an open question. 

VI. But in other matters, his self-restraint was 
beyond measure admirable. For instance, when he 
was in command of an army, he took for himself and 
his retinue not more than three Attic bushels of wheat 
a month, and for his beasts of burden, less than a 
bushel and a half of barley a day. He received Sar- 
dinia as his province, 2 and whereas his predecessors 

1 Cf. Themisiodes x. 6. 2 198 B.C. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



KOI (TKrjvM/jLacri Srjfjioo-iois teal K\ivai<$ Kal 
Ttot?, 7ro\\fj Be OepaTrela Kal (f>i\wv TrXrjdei KCL\ 
Trepl Beljrva BaTrdvais Kal TrapacrKevals ftapvvbv- 
TWV, eKeivos aTTicrTOV eVot^cre TTJV Biatyopav 
r?}? vre\La<;. 8a7rai/?7? fjuev yap 6t? ovSei> ov&e- 
ILia? TrpocreBeijOrj &rjiJLocria<s, eVe^otra 8e rat? 
TroXecr^ auro? fj,ev avev evyov<; iropev operas, 
el? Be ijKoXovOei Srjfjioarios e&dfjra Kal airov&tlov 
3 avT<p 7T/90? tepovpjiav KO^I^WV. ev && rouroi? 
our&>5 VKO\OS Kal d(j)e\r)<; rot? VTTO xeipa (fraivo- 
fievos, avOis dvraTrebiBov rqv ae/ai'OT'rjra Kal 
TO j3dpo<f aTrapaiTijTOS wv ev TW SiKaiw Kal 
rot? VTrep rfjs f)<yefjiovias Trpoa'Tay/^ao'iv op6io<; 
Kal avdeKaa-TOS, wcrre yLt^SeTrore r^v 

<f>o/3epci)Tepav 



VII. Totaur?;!; 5e rti>a (fraiverai Kal o 
TOV dvSpbs ISeav e^eiv eu%api<; ydp a/na Kal 
Setvo? 771^, rjSvs Kal KaTa7r\rjKrLKo<;, (})L\oo-Ka)/jLfj.(ov 
Kal avGTr]pbs, dTro^dey/narLKO 1 ; Kal 

o tlXdrtov TOV ^wKpaTrjv fyrjcrlv e^ 
Kal aaTupiKov Kal vfipHrrrjv rot? e 

evBoOev <77rov8>]S Kal irpay- 
elvai Bd/cpva KIVGVVTWV TO!? 34 1 
2 aKpowfJievois Kal TTJV KapBiav GTpefybvTwv. oOev 
ov/c oI5' OTI TT7rbv6a(Tiv ol T<p AVGLOV \6yq) 
fid\icrTa cf)d[i,ei>oi irpocreoiKevai TOV Karcoi/o?. 
ov fjirjv d\\d Tavra fiev ol? yuaXXoi/ t'Sea? \6ywv 
iKcov l alcrddveaOai TrpocnJKei BiaKpivovcriv, 
Be TWV d'jrofjLvr^povevofJbevwv /3pa%ea ypd- 
, oi TM \6yay TTO\V fjbd\\ov 
i/cwy Blass with S : ^TJ 



MARCUS CATO, vi. a-vn. 2 

were wont to charge the public treasury with their 
pavilions, couches, and apparel, while they oppressed 
the province with the cost of their large retinues of 
servants and friends, and of their lavish and elaborate 
banquets, his simple economy stood out in an in- 
credible contrast. He made no demands whatever 
upon the public treasury, and made his circuit of the 
cities on foot, followed by a single public officer, who 
carried his robe and chalice for sacrifices. And yet, 
though in such matters he showed himself mild and 
sparing to those under his authority, in other ways 
he displayed a dignity and severity which fully corre- 
sponded, for in the administration of justice he was 
inexorable, and in carrj'ing out the edicts of the 
government was direct and masterful, so that the 
Roman power never inspired its subjects with greater 
fear or affection. 

VII. Much the same traits are revealed in the 
man's oratory. It was at once graceful and powerful, 
pleasant and compelling, facetious and severe, sen- 
tentious and belligerent. So Plato says of Socrates l 
that from the outside he impressed his associates as 
rude, uncouth, and wanton ; but within he was full 
of earnestness, and of matters that moved his hearers 
to tears and wrung their hearts. Wherefore I know 
not what they can mean who say that Cato's oratory 
most resembled that of Lysias. However, such 
questions must be decided by those who are more 
capable than I am of discerning the traits of Roman 
oratory, and I shall now record a few of his famous 
sayings, believing that men's characters are revealed 

1 Symposium , p. 215. 

321 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



eviot, voj-iovai, rcov av 



e/jL<f)aLvecr@ai TO 

VIII. MeXXct)^ 7TOT6 TOI^ 'PtofJLCLLUlV Br/fJiOV 0) i 

fjievov d/caipws eVt o"TO/zer/3ta9 KOL 
aTroTpetreiv, rjp^aro TWV Xoycov ovrcof " XaXe7roi> 
fjbev ea-Tiv, w TroXtrat, Trpos yaarepa \eyeiv ura 

OVK eyovaav" Karriyopwv Be T?}9 ; 

,/, A '^ \ a- '^ > 

ecpr) ^aXeTrov euvai cro^t/i/vai TTOMV, ev 

2 7rXeto^o9 t'%#L>9 fj /So09. edlfcevdi Be 7r/?o/3aTot9 



TOI;? 'Pfjo/.taiov^' a>? 7a eiteva 



ou TreiOerai,, a-v \mcavT a, S' eirerat, per a\\t']- 
roi? ayov<riv, " Ovrw /cal L/yU-et?," etvrev, " ols^ 
av a%ic*)(TCUT ery/iySouXot? ^p^aaaOai tear* 



V7TO TOVTWV 



n Be T7}9 yvvatKOKpaTias Bid\ey6/jLvos " II ay- 
T69," elirei 1 , " avBpwiroi TWV yvvai/cwv 
?t9 ^e Trdvrwv dvOpooTrcov, rjfJL&v Be at 



3 TOVTO jiev ovv ecmv etc TWV 



yap 



aura) TroXXa roD u/ou Bid rijs 
yvvai," elireL', " 'AOrjvaioi pep 
^\X/JVMV, eya) Be 'A0r)vai(DVi e/^ov Be crv, 
dov Be o f/09, cbcrre d>6iBea'0c0 T^9 e^ovcrias, 
5i' rfv dvor}TO<s wv TrKelcrTOV 'EXXrjvwv Bvvarai." 
4 Tov c)t" Brj/jiop o Kdrwv <$>?] rwv Pa)fj,aLwv ov 
fjiovov rat? Troptyvpaii, aXXa /cat ro?9 e-3 



TavTvjv /xaXtcrra ySaTrrofcrf^, ^ 
, oi/Tco? o/ Wot ravTCL fJiavOdvovcri Kal 
ot9 az^ o Trap' VJJLMV erraivos err^rat." 
5 7rape/cd\ei B' avrovs, el^ev apery *ai a(0(j)po- 

322 



MARCUS CATO, vn. 2-vm. 5 

much more by their speech than, as some think, by 
their looks. 

VIII. He once wished to dissuade the Roman 
people from insisting unseasonably upon a distribu- 
tion of corn, and began his speech with these words : 
" It is a hard matter, my fellow citizens, to argue 
with the belly, since it has no ears." Again, in- 
veighing against the prevalent extravagance, he 
said : " It is a hard matter to save a city in which a 
fish sells for more than an ox." Again, he said 
the Romans were like sheep ; for as these are not to 
be persuaded one by one, but all in a body blindly 
follow their leaders, " so ye," he said, " though as 
individuals ye would not deign to follow the counsels 
of certain men, when ye are got together ye suffer 
yourselves to be led by them." Discoursing on the 
power of women, he said : " All other men rule their 
wives ; we rule all other men, and our wives rule 
us." This, however, is a translation from the sayings 
of Themistocles. 1 He, finding himself much under his 
son's orders through the lad's mother, said : " Wife, 
the Athenians rule the Hellenes, I rule the Athenians, 
thou rulest me, and thy son thee. Therefore let him 
make sparing use of that authority which makes 
him, child though he is, the most powerful of the 
Hellenes." 

The Roman people, Cato said, fixed the market 
value not only of dyes, but also of behaviour. 
" For," said he, " as dyers most affect that dye 
which they see pleases you, so your young men 
learn and practice that which wins your praise." 
And he exhorted them, in case it was through 
virtue and temperance that they had become great, to 

1 Themistodes, xriii 4. 

323 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



yeyovacrt, /jieydXoi, 

7T/3O? TO ^elpov, el 6 dfcpaa-ia real KaKia, 
j3a\\ea0ai TT/OO? TO jSi\Tiov' itcavws yap ij 
(jieydXovs CLTT eiceivwv yeyovevai. TOI>? Be TroXXa- 
KLS ap^eiv GTTOvBd^ovTas e<j)rj KaOdirep dyvoovvras 
TTJV 6Bbv del /juera pa^ov^wv rjreii> TropeveaOai, 
6 fjurj TrXavvjflaHrw. eVert/xa Be Tot? vroXtrat? rot;? 



" 



ri>Vi it ^ 9 -v-v* 1 ^" "5 * 

yap, <pij, fj.r) * TTO\A.OV TO ap-^eiv agiov rj 
TroA-Xou? ToO ap^eiv d^iovs rjyelcrOat," irepl Be 
rayv ^0pa)V TLVOS niV^/ow? fcal aSo^w? ftiovv 
BOKOVVTOS " 'H TOVTOV /jLiJTrfp," (f)ij, " /cardpav, 
OVK evvijv, rjyelrai TO TOVTOV itTrep 7>?9 aTro- 

.-V^fvN'^V I \ ' 

7 \17TIV. TOV C 7T7rpaKOTa TOV? TTaT/JWOU? 

dypovs Tra/oaXtou? 6Wa9 7riBeiffvvfji6i>os irpoare- 
TrotetTO davfjid^eiv &>? ia"%vpoTepov T?}? 

/, A A N ' ' '> >' -\ ^ * ' 

A 



u? TOU /3a(ri\.ecos e 
ri re <r iry^X^TQ? U7rep^)fco? tt 
TrpwTwv d^L\\a KOI cnrovBr) Trepl CLVTOV 
eyiveTo, 8r)A_o? ^y 6 Karwv t'<j6opa)yLie^o? /cat 
8 uXaTTo/zero? CIVTOV. elirovTos Be TWOS " 'A\A.a 

/cat $tXo/?/3w/tato?," "E(rT<w,' 
aX\a (frvcrei TOVTO TO fypov 6 
ffapKO(f)dyov <TTLV" ovBeva Be TWV ev 
jj,evwv effrrj BacriXewv* a^iov elvai 7rapa/3d\\eii' 



* 



rj epitcea > 
17 'Ayu-tX^a^ roi' 

Hercher and Blass with F a S : /x^. 
a ^?j Blass with F a 8 : I) juV 
3 <^TJ a<nAwj/ Hercher and Blass with F a S : 



MARCUS CATO, vin. 5-8 

make no change for the worse ; but if it was through 
intemperance and vice, to change for the better; 
these had already made them great enough. Of those 
who were eager to hold high office frequently, he said 
that like men who did not know the road, they sought 
to be ever attended on their way by lictors, lest 
they go astray. He censured his fellow citizens 
for choosing the same men over and over again to high 
office. "You will be thought," said he, "not to 
deem your offices worth much, or else not to 
deem many men worthy of your offices." Of one 
of his enemies who had the name of leading a 
disgraceful and disreputable life, he said : " This 
man's mother holds the wish that he may survive 
her to be no pious prayer, but a malignant curse." 
Pointing to a man who had sold his ancestral 
fields lying near the sea, he pretended to admire 
him, as stronger than the sea. " This man," said 
he, " has drunk down with ease what the sea found 
it hard to wash away." 

When King Eumenes paid a visit to Rome, the 
Senate received him with extravagant honours, 
and the chief men of the city strove who should 
be most about him. But Cato clearly looked upon 
him with suspicion and alarm. "Surely," some 
one said to him, " he is an excellent man, and 
a friend of Rome." "Granted," said Cato, "but 
the animal known as king is by nature carnivorous." 
He said further that not one of the kings whom 
men so lauded was worthy of comparison with 
Epaminondas, or Pericles, or Themistocles, or Manius 
Curius, or with Hamilcar, surnamed Barcas. His 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



9 Bdprcav. avr& $' eXeye rovs e*)(6pov<; $>6oveiv, ort 
etc vv/cTos 1 dvLcrrarai fcal r&v IBicov 
rot? Sr) yuocr Lois <r^oXaej. (Bov\(r6a(, S* 
eXeye /j,aX\ov ev TT/ja^a? djToo'Tep'rjdyji'ai xdpiv rj 



KOI 



iracn TOK a/jLaprdvovcn ir\r]V avrov. 
IX. Tcoi/ Se 'Pco/jLaiayv et? >iQvvlav r/jet? eXo- 341 
/jiV(t)v Trpecrfieis, wv o /j,V TroSaypi/cbs r)V, 6 Be rrfv 
K<f)a\r)V eg dvarprjcrews /ecu TrepiKOTrijs KOL\r)v 
efyev, o Se T/MTO? e'8o/cet /i&)/30? elva, KarayeXwv 
o Kara>v etTre Trpeafteiav virb 'Pco/jLaiwv aTrocrreX- 
Xecr^at yu-T/re TroSa? yu-^re K6(f>a\r)V ^re /capSiav 
2 e%ov(rav. irrrep be ra>v eg 'A^atia? <j)vyd&wv ev- 
Tev)(6el<s Sia Ylo\v/3iov VTTO ^/crjirtcovos, co? TroXu? 
eV r^ (rvyK\yJTw Xo^yo? eyivero, T&V pev Si86i>Tcov 
tcdOobov avrois, rwv 8* evKTrajLLevcov, avaaras 6 
KaT&>i> ""Qajrep OVK e^oi/re?," eiTrev, "6 Trpdr- 
Tcofiev Ka0^e9a rrjv rj/jiepav O\TJV irepl yepovricw 



Trorepov UTTO rwv Trap* 
'A%cua ve/cpo(f>6pa)v e' 



r?}? /ca06$ov TO?? avSpdcriv, 
6\iya<; ol Trepl rbv Ho\.v/3iov Bia\nr6vr 
eirexeipovv et? r^ crvy/c^rov elaeX-deiv, OTTW? a? 
irporepov el^ov ev 'A^a^a ri/j,a<; ol ( 
\dj3oiev, Kal rov Karw^o? aTreTreipcovro 

6 3e ftetSfca<ra? e^ry TOP IIoXu/i^oi', uxnrep rbv 
ea, /3ov\cr0ai 7rd\i,v et? TO TOU 

TO 7ri\iov e/cel KOI rrjv 

7T I XeX?7 CTfJLGVOV. 

Tou? (frpovlfjLovs e\eye fia\\ov UTT 
dtypovwv TI TGI)? d<j)pova<; virb rwv <$)povip,wv 
1 ^t Kuirrby Hercher and Blass with F a SD : 

326 



MARCUS CATO, vui. 9 -ix. 4 

enemies hated him, he used to say, because he 
rose every day before it was light and, neglecting 
his own private matters, devoted his time to the 
public interests. He also used to say that he 
preferred to do right and get no thanks, rather 
than to do ill and get no punishment ; and that he 
had pardon for everybody's mistakes except his 
own. 

IX. The Romans once chose three ambassadors 
to Bithynia, of whom one was gouty, another had 
had his head trepanned, and the third was deemed 
a fool. Cato made merry over this, and said that 
the Romans were sending cut an embassy which 
had neither feet, nor head, nor heart. His aid 
was once solicited by Scipio, at the instance of 
Polybius, in behalf of the exiles from Achaia, and 
after a long debate upon the question in the Senate, 
where some favoured and some opposed their return 
home, Cato rose and said : " Here we sit all day, 
as if we had naught else to do, debating whether 
some poor old Greeks shall be buried here or 
in Achaia." The Senate voted that the men be 
allowed to return, and a few days afterwards 
Polybius tried to get admission to that body 
again, with a proposal that the exiles be restored 
to their former honours in Achaia, and asked 
Cato's opinion on the matter. Cato smiled and 
said that Polybius, as if he were another Odysseus, 
wanted to go back into the cave of the Cyclops 
for a cap and belt which he had left there. 

Wise men, he said, profited more from fools 
than fools from wise men ; for the wise shun the 



3 2 7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



* TOVTOVS 

eKeivwv aywa/ma<?, iiceivovs Be ra? TOVTCOV 
crdat, KaropOwcreis. rwv Be vewv e(j)rj -%aipeiv rot? 
epvOpiaicTL fjia\\ov rj TO?? on^piwcn, crTparicorov Be 
fir} BelcrOcu ra? ftev ^elpa<; ev ry ftaBi^eiv, TOU? Be 
TroSa? ev TW (Jid^ecrOai, KIVOVVTOS, pel^ou Be pey^ov- 

5 TO? 17 akaX-d^cvTOS. rov Be virepTra^vv 
" HoO S' civ" e(j>rj, " awfJLO, rotovrov rfj 
ryevoiro %pr)cniJLOv, ov TO /mera^v \aifjLov KOI /3ov- 
/3a)vwi> TTOLV VTTO TT}? yaarpos Kare^erai ; " TCOV 
Be <f)L\r)B6v(ov riva /3ov\6/^evov avrw avvelvai 
TrapairovfjLei 09, e<j>rj /x/; Bvvacr0ai %rjv /ter* dv6pu>- 
TTOV r?}? KapBlas rrfv vjrepwav evaicr6r)TOTepav 
e^ovro^. rov 8' e/ow^ro? e\eye rrjv ^vyrfv ev 

6 aXXorpito crwjJiaTi rjv. /jLerafjie\r)0>}vaL B 
ev Travrl TW yStco r/oet? 

eVt rw yvvai/cl Trio-revcrai \6yov aTropprjrov, 
erepav Be TrXevaaf OTTOV Bvvarbv rjv Tre^eixrai, rrjv 
Be rpLTijv, ori plav rj/jLepav aBidderos efieive. ?rpo? 
Be Trpeo-fiurriv vrovrjpevofjievov '"AvOpwTre" elire, 
f TroXXa e^ovri TO) yrjpci TO, al&xpa prj 

7 Trjv drro rr)? /ca/f/a? ala^vvrjv" Trpo? Be 

ev Bia/3o\f} /uev <f)ap/LiaKias yevo/jievov, (j)av\ov Be 
vo/uiov elcrcfrepovra Kal ^ta^ofjievov ' *H fjieipdrciov" 
elirev, ' OVK oiBa, irorepov ^elpov ecrTLv o tcipvrjs 
TTielv r) o 7pa^>ei? / 
B' VTT dvOp<JL>7rov fiefiicoKOTO? dcreXyM^ Kal 



,f \/ / >/ \ 

enrev, r) TT/OO? ere /uot fJMj(r) ecrri' KCU, 
yap d/couct? ra fcatca paBiws Kal \eyeis ev^epax;, 

\C>\ \-\' ' v ' V' ' >'/!'' V 

L be Kai \eyeiv a^oe? /cat aKoveiv ar^c/e?. TO 
v Tail' d7rojjLV7]fj,ovv^dTcov yevos TOLOVTOV 
ecrnv. 

328 



MARCUS CATO, ix. 4-7 

mistakes of fools, but fools do not imitate the 
successes of the wise. He said he liked to see 
blushes on a young man's face rather than pallor, 
and that he had no use for a soldier who plied 
his hands on the march, and his feet in battle, 
and whose snore was louder than his war-cry. 
Railing at the fat knight, he said, " Where can 
such a body be of service to the state, when 
everything between its gullet and its groins is 
devoted to belly?" A certain epicure wished to 
enjoy his society, but he excused himself, saying 
that he could not live with a man whose palate 
was more sensitive than his heart. As for the 
lover, he said his soul dwelt in the body of another. 
And as for repentance, he said he had indulged 
in it himself but thrice in his whole life : once 
when he entrusted a secret to his wife ; once 
when he paid ship's fare to a place instead of 
walking thither ; and once when he remained 
intestate a whole day. To an old man who was 
steeped in iniquity he said : " Man, old age has 
disgraces enough of its own ; do not add to them 
the shame of vice." To a tribune of the people who 
had been accused of using poison, and who was 
trying to force the passage of a useless bill, he said : 
" Young man, I know not which is worse, to drink 
your mixtures, or to enact your bills." And when 
he was reviled by a man who led a life of shameless 
debauchery, he said : " 1 fight an unequal battle 
with you: you listen to abuse calmly, and utter 
it glibly ; while for me it is unpleasant to utter 
it, and unusual to hear it." 

Such, then, is the nature of his famous sayings. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
X. "TTraro? Be fj,erd QXaKfcov Qva\\epiov 



rov 

rwv errap^Lwv r)V 'Ez^ro? 'lanraviav 'Pcofialot 
KaXovcriv. evravOa B' avrw rd JJLGV Karacrrpe- 
(frofjievq) rcov eOvwv, TCL 8* oiKeiov^evw $ia Xoywv 
7ro\\r) arpana rwv ftapftdpwv eVeTrecre, KOI 
KivSvvos TJV atV^/ow? eK^iaaOijvai,. Bio TCOV ey- 

2 71;? Ke\T/3r;pa>z> eTre/cdXeiro avfifia^uav. alrovv- 
TCOV 8' KLVCI)V T% /3o^^ta? biatcocr 

/jiicrdov, ol /JLEV aXXot Trai/re? OVK 
GTTCHOVVTO 'PwyLtatou? ftapftdpois GTUKovpLas 
\oyi}(rai jJLLcr66v t o Be Kdrcov ovSev 
elvai, VLKWVTCLS /JLV yap aTroBwcreLv Trapa 1 rcov 
, ov irap avrwv, r)TTw/j,evcov Be /Mjre 
oTrcuTOVfievovs ecrecrOdi /JLIJTC TOU? cnraiTovv- 
ra?. ravrrjv Be rrjv /*dx r l v Kar ^ Kpdros Ivi/crjore, 342 

3 KOL raXXa irpov^cDpei Xa/i-Trpw?. IloX^to? /j,ev 
ye (firjcri TWV eVro? Batrto? Trora/jLOv 7ro\ewv rj^epa 
pia TO, Tefyr) K\6V(rai>TO<> avrov TrepiaipeOrjvai' 
7rd/x7TO\\ai, 6' rfcrav avrai KCU ye/jbovcrai ^ayju^wv 
dvBpwv. auro? Be (frrjcriv 6 Kdrcov 7T\eiovas 
el\rj(j)evai, TroXet? wv Bitfyayev rjfiepcov ev ' 

Kal rovro Kofjmos OVK ecrriv, etVe/j a>? 
rerpaKoaiai TO vrX^o? fjaav. 

4 Toi<? fjikv QVV crTyoartcorat? TroXXa irapa rrjv 
crTpareiav a>$>e\ri6elcriv en Kal \lrpav dpyvpiov 

avBpa Trpoa-Bievei/Jiev, elTrcov a>9 Kpelrrov ecrj 
wyLtatwy dpyvpiov rj ^pvcriov 0X1701;? 
erraveXOeiv. et? S' avrov GK r)v aXtcrAro- 
ovSev e\6elv \f-yei ir\rjv oaa TreTrcoKev r; 
" Kal OVK alrtwfAai," (frrjai, " TOL/? 
1 irapci Hercher and Blasa with F a S : a 

33 



MARCUS CATO, x. 1-4 

X. Having been elected consul 1 with Valerius 
Flaccus, his intimate friend, the province which the 
Romans call Hither Spain was allotted to his charge. 
Here, while he was subduing some of the tribes, and 
winning over others by diplomacy, a great host of 
Barbarians fell upon him, and threatened to drive 
him disgracefully out of the province. He therefore 
begged the neighbouring Celtiberians to become his 
allies. On their demanding two hundred talents 
pay for such assistance, all his officers thought it 
intolerable that Romans should agree to pay Bar- 
barians for assistance. But Cato said there was 
nothing terrible in it ; should they be victorious, 
they could pay the price with the spoils taken from 
the enemy, and not out of their own purse, whereas, 
should they be vanquished, there would be nobody 
left either to pay or to ask the price. In this battle 
he was completely victorious, and the rest of his 
campaign was a brilliant success. Polybius indeed 
says that in a single day the walls of all the cities on 
this side the river Baetis and they were very many, 
and full of warlike men were torn down at his 
command. And Cato himself says that he took 
more cities than he spent days in Spain, nor is this a 
mere boast, since, in fact, there were four hundred 
of them. 

His soldiers got large booty in this campaign, and 
he gave each one of them a pound of silver besides, 
saying that it was better to have many Romans go 
home with silver in their pockets than a few with 
gold. But in his own case, he says that no part of 
the booty fell to him, except what he ate and drank. 
" Not that I find fault," he says, " with those who 

1 195 B.O. 

331 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



etc rovrwv, 

Trepl a/oer?}? rot? dplcrTois rj irepl 
r<ov Tot9 Tr\ovaiwrdroi<s au\A.aer#at KCU 



5 fyiKapyvpwrdroi'S Trepl <j>t\apyvpia<f. M ov 

8* aiirov, d\\a KOI TOV<S 'Trepl aurbv e<f)v\aTTe 
KaOapov? Tra^ro? \^/j,aro<;. rjcrav Be Trevre 
eVl o-rpareia? <rvv CLVTCD. rovrcov e?9 
rjyopacre ra)is al^/jLaXcorcov rpLa 
TOV Se Karwi/o? alaOojuievov, Trplv 6/5 
\0eiv, dTrrjy^aro. TOU? Be TraiSa? o Kdrwv 
/jLevos els TO Brj/ji,6<rt,ov dv^veyKe rr/v TL^YIV. 
XI. "l^rt S' OVTOV StarpiftovTOS ev 'Ij3rjpi,a 
^KrjTTicav 6 /jieyas, e^dpos uv KCLL /3ouA,o//ei/09 
cva-rrjvat KdTopOovvTi teal ra? ' 



StaSovo?. (TTreutra? S' &>? 
/ ^ \ \ v , 

KareTravcre TTJV ap^v rov Harwi/o?. 

Be \afta)v crTreipas OIT\LTMV irevre KOI irevraKO- 
crLovs /TTTret? TrpOTro^irov^ tcarea-rpe^raro pev TO 
Aa/ceravwv eOvos, e^a/coa-iovs Be rwv r)vrofjLo\r}K:6- 
2 TWV Ko/jLicrd/jLevos direKreivev. e<p* ol? o-^erXm^cwTa 
rov ^KriTTiwva KcneipwvevbfJievos oi/rw? e(pr] rrjv 
*Pa)fjLT)v eceadai, fjLeyio'Trjv, rwv p,ev ev&o%wv /ecu 
fieyd\a)V T& rr}? dperfjs Trpcorela fjurj fjieQievTwv 
TOt9 d(T7)fjLOTepoi<;, rwv 8' axnrep auros ecrn 
BrjjAOTiKwv dfii\\wfiiv<t)v apery TT/SO? TOI/? rq> yevei 
teal rfj Bo^rj TTporfKOvras. ov /AIJV dX\.d rfjs 
o~vyK\rjrov tyrjtyio-afMevrjs /JLrjBev d\\drretv firjBe 
tCLvelv rwv BiMKrj/jiei'WV VTTO Karw^o?, 77 JJLCV dp-^rj 
TO) ^KrjTTidyvi rfjs avrov /Jid\\ov rj rr)? Karwi/o? 
dfaXovGa 86^779 ev dfrpa^ia teal o"^oX^ jMirrjv 

332 



MARCUS CATO, x. 4 -xi. 2 

seek to profit by such a case, but I prefer to strive in 
bravery with the bravest, rather than in wealth 
with the richest, and in greed for money with the 
greediest." And he strove to keep not only himself, 
but also his associates, free from all taint of gain. 
He had five attendants with him in the field. One 
of these, whose name was Paccus, bought three boys 
for his own account from among the public prisoners, 
but finding that Cato was aware of the transaction, 
or ever he had come into his presence, went and 
hanged himself. Cato sold the boys, and restored 
the money to the public treasury. 

XL While Cato still tarried in Spain, Scipio the 
Great, who was his enemy, and wished to obstruct 
the current of his successes and take away from him 
the administration of affairs in Spain, got himself 
appointed his successor in command of that province. 
Then he set out with all the speed possible, and 
brought Cato's command to an end. But Cato took 
five cohorts of men-at-arms and five hundred horse- 
men as escort on his way home, and on the march 
subdued the tribe of the Lacetanians, and put to 
death six hundred deserters whom they delivered up 
to him. Scipio was enraged at this proceeding, but 
Cato, treating him with mock humility, said that 
only then would Rome be at her greatest, when her 
men of high birth refused to yield the palm of 
virtue to men of lower rank, and when plebeians 
like himself contended in virtue with their superiors 
in birth and reputation. However, in spite of Scipio's 
displeasure, the Senate voted that no change whatever 
be made in what Cato had ordered and arranged, 
and so the administration of Scipio was marked by 
inactivity and idleness, and detracted from his own, 

333 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Sifj\0V, 6 Se Kdrcov 0pia/j,/3eva-a<; ov%, axnrep ol 
f jr\.ei<JTOL TWV //.r; Trpbs aperijv, aXXa TT/OO? 



orav et? ra? aicpas TIJJCLS 
KOI 



\oi7rbv eh i]$ovr)V /ecu 

TOV /3iOV /C TWV KQIVWV aTTldOlV, OVTCO KOi 

al Kare\va-e Trjv aperr}v, 

TTpWTOV CLTCTO^kvOl^ 7TOXtT/a9 Kal 

KOI 80^9 a^> ere/oa? a/JY*5s crvvreivas eav- 
TOV eV yLtecrw Trapel^e teal <j)i\ot<t %pf)a0ai Kal 
ovT6 ra9 avv^yopias ovre ra? crrpareias 



XII. Tifiepia) fiev ovi> ^efJLTrpwvlw ra 

KaVlcrrpov vTrarevovri, irpecr^evwv awy- 



/careipyda-aro, Ma^t&> 8' 'A/ctXt&) ^iKiapx&v err* 



TOV fiejav crvv6J;r)\0ei> et? 

'PwyLtatou? a f >? ov&eva erepov 
'Avvi/Sav. Trjv jap 'Acrtai/, ocr?;i; 6 



(j[)s, eOvrf re TrayUTroXXa A:at /JLa^ip^a ftap- 
fidpwv vTTtJKoa ireTToirj/jLevos, eTrrjpTo 
Pa>//,atot5 &>? fJLovoL? en, TT/OO? avTov a 

2 ovaiv. evTrpeTrrj Se TOI) TroXeyuoy 

air t'av Tot'9' / EXX?7i>a? eX.evOepovv, ovBev &eop,evov<$, 
aXXa /cal e\ev0fpov<; Kal av-rovo/JLovs %dpiTi TTJ 343 
a7ro QiXiTnTov Kal Ma/ceSo^coi/ i/ewcrrl 
, Ste/S?; yotera ^L'm/xea)?. ^at crd\ovv6v<; 
el^e /cal /jLerewpos r/v ekwttrt 

3 /i.ei'T; fiacrCkiKa'is VTTO T&V SrjfjLa'ywywv 

ovv TT pea, Sets 6 MaVto? eVl ra? TroXet?. Kal ra 
TrXetcrra TCO^ vewrepi^ovTwv TITO? 



334 



MARCUS CATO, xi. 3-xn. 3 

rather than from Cato's reputation. Cato, on the 
other hand, celebrated a triumph. 1 Most men who 
strive more for reputation than for virtue, when once 
they have attained the highest honours of consulship 
and triumphs, straightway adjust their future lives to 
the enjoyment of a pleasurable ease, and give up 
their public careers. But Cato did not thus remit 
and dismiss his virtue, nay, rather, like men first 
taking up the public service and all athirst for 
honour and reputation, he girt his loins anew, and 
held himself ever ready to serve his friends and 
fellow-citizens, either in the forum or in the field. 

XII. And so it was that he assisted Tiberius 
Sempronius the consul in subduing the regions in 
Thrace and on the Danube, acting as his ambassador ; 
and as legionary tribune under Manius Acilius, he 
marched into Greece against Antiochus the Great, 
who gave the Romans more to fear than any man 
after Hannibal. For he won back almost all of 
Seleucus Nicator's former dominions in Asia, reduced 
to subjection many warlike nations of Barbarians, 
and was eager to engage the Romans, whom he 
deemed the only worthy foemen left for him. So he 
crossed into Greece with an army, making the 
freeing of the Greeks a specious ground for war. 
This they did not need at all, since they had recently 
been made free and independent of Philip and the 
Macedonians by grace of the Romans. Greece was 
at once a stormy sea of hopes and fears, being 
corrupted by her demagogues with expectations of 
royal bounty. Accordingly, Manius sent envoys to 
the several cities. Most of those which were un- 
settled in their allegiance Titus Flamininus restrained 

1 194 B.O. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eo")(v avev -rapayjis /ecu KaTerrpdvvev, &>? v rot? 
Trepl exeivov yeyparrrai, Kdrwv Be Kopivdiov? KOI 
Oarpet?, en 8' Aiyiels TrapecrTrj&aTo. 

4 IlXeicrToi> Be y^povov ev 'A^'i/at? BieTpitye. 
\eyTai ^.ev Tt<? avrov fyepeadai Xoyo?, ov ' 

\rjlf l(TT\ 7T/OO? TOV Srj/jLOV CLTTCV, ft)? fy]\Ct)V T 

dperrjv TWV 7ra\aia)V ^ A.6 rfvaiwv rr}? re TroXew? 
TO /caXXo? ~at TO /jLeyeOos TySea)? yeyovci)? 

\M t *>/)' '-V A V f ' f ' >' 

TO o ovfc ah.rjues ecrriv, aAAa 01 epfirfvew^ evervye 
Tot? 'A$//i>ai'ot?, Svvrjdels av auTO? elrrelv, e^^evajv 
Be Tot? TraT/oioi? /cat /carayeXiov raw TO, 'E\- 

5 \rjviKa redavfjiaKorwv. lloarou/Aiov yovv *AX- 
(Blvov IcrTOpiav '\L\\rivLcnl ypd-tyavra KOI &vy- 

alrovfjievov eireaicw^rcv et7rct>^, SoTeov etva' 



a-vyyvajjji-rjv, el TWV ' 



dvayKa(T0i<% vtri^eive TO epyov. 
Be fa]Gt, TCI)? A.6rjvaiov? TO Ta^o? avrov Kal TTJV 
T7/9 <f>pdcre<a<f a yap auTO? e^efape 
TO^ ep/nrjvea fjMfcp&s Kal Bid 7ro\\wv 
d7rayye\\iv TO S' o\oi/ oteaOai ra prj^ara Tot? 
a7ro ^etXewv, Tot? Se 'Pwyu-afcot? a?ro 



XIII. 'E-Trel 8' 'A^Tto^o? e/x^/oa^a? Ta 
ep/jiOTTv\a$ crrevd TW (TTparoTreBa), Kal Tot? 
avrotpveai rwv TOTTWV epvpatri 7rpoa(3a\Mi> yapa- 
Kco/jiara Kal Siaret^La-fjiara, Ka0tj<TTO TOV rro\fjLov 

KKeK\,lKevai VOfJU^WV, TO fJ,V KaTCL GTO/JLa ftld- 



ai TravraTracnv ireyivaxTKOv o 
Be HepcriKiiv efcelinjv 7repLij\ucrtv Kal KvaXwcriv o 



336 



MARCUS CATO, XH. 3-xni. i 

without ado, and quieted down, as I have written in 
his Life, 1 but Corinth, Patrae, and Aegium were 
brought over to Rome by Cato. 

He also spent much time at Athens. And we are 
told that a certain speech of his is extant, which he 
addressed to the Athenian people in Greek, declaring 
that he admired the virtues of the ancient Athenians, 
and was glad to behold a city so beautiful and grand 
as theirs. But this is not true. On the contrary, he 
dealt with the Athenians through an interpreter. 
He could have spoken to them directly, but he 
always clung to his native ways, and mocked at those 
who were lost in admiration of anything that was 
Greek. For instance, he poked fun at Postumius 
Albinus, who wrote a history in Greek, and asked 
the indulgence of his readers. Cato said they might 
have shown him indulgence had he undertaken his 
task in consequence of a compulsory vote of the 
Amphictyonic Assembly. Moreover, he says the 
Athenians were astonished at the speed and pun- 
gency of his discourse. For what he himself set forth 
with brevity, the interpreter would repeat to them 
at great length and with many words ; and on the 
whole he thought the words of the Greeks were 
born on their lips, but those of the Romans in their 
hearts. 

XIII. Now Antiochus had blocked up the narrow 
pass of Thermopylae with his army, 2 adding trenches 
and walls to the natural defences of the place, and 
sat there, thinking that he had locked the war out 
of Greece. And the Romans did indeed despair 
utterly of forcing a direct passage. But Cato, calling 
to mind the famous compass and circuit of the pass 

1 Chapters xv-xvii. * 191 B.C. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



KaT&>*> et? vovv ftaX-OfJievos e^coSeucre vvrcrcop, 

2 dva\a/3oov yiieyoo? rt T% arpancts. eVel 8' ai>6) 
rrpoe\6ovrwv 6 KaOoSrjycov cu^/xaXwro? e^evrecre 
TT}? 68oO /tat 7r\avu>fjLvos ev TOTTOIS aTropois /au 
/cpii/jivai&ecri &eiv?]v aOv^iav KOI fyoftov eveipydo-aro 
rot? arpaTitoTais, opwv o Kdrwv rbv KIV^VVOV 
c/ceXevae TOU? aXXovs airavras arpe/j-elv Kal Trepu- 

3 /jbeveiv, CLVTOS Se Aev/ctov Tiva MaA,Xtoi>, dv&pa 
Seivov opeLftarelv, 7rapa\a(BtoV e^wpei 

7rapa/3o\(i)s ev acreXr;Vw ^UATTI /cat 
1 teal TrdyoLS dvarerajjievois SiaaT 
r?}? o^ews" /fal dadfieiav e^ovcrrj^, 

et? drpaTrov, a>? (povTO, Kara) Trepai- 
vovcrav eVt TO a-rparoTreBov TWV Tr6\f-^iwv eOevro 
(TTjueia 7T/30? Tivas evaKoTTOv? Kepatas vjrep TO 

4 Ka\\i$po/J,ov dve^ovcras. ovrw &e TraXiv iirav- 
\06vres oTrtVft) T>7^ (TTpariav dve\a/3ov, 
7T/909 Ta (Trj/jLeia Trpodyovres rj-fyavTO uev 

drpaTrov Kal KarearrjaavTO Tr)v Tropeiav, 



Kal TraK.iv rjv UTropia Kal 



OVK 7ri(TTaUVCi)V OV CTVVOpWVTWV OTi 

Tvy%avov T&V irdX.efJiiwv yeyovores. tf&rj Se Sie- 
\afjnrev rjjAepa, Kal <j)6oyyr/s Tt? e&o^ev eiraKOvaai, 
Taj^a &e Kal KaOopav 'QXXrjviKov %dpaKa Kal 
5 7rpo(f)V\aKijv VTTO TO Kpyavw&es. OUT<W? ovv ITTI- 
(TT^cra? evrav9a rrjv cnpaTiav 6 Kdrwv eKe\evaei> 
v~w 7rpocr\0eiv avev rwv d\\(av rovs 
ol? del ina-rots erjro Kal 



Se Kal Trepicrrdvrwv avrov ddpocov 

MSS. ; Ko\wvo1s (hills) Bckker, adopting the 
correction of Coraes. 

338 



MARCUS CATO, xm. 1-5 

which the Persians had once made, took a con- 
siderable force and set out under cover of darkness. 
They climbed the heights, but their guide, who was 
a prisoner of war, lost the way, and wandered about 
in impracticable and precipitous places until he had 
filled the soldiers with dreadful dejection and fear. 
Cato, seeing their peril, bade the rest remain quietly 
where they were, while he himself, with a certain 
Lucius Manlius, an expert mountain-climber, made 
his way along, with great toil and hazard, in the 
dense darkness of a moonless night, his vision much 
impeded and obscured by wild olive trees and rocky 
peaks, until at last they came upon a path. This, 
they thought, led down to the enemy's camp. So 
they put marks and signs on some conspicuous cliffs 
which towered over Mount Callidromus, and then 
made their way back again to the main body. This 
too they conducted to the marks and signs, struck 
into the path indicated by these, and started forward. 
But when they had gone on a little way, the path 
failed them, and a ravine yawned to receive them. 
Once more dejection and fear were rife. They did not 
know and could not see that they were right upon the 
enemy whom they sought. But presently gleams of 
daylight came, here and there a man thought he 
heard voices, and soon they actually saw a Greek 
outpost entrenched at the foot of the cliffs. So then 
Cato halted his forces there, and summoned the men 
of Firmum to a private conference. These soldiers 
he had always found trusty and zealous in his service. 
When they had run up and stood grouped about him, 



339 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



elrrev * *AvBpa 

Kai rrvOeaOai, rives oi rrpo(f)v\drroi>res ovroi, rrb- 
aov 7r\r)0os avrwv, rt? 6 rcov a\\wv BtdKoafJiOS rj 
rd%i<i KOI rrapao~Kevri, //.$' 179 vTTOfjLvovo~av 7;/za9. 

6 TO 8' epyov aprrayfJLa Bel ra^of? yeveaOat, KOI TO\- 

, fj KOL Xeoi/re? avo7r\OL Oappovvres eVl TCi 
0Tjpifi)v /3a8fc^'oi'<7t." ravra elirovro^ rov 
avrodev opovcravres, wcnrep el^ov, oi 
l Kara TMV opwv e9tov eirl ra? 7rpo(f)v\a- 
Ka<;' KOI 7rpo<rTre(r6vT<i aTrpoG&OKiiToi iravra^ fjiev 
^ierdpa^av KOL Siecr/ce'Sacray, eVa 8' avrols oVXct? 344 

7 apirddavTes eve^eipLdav raJ Karwi/t. Trapa TOV- 
TOV /Ji,a0d)v, a)? rj fj^ev d\\rj ^vvap,L<^ ev rot? GTevols 
K.aQi]Tai yu-er* avrov 1 TOV j3acriXea)<;, ol Be <f>pov- 
povvres ovroi ra? virepftoXas AITO)\WV elcnv 
k^atcocnoi \oydBes, /carcKfrpovricras T^? oXtyorr^ro? 
dfia Kai TT)? oXiywpias evdix; eirrjyev a^a crd\- 

Kai dX.a\ay/j,a), Trpwro? o-Tracra/uei/o? 
oi 5' &>? elBov diro rwv Kprjfivwv 
, (frevyovres et? TO peya 
KaTe7ri/jL7T\aa~av Tapa^rj^ diravra^. 2 

XIV. 'Ez/ TOUTW Be Kai rov Maviov 
7T/009 Ta BiaTei^i(T/jLara fiia^o/jLevov Kai Tot? 
Trpocr/SdXXovTOS aOpoav rrjv Bvva/j,iv, 6 
e/9 TO cnofJ-a \L6w TrXrjyels eKTiva- 
avrov TWV oBovrwv direarpe^e rov LTT- 
rrov OTTLCTCI), 7repia\yrj<f yevofievos, rov Be err par ov 

f > C- \ f / \ f T-) / -v -V V 

2 fiepos ovoev vrre/j,LV TOU9 rw/Aato^* aAAa 
rrep drropovs Kai dfirj-^dvov^ rfjs (frvyf)*; 6801/9 
rr\dva<i e^ovarj^, eXaiv ftaflewv Kai rrerpwv drro- 

1 per' avrov Blass with S : fie-rfc. 3 airavras Sintenia a 

with C ; Bckker reads Siravra, with Sintenis 1 and Coracs. 

340 



MARCUS CATO, xm. 5~xiv. 2 

he said : " I must take one of the enemy's men alive, 
and learn from him who they are that form this 
advance guard, what their number is. a -id with what 
disposition and array their main body awaits us. But 
the task demands the swift and bold leap of lions 
fearlessly rushing all unarmed upon the timorous 
beasts on which they prey." So spake Cato, and the 
Firmians instantly started, just as they were, rushed 
down the mountain-side, and ran upon the enemy's 
sentinels. Falling upon them unexpectedly, they 
threw them all into confusion and scattered them in 
flight ; one of them they sei/ed, arms and all, and 
delivered him over to Cato. From the captive Cato 
learned that the main force of the enemv was en- 

/ 

camped in the pass with the king himself, and that 
the detachment guarding the pass over the mountains 
was composed of six hundred picked Aetolians. 
Despising their small numbers and their carelessness, 
he led his troops against them at once, with bray of 
trumpet and battle-cry, being himself first to draw 
his sword. But when the enemy saw his men pouring 
down upon them from the cliffs, they fled to the 
main army, and filled them all with confusion. 

XIV. Meanwhile Manius also, down below, threw 
his whole force forward into the pass and stormed 
the enemy's fortifications. Antiochus, being hit in 
the mouth with a stone which knocked his teeth 
out, wheeled his horse about for very anguish. 

* ml ?^ 

Then his army gave way everywhere before the 
Roman onset. Although flight for them meant 
impracticable roads and helpless wanderings, while 
deep marshes and steep cliffs threatened those who 



341 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTM/jiara /cal ra? 6\t<rffij(rei^ v 
ravra Bid TWV GTev&v 
/cal avvwOovvres a\\i]\ov<$ (froftqy TrXrjyfjs teal 
viBijpov 7roXe / tua>i> avrovs Bie<f>0ipov. 

f O Be Kdrcov del aev T*9 rjv, a>? eoifce, 



jKQ)fj,(i)v eirjs teal rrjv avriKpvs fieja- 



OVK 
, Tr\elcnov Be rat? irpd^ecn ravrai^ oyicov 

3 Trepiredeuce, /cai <f>r]cri, rot? IBovcrw avrov rore 
BiwKOvra /cal iraiovra rou? TroXe/Atou? irapa- 
<rrr\vai /j,r)Bev o$>ei\eiv Kdrcova ru> Brffj,w ro- 
(rovTov t oaov Kdrwvi, TOV Brjfiov, avTov re 
Mdviov rov viraiov 6epfJLOv cnro rfjs VIK^ en 
Oep/jiS) 7Tpi7r\aKVTa TTO\VV %p6vov dcnrd^ecrOai 
Kal fiodv VTTO %apds, co? OUT' av auro? ovd* o 
o-y/ATra? BrifjLo^ e'^crcocrete ra? a/iot/9a? rat? Ka- 

4 TCOVOS evepyecrLais. fierd Be rrjv pd^ijv evflvs et? 
Pwfjirjv e7rejji,7rTO rwv rjywviv jjievwv avrdyyeXos' 

real Bie7r\6V(T /^ev et? Bpevrecriov et'Tu^w?, fjiLa 8' 
rj[Jt>epa BieXdcras eieeWev et? Tdpavra /cal recr- 
c~apa<$ aXXa? oBevcras Tre/xTrrato? et? 
CLTTO 0a\dcr(Tr)<; d(j)i/cero /cal Tryowro? 

VLKTJV. /cal rrjv ftev 7roXti> eveTrXrjo-ev evfypo- 
Kal Ovcnwv, <$>povr)fJLaTOs Be rov Brjuov a>? 
77)9 Kal Oa\dcr<rr)<$ Kpareiv Bwd/nevov. 
XV. Twv aev ovv 7ro\ut,/ccov irpd^cwv TOV 
avrat cr^eBov elaiv e\\oyifjLO)raraf 
Be 7roXtTta9 (fraiverai, TO Trepl T9 /carr]- 
Kal rou9 eXey^ou? TWV irovrip&v /juopioi' 
ov fjiiKpas d^iov crTrovBfjs ^yr^a-d^evo^. atT09 T6 
<yap eBiw^e TroXXoi'9 al BtcoKov&w erepois <rvv- 
r)y(i)VL<raTO Kal nrapetTKevacrev 0X0)9 Biob/covras, 

342 



MARCUS CATO, xiv. 2 -xv. i 

slipped and fell, still, they poured along through 
the pass into these, crowding one another on in 
their fear of the enemy's deadly weapons, and so 
destroyed themselves. 

Cato, who was ever rather generous, it would 
seem, in his own praises, and did not hesitate 
to follow up his great achievements with boastings 
equally great, is very pompous in his account of 
this exploit. He says that those who saw him 
at that time pursuing the enemy and hewing them 
down, felt convinced that Cato owed less to Rome 
than Rome to Cato ; also that the consul Manius 
himself, flushed with victory, threw his arms about 
him, still flushed with his own victory, and embraced 
him a long time, crying out for joy that neither he 
himself nor the whole Roman people could fittingly 
requite Cato for his benefactions. Immediately after 
the battle he was sent to Rome as the messenger 
of his own triumphs. He had a fair passage to 
Brundisium, crossed the peninsula from there to 
Tarentum in a single day, travelled thence four 
days more, and on the fifth day after landing reached 
Rome, where he was the first to announce the 
victory. He filled the city full of joy and sacrifices, 
and the people with the proud feeling that it was 
able to master every land and sea. 

XV. These are perhaps the most remarkable 
features of Cato's military career. In political life, 
he seems to have regarded the impeachment and 
conviction of malefactors as a department worthy 
of his most zealous efforts. For he brought many 
prosecutions himself, assisted others in bringing theirs, 
and even instigated some to begin prosecutions, as 

VOL, n. M 343 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



2 a)S 7rl ^K^TTitava rovs irepl Tleri\\iov. TOVTOV 

V OVV CUT* OLKOV T f4yd\OV 



7roir]cr/j.evov VTTO TroBas ra? 



fj,rj uTTOKrelvaL BvvrjOels d^KC" AevKiov Se rov 
OV avrov /jLera T&JJ' Karqyopatv cruo-ra? 
ifcr) 7repie{3a\ ^prj^drwv TTO\\U>V vryoo? TO 

Srj/jLocrtov, rjv OVK e^wv eVet^o? d,7ro\vcra(T0ai KOI 
Sedfjvai /uoXt? 7rtK\rj(Tt rcov Stj- 



3 Aeyerai, Be KOI veaviaKW rivl 
TraT/305 e^dpov TJTI/UICOKOTI, Kal TTopevo/Jiivw 
ay o pas /xera rrjv SiKrjv dTravrijcras 6 
Se^ia)cra<T^at Kal elirelv, on ravra 
yoveucriv evayu^eiv, OVK apvas ovS* ep^ovs, a 
eyOptav Sdrcpva KOI KaraBL-ca^. ov /JLIJV ouS' avros 
ev rfj TroXtretrt TrepirjV d0a>o<j, aXV OTTOV nva 
\afBrjv TTapda-^oi, rot? e^9f>ol<j t Kpivonevos Kal 

4 KLv&vvevwv Biereket. \eyerai ydp o\iyov a7ro\t- 

TO>^ TrevrrJKOvra fyvyelv BiKas, fjiiav Be 
Te\.evraiav l e^ errf Kal oyBoiJKOvra 



ev fj Kal TO /jivr]/jLOVv6fji6i>ov eiTrev, a>5 

CCTTLV ev aXXoi? fieftiutKora dv0 paiTrois ev aXXoi? 34:5 



Kal TOVTO Trepan OVK e7ronj<raro 



rcov dywvwv, recrffdpwv S* a\\wv eviavrwv 

OovTcov epoviov FaX/5a Kar^yoprja-ev evevijKOvra 

5 yeyovcos enj. Kiv&vvevei ydp CDS o Nearwyo els 

1 TV Te\evra.iai> Hercher auu Blass with F a S : rt\tvraiav. 

344 



MARCUS CATO, xv 25 

for instance Petillius against Scipio. That great man, 
however, trampled the accusations against him under 
foot, as the splendour of his house and his own 
inherent loftiness of spirit prompted him to do, 
and Cato, unable to secure his capital conviction, 
dropped the case. But he so co-operated with the 
accusers of Lucius, Scipio's brother, as to have 
him condemned to pay a large fine to the state. 
This debt Lucius was unable to meet, and was 
therefore liable to imprisonment. Indeed, it was 
only at the intercession of the tribunes that he was 
at last set free. 

We are also told that a certain young man, who 
had got a verdict of civil outlawry against an enemy 
of his dead father, was passing through the forum 
on the conclusion of the case, and met Cato, who 
greeted him and said : " These are the sacrifices 
we must bring to the spirits of our parents ; not 
lambs and kids, but the condemnations and tears 
of their enemies." However, he himself did not 
go unscathed, but wherever in his political career 
he gave his enemies the slightest handle, he was 
all the while suffering prosecutions and running- 
risk of condemnation. It is said that he was 
defendant in nearly fifty cases, and in the last 
one when he was eighty-six years of age. It was in 
the course of this that he uttered the memorable 
saying : " It is hard for one who has lived among men 
of one generation, to make his defence before those 
of another." And even with this case he did not 
put an end to his forensic contests, but four years 
later, at the age of ninety, he impeached Servius 
Galba. Indeed, he may be said, like Nestor, 



345 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tpiyoviav T& fiiw ical rat? Trpd^ecri Kare\0etv. 
^KTJTTLCOVI yap, &>9 \e\KTat, T> fjieydXa) TroXXa 
Bieptcrd/uevos ev rfj TroXtreta BieTeivev els ^LKTJ- 
irifava TOV veov, 09 TJV etceivov Karcl Trourjcriv 
vl 0)1/09, fto? Be Hav\ov TOV Tlepcrea real Ma/ce- 



XVI. T?}? 8' uTrareta? KCLTOTTIV erecri 

o Kdrwv 7rapijyyei\e. /copvtyrj Be 
ecrrt rifir}? cnrdcrif]^ rj dp-^rj KOI rpojrov Tiva 
7roXfcTeta9 e7r4reXetft)O't9, aXKrfv re 
e^ovaiav e^ovcra Kal rrjv Trepl rd rjQrj KOI 

dgeTaa-iv. ovre yap ydjuov ovre TraiSoTrouav 
oi/re Siairav ovre crv^Trocnov wovro Beiv 
a/cpirov /cal dve^eTacnov, to? eicacrTOS eTTlQufLias 
/cal ?r/)oatpecrea)9, dfyelcrOat,. TTO\V Be /JLCL\\OV 

VOfJU,()VT<i '/} Tat9 VTTCLldpOlS Kal 7TO\l- 

Trpdjjeo'i rpoTrov dvBpbs evopaaQai, (j>v\aKa 
l cra)(f)povi,<TTr)V Kal KO\a(TT7]V rov /nrjBeva 
f)Bovd<? eKrpeTrecrdai Kal TrapeK/Saiveiv TOV e 
^coptov Kal (TWijOr) /3iov rjpovvTO TWV KaXov fjLev 
TrarptKicov eva Kal TWV Brj/jiOTiKwv eva. 
Be TOVTOVS Trpocrrjyopevov, e%ov(riav e^oz^ra? d<pe- 
\ecr6ai /juev ITTTTOV, e/cftaXew Be crvytc\r)Tov TOV 
3 aKO\<icrTW<$ ftiovvTa Kal ara/CTft>9. OVTOL Be Kal 
TO, Ti/jLTJfjiaTa TWV ovatwv \afi(BdvovTe<s 



irovv, Kal r<zt9 dTroypafiais TO, yevrj Ka r9 TTO- 

re 



BvvdfjL6ts rj 

Ato Kal TW KaTcovi, nrpos TTJV irapayyeXiav 



346 



MARCUS CATO, xv. 5-xvi. 3 

to have been vigorous and active among three 
generations. For after many political struggles with 
Scipio the Great, as told above, he lived to be 
contemporary with Scipio the Younger, who was 
the Elder's grandson by adoption, and the son 
of that Paulus Aemilius who subdued Perseus and 
the Macedonians. 1 

XVI. Ten years after his consulship, 2 Cato stood 
for the censorship. This office towered, as it were, 
above every other civic honour, and was, in a way, 
the culmination of a political career. The variety 
of its powers was great, including that of examining 
into the lives and manners of the citizens. Its 
creators thought that no one should be left to his own 
devices and desires, without inspection and review, 
either in his marrying, or in the begetting of his 
children, or in the ordering of his daily life, or 
in the entertainment of his friends. Nay, rather, 
thinking that these tilings revealed a man's real 
character more than did his public and political 
career, they set men in office to watch, admonish, 
and chastise, that no one should turn aside to 
wantonness and forsake his native and customary 
mode of life. They chose to this office one of the 
so-called patricians, and one of the plebeians. These 
officers were called censors, and they had authority 
to degrade a knight, or to expel a senator who led 
an unbridled and disorderly life. They also revised 
the assessments of property, and arranged the 
citizens in lists according to their social and political 
classes. There were other great powers also con- 
nected with the office. 

Therefore, when Cato stood for it, nearly all 

1 In the battle of Pydna, 168 B.C. 2 184 B.C. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

viardfjievoi cr^eBbv oi 
teal Trp&TOi TWV (rvyfcXrjTifeoyv. TOV<J fiev yap 

' o <j)66vo<? e\v7rei t iravr 
TrpOTfrfXaicL^eaOai T))V evyeveiav d 
air itpxfis d$6j;a)v et? TTJV atcpav TI^V real 8vva 



4 jnv dvaifiaoJievwv, oi 66 



KCU TWV TraTpiwv fcSiai,Tr)o-ti' 
e(f)O/3ovi>TO r^v aixyrrjpi'av rov dv&pos, 
ev e^ovcria ical \a\GTrr]v ecrofievrjv. 
810 av^povrjcravre^ KOI TrapacrKevduavTes cirrd 



e\irlai 3><rrat9 TO 



fcal 



5 Se6/Avov. Tovvavriov 8' o Kara)^ ouSe/uay eVSi- 
eiTLeiKeiav, aXX' avriKpvs aTreiXwv re rot? 
diro rov /9?;/Aaro9 KOI /ceKpaya)? /jijd\ov 



el cruH^povovcri, /JLT) TOI> ijStcrrov, d\\a TOV crtpo- 
BpoTdTOV alpelffOai TWV larpwv rovrov Be avrov 
elvai KOL TWV Tra-rpiKiwv eva 3>\dfCKOv Ova\- 
\epiov yuer' eiceivov jap oleaOai JJLOVOV TYJV Tpvcjwjv 
/cal rrjv {jLakaKiav uxrTrep vbpav rifjivwv fcal diro- 
Kaio)V Trpovpyou n Tronjaeiv, TWV S' a\\wv opav 
exacTTov apai /ca/cw? /3ia6/j,evov, OTL TOU? 
6 ap^ovra^ Se&oiKev. OVTUI ' apa j&eyas i}v a>? 
KOI fjLeyd\wv a^o? BrjfjLayayyaw 6 '^wfjiaiwv 
wcrT6 /Jir) <f>o/3r](}>'ii>ai rrjv dvdracriv teal TOV oyxov 
rov dv&pos, d\\a TOVS ^Set? e/ceivov? /cal TT/JO? 

348 



MARCUS CATO, xvi. 3-6 

the best known and most influential men of the 
senatorial party united to oppose him. The men 
of noble parentage among them were moved by 
jealousy, thinking that nobility of birth would be 
trampled in the mire if men of ignoble origin forced 
their way up to the summits of honour and power; 
while those who were conscious of base practices 
and of a departure from ancestral customs, feared 
the seventy of the man, which was sure to be 
harsh and inexorable in the exercise of power. 
Therefore, after due consultation and preparation, 
they put up in opposition to Cato seven candidates 
for the office, who sought the favour of the multitude 
with promises of mild conduct in office, supposing, 
forsooth, that it wanted to be ruled with a lax 
and indulgent hand. Cato, on the contrary, showed 
no complaisance whatever, but plainly threatened 
wrong-doers in his speeches, and loudly cried that 
the city had need of a great purification. He 
adjured the people, if they were wise, not to choose 
the most agreeable physician, but the one who 
was most in earnest. He himself, he said, was 
such a physician, and so was Valerius Flaccus, of 
the patricians. With him as colleague, and him 
alone, he thought he could cut and sear to some 
purpose the hydra-like luxury and effeminacy of 
the time. As for the rest of the candidates, he 
saw that they were all trying to force their way 
into the office in order to administer it badly, 
since they feared those who would administer it 
well. And so truly great was the Roman people, 
and so worthy of great leaders, that they did not 
fear Cato's rigour and haughty independence, but 
rejected rather those agreeable candidates who, 

349 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

%dpiv airavra Troitjo-eiv BOKOVVTCLS 
e\e<j6a,L /Ltera rov Kar&>z/o<? rov <&\dK/cov, axrirep 
OVK alrovvros dp%r)v, aXX* ap^ovro? ijBrj teal 
Trpoa-rdrrovros aKpotopevos. 

XVII. Tlpoeypatye JJLCV ovv o Kara)!/ rfjs avy- 
tc\r)Tov rov crvvapj^ovra fcal (f)L\ov ACVKLOV 
Ova\\epiov <$>\dKKOv, e'fe/3aXe Be rr}? /3ov\r)<? 
aXXou? re crwxyovs KOI Aevtciov KoiVrtor, VTTCLTOV 
fiev 7rra TTpoTepov eviavTols <ye<yevr)(jLvov, o S' 772^ 
aura) TTyoo? &6%av uTrareta? fiel^ov, d&6\<pbv Tirov 
Q'h.ajjuvivov rov :aTa7roXe/A^crai/T05 <>i\L7nrov. 
2 alriav Be rfjs eV^oX^? etr^e Toiavrrjv. peipaKiov 346 
eV TT)? TraiBi/cfjs wyoa? eraipovv az/eiX^ft)? o Aeu- 
/cto? aei 7re/3t avrov et^e /cat auveTT^yero (rrparrj- 
ywv eVl 



TTpcoTcov Trap' avry <fri\wv /ecu oltceicov. 
/juev ovv rjyov/jievos vTraTitcfjs 



ev Be crv/jLTTOGiw rivl TO fieipatciov, wcnrep 
avyKaraKetfjievov a\\r]v re KO\aKiav e/clvet, 
avdpcoTTov 1 ev o'lvw paBio)? dyo/Aevov, KOL 

> \ r/ V-\ it > > >/ I j f /) / >/ 

avTov ouro)? ekeyev war , 977, c/ea? ova"r]$ 
OIK.QI /jiovoj^d^ayv ov reOea^evo^ nrporepov 
fjirjo-a 7T/305 o-e, /caiTrep eTTiOvfjL&v IBeiv a 
3 o~<paTT6ju.evov" 6 Be Aeu/ao? dvri(f)i\o(f>povov- 
fjievos " 'AXXa TOVTOV ye %dpiv," eiire, " /JLTJ fjiot 
Kardfceiao \v7rov/jLevo<$, eya) yap IdcrojAai." /cal 
ei^a TWV eVt davdrw Kara/cpiTwv el$ TO 
d^Or/vat KOL rbv VTnrjpeTrjv 

&ydpwirov Blass with F a SC : irp^J rbv &vdptaicov. 

350 



MARCUS CATO, xvi. 6-xvn. 3 

it was believed, would do every thing to please 
them, and elected Flaccus to the office along with 
Cato. 1 To Cato they gave ear, not as to one soliciting 
office, but as to one already in office and issuing his 
decrees. 

XVII. As censor, then, Cato made Lucius Valerius 
Flaccus, his colleague and friend, chief senator. 
He also expelled many members of the Senate, 
including Lucius Quintius. This man had been 
consul seven years before, and, a thing which gave 
him more reputation than the consulship even, was 
brother of the Titus Flamininus who conquered 
King Philip.' 2 The reason for his expulsion was 
the following. There was a youth who, ever since 
his boyhood, had been the favourite of Lucius. 
This youth Lucius kept ever about him, and took 
with him on his campaigns in greater honour and 
power than any one of his nearest friends and 
kinsmen had. He was once administering the 
affairs of his consular province, and at a certain 
banquet this youth, as was his wont, reclined at 
his side, and began to pay his flatteries to a man 
who, in his cups, was too easily led about. " I love 
you so much," he said, " that once, when there 
was a gladiatorial show at home, a thing which I 
had never seen, I rushed away from it to join you, 
although my heart was set on seeing a man 
slaughtered." " Well, for that matter," said Lucius, 
"don't lie there with any grudge against me, for 
I will cure it." Thereupon he commanded that 
one of the men who were lying under sentence 
of death be brought to the banquet, and that 
a lictor with an axe stand by his side. Then he 

1 184 B.O. a At Cynoscephalae, 198 B.C. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



7re\Kvv Trapaa-Trjvai, TrdXiv r}pouTrj(re TOV 

vov, el (BovXerat TVTTTO/nevov OedcracrOat. 

TO? Be /3ov\<r6ai, irpoaira^ev cnro/co^ai TOV 



Ol fjLv ovv 7T\elcrToi, ravra la-ropova-t, KOI o <ye 

v avTov TOV Kdrcova Birjyovp-evov ev 
7?y/9&>? Sia\6ya> TreTroirjxev 6 Be 

Xov eivai (jytja-i Ta\drrjv TOV d 
TOV oe Aevtciov ov 81? vTrrjpeTOV KTelvai TOV avQpco- 
TTOV, dX\? avTov l&ia %ei/?t, teal TavTa ev \6y(p 1 



5 'E/c/3\77$eWo? ovv TOV Aev/ciov T-^? /3ouX?}? VTTO 
TOV Karcoi'O?, 6 d&e\(f)bs avrou ^a/oew? fyepwv eirl 
TOV Sijjbiov rcaTe(j)vye KOI TTJV alriav exeXevev 
eiTrelv TOV KaTwva TT}? e/c/3o\^5. etVo^ro? Be KOI 
Biiyytiaafievov TO av^Trocnov eire^eipei fiev o 
Aev/cio*; dpveia-fiai, TrpoKoKov^evov Be TOV Kara)- 

6 vos et? opia/jiov dvBvTO. KOL rore fjiev d^ia 
TraOelv KaTeyvooa-Qr)' 6eas S' 01/0-779 ev OeaTpw Trjv 
VTraTifcrjV %(t>pav Trape\6(t)V Kal TroppWTarw TTOV 
Ka6e(jOe\s ol/CTOV ecr^e Trapa rw Brj[j,(a, Kal ftowv- 
T6? rjvdyKCLcrav avrov /JLTe\@iv, a>9 rjv BvvaTov 
erravopdovfjievoL Kal OepaTrevovTes TO 

/JL6VOV. 

1 "A\\ov Be /5oi/Xr}9 ee@q\ev vTraTevcreiv 
ovTa, ^\avl\\Lov, OTL Trjv avTov yvvaLKa 
pav opoMTrjs TT}? fluyaTpos KaTe^)'i\rj(TV. avTW B 
(f)rj Trjv yvvaltca yLt^SeVore 7T\rjv 



yei'O/iJievr)s TrepiTrXaK^vat, Kal fjLTa TratBias elireiv 



avTov &>? /j.afcpis CCTTI TOV 

1 lv \6ytf Hercher and Blass with F a SC : 
352 



MARCUS CATO, xvn. 3-7 

asked his beloved if he wished to see the man 
smitten. The youth said he did, and Lucius ordered 
the man's head to be cut off. 

Tin's is the version which most writers give of 
the affair, and so Cicero has represented Cato himself 
as telling the story in his dialogue " On Old Age." l 
But Livy 2 says the victim was a Gallic deserter, 
and that Lucius did not have the man slain by 
a lictor, but smote him with his own hand, and 
that this is the version of the story in a speech 
of Cato's. 

On the expulsion of Lucius from the Senate 
by Cato, his brother was greatly indignant, and 
appealed to the people, urging that Cato state his 
reasons for the expulsion. Cato did so, narrating 
the incident of the banquet. Lucius attempted 
to make denial, but when Cato challenged him 
to a formal trial of the case with a wager of money 
upon it, he declined. Then the justice of his 
punishment was recognized. But once when a 
spectacle was given in the theatre, he passed along 
by the senatorial seats, and took his place as far 
away from them as he could. Then the people 
took pity upon him and shouted till they had forced 
him to change his seat, thus rectifying, as far as was 
possible, and alleviating the situation. 

Cato expelled another senator who was thought 
to have good prospects for the consulship, namely, 
Manilius, because he embraced his wife in open 
day before the eyes of his daughter. For his owr. 
part, he said, he never embraced his wife unless it 
thundered loudly ; and it was a pleasantry of his to 
remark that he was a happy man when it thundered. 

1 Caio Jl/awr, 12, 42. 3 xxxix, 42 

353 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
XVIII. "Hvey/ce Be riva TU> Kdrcovi fcal 



arav, 

dvrjp dfyatpedels VTT avrov TOP ITTTTOV 
yap olov <j>vj3p[(OV *A.(frpLKav 
TOVTO Troifjcrai,. TOU? Be 
qviacre ^akicrTa rfj irepiKOTrfi rrj<; 
TJV avTiicpvs /lev atyeXecrOai, vevocnjKOTwv 
teal SiefyOapuzvwv inr avrrjs TMV TTO\\MI>, d&v- 
2 varov rjv, KVK\U> Se Trepuav rjvdy/ca^ev ecrOfjTos, 
KoafJiov jvi>aiKiov, CTKCVCOV rcov Trepl 
&v e^dcrrov TO Tij&rj/jia Spa^/tta? ^i\i'a^ 
KOI TrevTCLKOGias V7rep{3a\\.v, airoTi[JLacr6aL rrjv 



TO 



auTOi? Ltetora? real Ta? 



/oa? elvai. /cal TT pocrer i IJLTJ ere rpels 

TO?? ^tX/ot?, OTTW? fiapvvo/jLevoi Tat? 

/cal TGI/? evcrra\el^ real \novs opwvres diro TWV 

'i&wv e\drrova re\ovi>ra<; et? TO Srj/iiocriov a.7ra- 

3 <yopev(ocriv. rjcrai> ovv avrw %a\7rol fjiev ol Ta? 
el(T(j)opd<; Sid rrjv rpvcfrrjv vTro/LLevovres, ^aXevrot 
6 au 7rd\iv ol TTJV rpv^rjv dTTOTiOe^evoi Sid 

7T\ovrou <ydp dfyaipecriv ol 
K0)\v(nv avrov 

Be Tot? TreptTToZ?, ov TO?? dvay- 
tcalots. o Sr) /cal fjid\LO~Td <f)acri rov (f)i\6(ro(f)ov 
1 'Apicrrwva OavfJid^eiv, ore TOU? rd Treptrrd Ke- 
KT^fJievov^ fjiaXKov rjyovvrai fJLCLKapiovs rj TOU? 

4 T&V dvajKaicov KOL xprjcri/LLayv ev7ropouv-ra<s. 
Tra? Be 6 erraXo? alrov/jLevov TWO? rwv 

354 



MARCUS CATO, xvm. 1-4 

XVIII. Cato was rather bitterly censured for his 
treatment of Lucius, the brother of Scipio, whom, 
though he had achieved the honour of a triumph, 
he expelled from the equestrian order. He was 
thought to have done this as an insult to the memory 
of Scipio Africaims. But he was most obnoxious 
to the majority of his enemies because he lopped 
off extravagance in living. This could not be done 
away with outright, since most of the people were 
already infected and corrupted by it, and so he 
took a roundabout way. He had all apparel, 
equipages, jewellery, furniture and plate, the value 
of which in any case exceeded fifteen hundred 
drachmas, assessed at ten times its worth, wishing 
by means of larger assessments to make the owners' 
taxes also larger. Then he laid a tax of three 
on every thousand asses thus assessed, in order 
that such property holders, burdened by their 
charges, and seeing that people of equal wealth 
who led modest and simple lives paid less into the 
public treasury, might desist from their extravagance. 
As a result, both classes were incensed against him, 
both those who endured the taxes for the sake 
of their luxury, and those no less who put away 
their luxury because of the taxes. For most men 
think themselves robbed of their wealth if they 
are prevented from displaying it, and that display of 
it is made in the superfluities, not in the necessaries 
of life. This, we are told, is what most astonished 
Ariston the philosopher, namely, that those possessed 
of the superfluities of life should be counted happy, 
rather than those well provided with life's necessary 
and useful things. Scopas the Thessalian, when 
one of his friends asked for something of his which 

355 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trap avrov ri roiovrov, o arj cr(j)6Bpa fjv %prfcriaov 347 
ivy, KOL Xeyovros, &><? ovBev air el rwv dvay- 
teal ^pTjaLfitav " Kal uyv eya> rouroi?," 
" evBaifJiwv Ka\ TrXoucno? el/Jii, rot? dxprf- 

CTTOi? KOI TTeyOfTTOt?." OWTftJ? O TOV TT\OVTOV 

ovSei'l TrdOei ^fcrt/ccG crf^yu-yLtei'o? etc rf]? 

KOI Oupaiou 5o^>7? eVettroSto? eariv. 
XIX. Ou /t^;^ aXXa TWV eyKaXovvrwv e'Xa^/crra 
o Kdrwv en paXXov eTrereivev, tnro- 
is o^erou?, ol? TO irapappeov 
V7ro\ajjL/3dvovTS d-nrfyov et? otVta? 
iJTrov^t dvaTpeirwv Be /cal 
ocra irpovftaivev 6t? TO Srjfjiocriov 
<TV(T're\\(DV Se Tot? fjiiadols T? pyo\aj3ia$, ra 
Be T\r) Tai? Trpdaea-iv eVl Ta? eV^aTa? ekavvwv 
TifJids. dcf) MV avrui TroXu avvfyOri yo-icro?. 04 
Se vrept TOZ^ TITOV a-varavres eV avrov ev re 
rfj /3ov\fj Ta? yeyevrj/jievas eVSocrei? :at fjucrOc 
rwv lepwv real Brj/JLOffLmv epywv e\vaav a>? 
yevrj/nei'as d\vcnre\co^, /cal rwv ^/Jidp^wv TOU? 
6pacrvrdrov<s rrapai^vvav ev SIJJJLW rrpocrKa\e- 
roi> KaTcoi/a ral rj,ia)aai Sv&l ra\dv- 



rjvavri(jt)0>](jav t rjv eVeZi/o? e'/c: 
rwv KOIVWV VTTO TO /3ov\evrtjpiov ry dyopa 
TrapeSaXe teal Hop/cia /SacrtXi/crj TrpocnjyopevOr]. 1 

Qauverat Be Oav^a^r^ drroBe^dfjievo^ avrov 
rrjv rifjL7)TLav 6 S/}/LIO?. di'Bpidvra yovv dvaOels 
ev TO) vaw Tr}? 'T^ieta? erreypa-^rev ov TO,? 



1 TTopwfa RaffiXiK^i irpoff-nyoptvOr) Sintenls with the better 
MSS., and now S. Cf. Livy 39, 44. 
fftv Bckker (a,?7(i called). 



356 



MARCUS CATO, xvm. 4 -xix. 3 

was of no great service to him, with the remark 
that he asked for nothing that was necessary and 
useful, replied : " And yet my wealth and happiness 
are based on just such useless and superfluous 
things." Thus the desire for wealth is no natural 
adjunct of the soul, but is imposed upon it by the 
false opinions of the outside world. 

XIX. However, Cato paid not the slightest heed 
to his accusers, but grew still more strict. He 
cut off the pipes by which people conveyed part 
of the public water supply into their private houses 
and gardens ; he upset and demolished all buildings 
that enroached on public land ; he reduced the 
cost of public works to the lowest, and forced 
the rent of public lands to the highest possible 
figure. All these thing brought much odium upon 
him. Titus Flamininus headed a party against him 
which induced the Senate to annul as useless the 
outlays and payments which he had authorised for 
temples and public works, and incited the boldest 
of the tribunes to call him to account before the 
people and fine him two talents. The Senate also 
strongly opposed the erection of the basilica which 
he built at the public cost below the council-house 
in the Forum, and which was called the Basilica 
Porcia. 

Still, it appears that the people approved of 
his censorship to an amazing extent. At any rate, 
after erecting a statue to his honour in the temple 
of Health, they commemorated in the inscription 



357 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovoe TOV OpLa^ov TOV 
ft>9 civ Tt9 fjLeTa<f>pd(rei rrjv 
"'Or* Tr)v 'Pcofjiaiwv TroXireiav eyKK\i/jievr)v 
KOI peTrovcrav eVl TO ^elpov ri/jLrjrrjs yevojMevos 
Xprja-rals dyayyals /cal craMppocriv eQia-pols KOI 
o\5a<r/caXuu9 et9 opOov avOis 

4 Kalroi irporepov auro? KareyeXa rwv a 

ra rotavra, teal \avOdveiv avrovs \eyev eVl 
%a\Kwv KOI %ayypd(f)a)V epyoi? fjieya fypovovvras, 
avrov 8e /caXXtVra? elicovas ev rat? 
7Tpi(j)epeiv TOU? TToXtra?' TT/JO? Se TOL"? 
^ovras, on 7ro\\o)v dBo^wv dv&pidi'Ta<$ 
ereelvos OVK 6yet " Ma\\o^ yap,' 1 e 
fyreicrOai, Sta ri [iov dv$pia<$ ou Kelrai, rj Sid 

5 TL Kelrai'" TO 8' o\ov ov& 7raivov/j,evov 
TOV dyaOov TroXtV^z/ vTropeveiv, el yu-r; TOVTO 



yiVOLTO TO) KOIVW. 

Kairot. l 7r\elcrra Trdvrwv eavrbv e 
09 76 :at TOU9 d/jLaprdvovrd 1 ? TL irepl TOV ov y 
6\y%OfJi,evov$ \eyeiv (prja-iv, 0)9 OVK 

avTol^' ov yap KaTft)i69 elcrr KCLL 
evia fjLi^jLel<j6aL TWV UTT' avrov Trparro/^evcov OVK 



6 KaTw^a?' dtpopdv Se T^ /3ov\rjv 7T/009 avTov ev 
Tot? eVtcr^)a.Xe<TTaTOfc9 Kaipols axnrep ev TrXw 
?rpo9 KvBepvTJrrjv, Kal 7roA,Xa/a9 /z.^ vrapo^TO? 
VTrepTiOeaOai TO, 7rXetcrT?/9 a^a cnrovor^. a oij 
Trapd TWV d\\wv avrw fjiapTVpelTai' //.eya ya/o 
eo"xev ev TTJ vroXet /cal ^ta TOZ/ yStov /tat Sm TOI^ 
\6yov Kal Sid TO yrjpas d^iu>fj.a. 

XX. Feyoz'e 5e Aral TraTrjp dya0o$ Kal rrepl 
1 Kdiroi conjecture of Blass : 

358 



MARCUS CATO, xix. 3 -xx. i 

upon it, not the military commands nor the triumph 
of Cato, but, as the inscription may be translated, 
the fact " that when the Roman state was tottering 
to its fall, he was made censor, and by helpful 
guidance, wise restraints, and sound teachings, 
restored it again." And yet, before this time 
he used to laugh at those who delighted in such 
honours, saying that, although they knew it not, 
their pride was based simply on the work of statuaries 
and painters, whereas his own images, of the most 
exquisite workmanship, were borne about in the 
hearts of his fellow citizens. And to those who 
expressed their amazement that many men of no 
fame had statues, while he had none, he used to 
say : " I would much rather have men ask why 
I have no statue, than why I have one." In short, 
he thought a good citizen should not even allow 
himself to be praised, unless such praise was beneficial 
to the commonwealth. 

And yet of all men he has heaped most praises 
upon himself. He tells us that men of self-indulgent 
lives, when rebuked for it, used to say : " We ought 
not to be blamed ; we are no Catos." Also that 
those who imitated some of his practices and did 
it clumsily, were called " left-handed Catos." Also 
that the Senate looked to him in the most dangerous 
crises as seafarers to their helmsman, and often, if 
he was not present, postponed its most serious 
business. These boasts of his are confirmed, it 
is true, by other witnesses, for he had great authority 
in the city, alike for his life, his eloquence, and 
his age. 

XX. He was also a good father, a considerate 



359 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yvvaiKa ^/??/<TTO? dvrjp real xpijfJLarMrrrjs OVK 



ovo* <T>? n fjLLKpbv rj <pai>\ov ev 
irapepyw per a%et pier dfjievos rrjv rotavrrjv im- 
fie\CLav. o6ev olo^ai Beiv Kal irepl rovrcov ocra 
KaXa)S X L ^'eX^etp' <yvvaLtca /JLCV cvyeveo-repav 
17 TrXovaiwrepav eyrj/Aev, t'^ovjjievo^ oyuoto)? JJLCV 
a^orepa^ &X eLV ftdpos KOI fypovrma, ra? B 
yevvatas aiSovfjievas TOL aiG^pa fjia\\ov 
2 elvat, 77/005 ra /ca\a rot? ryeyafjLrjfcocri. rov 

rj vratSa rot? ay ton aroi? e\ 
Trpoatpepetv ra? ^e?/?a?. ev ejraivw 
riOecrOai TO ya/j^ertjv ayaOov rj TO 
elvcu crvyK\rjTiKoi>' eVet Koi 2,wKpdrov<; ovSev 
aAXo Q av n-aCpiv rov TraXaiov TT\IIV OTI yvvaiici 



7raicrli> 



teal Trpaws SiereXeare. yevo/j-evov Be rov 
ov&ev r/v epyov OVTCOS avayKalov, el fjurj n, 
$rj/j,6(riov, &)? fj,rj Trapelvai rfj yvvaitcl \ovovarrj TO 348 
ftpecpos Kal (TTrapyavovcrr]. avrrj yap erpetyev 
ya\a/CTi' TroXXa/ci? Be Kal ra TWV Sov\cov 
dpia TW /iacrTro Trpocnej-ievri 
evvoiav e/c T/}? crvvTpotyias TT/OO? rov vov. 
Be rjp^aro avvievcu, TrapaXaficvv avros 
ypd/Ji^iara, Kairoi yapizvra Bov\ov eZ^e ypa/j,/jia- 
ricrrrjv ovofJia XtXcoi'a, TroXXoi/? BiBda/covra 
4 vratSa?. OVK rj^lov Be rov viov, w? (frrjcriv avros, 
VTTO 8ov\ov KaKw? aKOveiv r) rov WTO? dvarel- 
vecrOai fJiavQdvovra fipdBtoi 1 , ovBe ye yua^/j/mTO? 
rrj\LKOvrov TW BovXa) xdpiv o(f)L\iv, aXX* 
auro? fiev r)v ypa/.i/Jiari(rrrj<f, auTo? Be 

360 



MARCUS CATO, xx. 1-4 

husband, and a household manager of no mean talent, 
nor did he give only a fitful attention to this, as 
a matter of little or no importance. Therefore I 
think I ought to give suitable instances of his 
conduct in these relations. He married a wife who 
was of gentler birth than she was rich, thinking 
that, although the rich and the high-born may be 
alike given to pride, still, women of high birth have 
such a horror of what is disgraceful that they are 
more obedient to their husbands in all that is 
honourable. He used to say that the man who 
struck his wife or child, laid violent hands on 
the holiest of holy things. Also that he thought 
it more praiseworthy to be a good husband than 
a great senator, nay, there was nothing else to 
admire in Socrates of old except that he was always 
kind and gentle in his intercourse with a shrewish 
wife and stupid sons. After the birth of his son, 
no business could be so urgent, unless it had a 
public character, as to prevent him from being 
present when his wife bathed and swaddled the babe. 
For the mother nursed it herself, and often gave 
suck also to the infants of her slaves, that so they 
might come to cherish a brotherly affection for 
her son. As soon as the boy showed signs of 
understanding, his father took him under his own 
charge and taught him to read, although he had 
an accomplished slave, Chilo by name, who was 
a school-teacher, and taught many boys. Still, Cato 
thought it not right, as he tells us himself, that 
his son should be scolded by a slave, or have his 
ears tweaked when he was slow to learn, still less 
that he should be indebted to his slave for such 
a priceless thing as education. He was therefore 

361 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bdfcrijs, avrbs Be yvpvacrrtfs, ov /JLOVOV a 
ovB' OTT\O jjia^etv ovB* iinreveiv BiBdo-Kcov rbv vlov, 
d\\a KOI rf) %et/3t rrv% rraieiv KCLI icav^a /cal 
\frv%os dve^eaOai /cal ra Bivu>Br) /ecu rpaj(vvovra 
5 TOV Trorafjiov Siaviixo/Aevov a-rro^id^eadaL. teal ra? 
tcrropta? Be a-vyypdifrat, tfirjcrlv avros IBi'a 
KOI /j,eyd\ois ypd/A/jLacriv, OTTO)? olicoOev v 
TW Trai&l 7T/3CK /jL7ripiav TOJV ira\a,io)v KOI TrarpL- 
wv w($>e\elaOai' ra 8' alcr^pa rcov prjfjidrto 
fjTTOV evkafielGPai rov TratSo? Trapovros r) 
iepwv irapBevwv, a? 'EartaSa? Ka\ovcn' <rv\\ov- 
Be ^BeTTore. teal rovro KOIVQV eoifce 
e'#O9 elvai' teal yap TrevOepol 



6 iTOKKvnv KOI yv/jivtoo-iv. era JJLVTOI Trap 
*}L\\r)vwv TO yv/jLvovcrtfai /jbaOovres, avrol Trd\iv 
TOV /cal fjierd yvvaucwv rovro rrpdaaeiv dva7T7r\ij- 
KCLCTI Toy? r 'EXXt7^a?. 

Ovrco Be tca\ov epyov eh dper^v rCo Kdrcovi 
TT\drrovrt KOI Br]fjiioi>pyovvri rov vlov, errel ra 
TT}? rrpoOv^ia^; r)v a/me/ATrra KOL Bi evfyv'iav 
vm'-)Kovev rj ^v%t'], ro Be crw/ia {JLokaKwrepov 
e<pdiV6TO rov Troveiv, vTravrj/cev avrw ro avvrovov 

7 ayav KOI KeKO\ao-fJievov rrjs Biair^s. 6 Be, Kairrep 
ovrays e^wv, dvrjp dyaQbs fy ev rat? (rrparelais, 
KOI rijv TTyoo? FLepcrea fjid^v rjywvicraro 
Tlav\ov crrparr/youvros. elra /utevroi, rov 
eK/cpovcrdevros inro 7T\r)yfj$ 7} Bi vyporrjra rfjs 



1 irev6fpol ya/mfijois Hercher and Blass, adopting the con- 
jecture of Sintenia : irev6fpois yaij.,8pol. 

362 



MARCUS CATO, xx. 4-7 

himself not only the boy's reading-teacher, but 
his tutor in law, and his athletic trainer, and he 
taught his son not merely to hurl the javelin and 
fight in armour and ride the horse, but also to 
box, to endure heat and cold, and to swim lustily 
through the eddies and billows of the Tiber. His 
History of Rome, as he tells us himself, he wrote 
out with his own hand and in large characters, 
that his son might have in his own home an aid 
to acquaintance with his country's ancient traditions. 
He declares that his son's presence put him on 
his guard against indecencies of speech as much 
as that of the so-called Vestal Virgins, and that 
he never bathed with him. This, indeed, would 
seem to have been a general custom with the 
Romans, for even fathers-in-law avoided bathing with 

* O 

their sons-in-law, because they were ashamed to 
uncover their nakedness. Afterwards, however, when 
they had learned from the Greeks their freedom in 
going naked, they in their turn infected the Greeks 
with the practice even when women were present. 

So Cato wrought at the fair task of moulding 
and fashioning his son to virtue, finding his zeal 
blameless, and his spirit answering to his good 
natural parts. But since his body was rather too 
delicate to endure much hardship, he relaxed some- 
what in his favour the excessive rigidity and 
austerity of his own mode of life. But his son, 
although thus delicate, made a sturdy soldier, and 
fought brilliantly under Paulus Aemilius in the 
battle against Perseus. 1 On that occasion his sword 
either was smitten from his hand or slipped from his 

1 Pydna, 168 B.C. 

3 6 3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7T/509 



TMV avvi]6d)v t teal 7rapa\a(Bct>v 
et? TOU? TroXe/uou? eveftaXe. TroXXw S' 
/cat /3ia p,eyd\r) Siafywricras rbv TQTTOV 
dvevpe fJLojLS ev TroXXot? crdy/j-acriv OTT\WV KCU 
aayfjLacri, vercpwv O/JLOV <$>i\wv re /cal 7ro\e/j,ia)v 
8 KaTaGeawpevfjievtov. e<J> w KOL TTaOXo? 6 arpa- 
rfydcrOrj TO /jLeipd/ciov, Kal Karcovo? avrov 
eVicrroX?) TT^OO? TOV vtbv virep^vcos 
TJJI> Trepl TO ^/^>o? (f>i\orijLiLai> avrov 
Kal cr7rov&)jv. vcrrepov 8e /cal Hav\ov Ovyarepa 
Tepriav eyrj/jiev 6 veavia$ y 



avrov rj rbv irarepa 

fjivo<; et? 76^09 rr)\iKovrov. rj p,ev ovv Trepl rbv 
vlbv e7ri/jie\ia rov Karwi/o? a^iov ecr-^ev reXo?. 

XXI. OtVera? 8e TroXXou? eKrdro, rwv ctl^- 
fjia\(i>rwv wvovnevos /jidXicrra rovs fuxpovs /cal 
Svvafjievovs en rpo^v /cal Trai&evaiv ox; atcv- 
Xa/ca? 17 TTcoXou? eveytceiv. rovraiv ovSel? etVr}X- 
Oev et? ol/ciav erepav, el fj,rj Tre^^ravro^ avrov 
Karw^o? ?; T/}? yvvaifcos. 6 S' dpwrrjfleis, ri 
Trpdrrot, Karcoi/, ouSef aTreKpivero TT\TJV dyvoeiv. 
2 eSet ^6 17 Trpdrreiv n rwv dvaytcaifov O'LKOL rov 
Bnr\ov rj KaOevSeiv teal cr(f)6Spa rot? 
6 }Ldrwv e^aipe, rrpaorepovs re rwv e 
vofjii^wv Kal 7T/3O? oriovv (3e\riovas -^ptja-Bat rwv 
Seof^evcov VTTVOV rof? drro\e\avKora<;. olo^vos 
8e rd f^eyiara pa&iovpyeiv a^poSicricov eveica rov<$ 
Sov\ovs era^ev (opKTfjLevov ^Oyu-t'cr/xaro? 6/jLi\elv 349 
rat? Oeparrau'ia-iv, erepa Be yvvaifcl /ArjBeva 7r\rj- 



364 



MARCUS CATO, xx. 7 -xxi. 2 

moist grasp. Distressed at this mishap, he turned 
to some of his companions for aid, and supported by 
them rushed again into the thick of the enemy. 
After a long and furious struggle, he succeeded in 
clearing the place, and found the sword at last 
among the many heaps of arms and dead bodies 
where friends and foes alike lay piled upon one 
another. Paulus, his commander, admired the 
young man's exploit, and there is still extant a letter 
written by Cato himself to his son, in which he heaps 
extravagant praise upon him for this honourable zeal 
in recovering his sword. The young man afterwards 
married Tertia, a daughter of Paulus and a sister of 
the younger Scipio, and his admission into such 
a family was due no less to himself than to his 
father. Thus Cato's careful attention to the 
education of his son bore worthy fruit. 

XXI. He owned many domestics, and usually 
bought those prisoners of war who were young 
and still capable of being reared and trained 
like whelps or colts. Not one of his slaves ever 
entered another man's house unless sent thither by 
Cato or his wife, and when such an one was asked 
what Cato was doing, he always answered that he 
did not know. A slave of his was expected either 
to be busy about the house, or to be asleep, and he 
was very partial to the sleepy ones. He thought 
these gentler than the wakeful ones, and that those 
who had enjoyed the gift of sleep were better 
for any kind of service than those who lacked it. In 
the belief that his slaves were led into most mischief 
by their sexual passions, he stipulated that the males 
should consort with the females at a fixed price, but 
should never approach any other woman. 

365 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



'Ev dpYrj /jiev ovv en 7revr)<; wv /cal a-rparevo- 
7T/30? ovBev eBvcr/coXaLve rwv irepl Biairav, 
aLcr^icrrov cnretyaive Bid yacrrepa 
olfcerijv ^uyo/^a^elv. va-repov Be ra)v 



real 



eKO\a%ev evOvs pera TO 
TOL/? d/j.e\6CTT6pov vTrovpyrjaavTCLS on ovv 77 
4 <7K6vd(TavTas. del Se Tiva crrdcnv e^eiv TOU? 
Xou? e^^avaTo KOI Siatyopdv TT/QO? d\\ij 

V7TOVOWV T'TJV OjJLOVOiCLV dVTWV KOI SeSoiKCOS. TOU? 

elpydaOai TI Oavdrov So^a^re? 



ev roi? Oi/cerai? Traiv 



el /carayvcocrdelev. 
5 'ATTTOy^ez/o? oe crvvrovcarepov fropicr/jLOV 

yewpyiav fj,a\\ov rjyelro Siaycoyrjv r/ TT/OOCT- 
et? S* d<T$d\.r) Trpdy/LLaTa /cal fieflata 
ra? dffropfids e/craro \i/j.vas, v^ara 
T07TOU? KvafyevaLv aveifjievovs, epya 
%d)pav l e^ovaav avrotpvel? vofias /cal 



wv avr> 



VTTO rov Ato?, Co? (frrjcnv auro?, (3\a(Brivai $vva- 
6 xevwv. eraaTO Be fcal rw 



rcov aveHT/jLcov e vavrucos TOP rpojrov 

TOVTOV. K\Ve TOU? SaV6iojULeVOVS 

TroXXou? irapaKaXelv, yei'O/jLevwv Se 

l 7r\oLwv roa-ovrwp auro? el^e fiiav /.lepi&a Bid 

rot? &avei^of.ievois O~V/JL- 
7r\6ovTos. r)i> 8' ovv 

OVK 6t9 airav 6 tcwBvvos, a\X' e/9 yLte/009 /J.i/cpbv 
7 eVt tcepBecri /jLeyd\ot,^. eBiBov Be /cal TWV olfcerwv 

1 tpya -rrlffffia, x<apav Blass with S : epyuTijffiav x.uf>av t pro- 
ductive land. 

366 



MARCUS CATO, xxi. 3-7 

At the outset, when he was still poor and in 
military service, he found no fault at all with what 
was served up to him, declaring that it was shameful 
for a man to quarrel with a domestic over food and 
drink. But afterwards, when his circumstances were 
improved and he used to entertain his friends 
and colleagues at table, no sooner was the dinner 
over than he would flog those slaves who had been 
remiss at all in preparing or serving it. He was 
always contriving that his slaves should have feuds 
and dissensions among themselves ; harmony among 
them made him suspicious and fearful of them. He 
had those who were suspected of some capital offence 
brought to trial before all their fellow servants, and, 
if convicted, put to death. 

However, as he applied himself more strenuously 
to money-getting, he came to regard agriculture as 
more entertaining than profitable, and invested his 
capital in business that was safe and sure. He 
bought ponds, hot springs, districts given over 
to fullers, pitch factories, land with natural pasture 
and forest, all of which brought him in large profits, 
and " could not," to use his own phrase, " be ruined 
by Jupiter." He used to loan money also in 
the most disreputable of all ways, namely, on ships, 
and his method was as follows. He required his 
borrowers to form a large company, and when there 
were fifty partners and as many ships for his security, 
he took one share in the company himself, and was 
represented by Quintio, a freedman of his, who 
accompanied his clients in all their ventures. In 
this way his entire security was not imperilled, but 
only a small part of it, and his profits were large. 



367 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/3ou\o/jLevoi<i dpyvpiov ol & ewvovvro 
elra rovrovs da-Kijcravres KOI oi$d!;ai>res 
t rov K.drcovo<$ yaer* eviavrov d'rreoL- 
SOVTO. TroXXou? 8e /eat Karel-^ev 6 Karon*, OCTT;I/ 



6 



8 TTporpeTTcov S& rov vlov eTrl ravrd (j>^atv ou/c 
o9, aXXa %ijpa<; ryvvcufcbs eivai TO //,et<w<jat TI 
VTrap^oi'Tcov. eicelvo 5* r/>7 a^o^porepov 
rov Karw^o?, ort dav^aarov av^pa KOI Oelov 
elireiv erokfjirjare TT/JO? So^av, 09 airokeirret, 7T\eov 
ev rot? Xoyot? o TTpoaeO^Kev ov Tra 

XXII. "HS?; Se avrov yepovros 
7r/36<j/3et? \\Qtfvrjdev ifKOov els 'PcojJLTjv ol Trepl 
Ka/5z-'6a?;y TOI^ *A.Ka^rj/j,atKOV real Awyevri rov 
^rcolKov (j)i\Gcro(f)ov, KaraBiK^v nva irapair^crQ- 
P.GVOL rov Si'jpov rwv 'Adrjvaiwv, r)v epyj^v 
a)(j)\ov *lpw7riwv (Jikv Siw^dvrcoi', ^.LKVWVLWV ^6 
Kara^i^iaafMevwv, rl^^a ra\dvrwv irevra- 
2 Kocri(i)i> e^ovcrav. evOvs ovv ol (j)i\o\,oja)rarot 
reavidKwv eirl rou? avbpas 'ievro, /ecu <rvvr\- 



real Oav^d^ovres avrovs. 

\iarra S' 77 Ka/37'eaSoy %dpis, f)$ ^vvafjiis re 
teal Bo^a TT}? Sf^a/z.ea)? OVK aTro^eovaa, 
v eTri\afBofj,evri KOI d>i\ai>@pco7ra)V d/cpoa- 
a)? Trvevfjia rrjv 7ro\iv 77%% ei>67r\rj(7. 
3 teal Xoyo? Karel^ev, w? dvrjp f/ EXX)^ e/9 e/CTrX?;a> 
r]? Trdvra tci]\Cov /cal ^eipovfJi^vos epcora 



368 



MARCUS CATO, xxi. y-xxn. 3 

He used to lend money also to those of his slaves 
who wished it, and they would buy boys with it, and 
after training and teaching them for a year, at Cato's 
expense, would sell them again. Many of these 
boys Cato would retain for himself, reckoning to the 
credit of the slave the highest price bid for his boy. 
He tried to incite his son also to such economies, by 
saying that it was not the part of a man, but of 
a widow woman, to lessen his substance. But that 
surely was too vehement a speech of Cato's, when he 
went so far as to say that a man was to be admired 
and glorified like a god if the final inventory of his 
property showed that he had added to it more than 
he had inherited. 

XXII. When he was now well on in years, 
there came as ambassadors from Athens to Rome, 1 
Carneades the Academic, and Diogenes the Stoic 
philosopher, to beg the reversal of a certain decision 
against the Athenian people, which imposed upon 
them a fine of five hundred talents. The people of 
Oropus had brought the suit, the Athenians had let 
the case go by default, and the Sicyonians had 
pronounced judgment against them. Upon the 
arrival of these philosophers, the most studious of the 
city's youth hastened to wait upon them, and became 
their devoted and admiring listeners. The charm of 
Carneades especially, which had boundless power, 
and a fame not inferior to its power, won large 
and sympathetic audiences, and filled the city, like a 
rushing mighty wind, with the noise of his praises. 
Report spread far and wide that a Greek of 
amazing talent, who disarmed all opposition by 
the magic of his eloquence, had infused a tremen- 

1 155B.G. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Seivbv /j,/3eft\r)Ke TO?? veots, vfi ov TWV aXXcoi/ 



Trepl (f)i\o<ro(f)iav. ravra TO?? pev a'XXot? iipe<rrce 
yLVOfjieva, KOI ra /neipd/cia 



Kal crvvbvra 



avbpdaiv 7;8ew? ewpwv 6 Be Kar&>y 
roO %rj\,ov TWV \6ywv 



TO 



evravOa rpe^ravre^ ol vkoi rrjv GTTL rat 
\eyeiv $6%av dycnrija'ooa'i paXXov T?}? CITTO rwv 
epyaiv Kal rcov crrpareiMv, eVel 8e Trpovfiaivev 

T) S6^a TWV (j)l\O(T6(j)(0l> V TT) 7r6\i KOI TOU? 

avrwv 



V6vcr6, Fato? *ArtX^o?, eyvw 



? Ka erj 

u 
~ 



5 6/c TT}? TToXew?. Kal 7rape\0oov t? T^I/ (TvyK\rj- 350 

aro TO?? ap^ovaiv, OTL irpecr/Seia 
TTO\VV %povov aTTpaKTO? dvSpwv, 01 Trepl 
O? ov {Bov\oivro paS/a)? nreiOeiv ^vvavrau' 
Beiv ovv rr)V ra^ia "rir)v yv&vai TI Kal tyrifyia-aa-Oai 
Trepl T?;? irpecrjSeias, OTTW? OVTOL /jiev eVt Ta? 
a-^oXa? TpaTTOfjievoi SiaXeycovrat, iraidiv f E\- 
\r)vwv, ol ^e r Pa)/j,aiMv veoi TWV VOJJLWV Kal rcov 
dp^owrwv co? Trporepov aKOVwcrt. 

XXIII. TaOTa 8' 0^%, &>? evioi vofjii^ovart, 
Kapved&rj $>v(TX e pdvas eirpa^ev, aXX' oXw? <pi\o- 
7rpO(TKKpovKws Kal Traaav 'E^KrjviKrjv 
TraiSa'av VTTO (j)i\ori^LLa<f 7rp07rr]\aKL- 
o? 76 Kal HtWKpdrri (jyqa-l \d\ov Kal ftiaiov 
TTi^eipelv, co rpoTry Bvvarbs rjv, rvpav- 
velv T*}? 7rar/3iSo9, Kara\i>ovTa ra edfj Kal 

370 



MARCUS CATO, xxn. 

dous passion into the youth of the city, in conse- 
quence of which they forsook their other pleasures 
and pursuits and were "possessed" about philosophy. 
The other Romans were pleased at this, and glad to 
see their young men lay hold of Greek culture 
and consort with such admirable men. But Cato, at 
the very outset, when this zeal for discussion came 
pouring into the city, was distressed, fearing lest the 
young men, by giving this direction to their 
ambition, should come to love a reputation based on 
mere words more than one achieved by martial 
deeds. And when the fame of the visiting philoso- 
phers rose yet higher in the city, and their 
first speeches before the Senate were interpreted, at 
his own instance and request, by so conspicuous a 
man as Gaius Acilius, Cato determined, on some 
decent pretext or other, to rid and purge the city of 
them all. So he rose in the Senate and censured 
the magistrates for keeping in such long suspense an 
embassy composed of men who could easily secure 
anything they wished, so persuasive were they. 
" We ought," he said, " to make up our minds one 
way or another, and vote on what the embassy 
proposes, in order that these men may return 
to their schools and lecture to the sons of Greece, 
while the youth of Rome give ear to their laws and 
magistrates, as heretofore." 

XXIII. This he did, not, as some think, out 
of personal hostility to Carneades, but because he 
was wholly averse to philosophy, and made mock 
of all Greek culture and training, out of patriotic 
zeal. He says, for instance, that Socrates was a 
mighty prattler, who attempted, as best he could, 
to be his country's tyrant, by abolishing its customs, 

371 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



evavrias TO?? VOJJLOIS Soa? e\Kovra tea 



2 TOU? TroXtra?. TTJV 8* ' 
7ri(rK(it)7rTci)V yrjpdv (f)rj(n 'Trap' avrw TOI?? 

a)? eV f/ A*,8ou irapa Mt^ft) %pr]&oiJLvov<$ rat? 
re^ai? /cat S//ca? epovvras. rov Be TraiSa Bia- 
(Bd\\wv TT/JO? ra 'EXXj/z^/ca (pcovfj Ke^pijraL 
dpacrvrepa rov yrjpw, olov aTroOearTri^wv /cal 
TTpo/jLavTevcov, co? a7ro\ov(TL ( PM/uiaLoi TCL Trpajfjiara 

3 ajijLarayv 'EXX?w/ca)^ avair\i(70ivre^. dXXa 



avrou rr]V >varip,av 
Kvr]v, V M rot? re Trpdy/jLacriv 
rj TroXi? r/p^?; fjueyicmj real TT/OO? 'EXX?;^tA:a 

tcai irai^eiav airaaav ea^ev 
'O S' oz) IJLOVOV amj^ddvero TOi? 
'EXX?;i><wi>, aXXa Aral rou? larpevovras ev ' 

Si? VTTOtyiaS l-)(. KOL TOV 'iTTTTOfCpdrOV*;, ft)? 

eoifcev, atcrjieoca? \oyov, ov eiTre TOV 

avTov eVl TroXAot? 



Trore 
7roXe/,ito/? eavrov irapaa^elv, e\eje KOIVOV op/cov 



4 ea>a TOVTOV larpaiv aTrdvrwv, fcal ir 
(j)v\d?T(T0ai TO) TratSi iravra^' aimS 
jjizvov vTro/jLvq/na elvaL, /cal TT^OO? rovro 
teal Siairdv TOV* voaovvTas OIKOI, V^CTTLV 

aTrjpMv ovSeva, Tp<f>wv $e \a%dvoi<; r; 
vr)(Tcrr)s rj (frdao-rjs rj \aya)' /cat yap 
TOVTO /cov(f)ov elvai KOL irpocr^opov dcrQevovcri, 
r)^ ort TroXXa cru/x/SatVet rot? fya-yovcnv e 
ar ToiavTy Se OepaTrelq xal 

vytaiveLV /Av avTOs, vyiaivovTas Se TOI>? 
eavrov 

37* 



MARCUS CATO, xxm. 1-4 

and by enticing his fellow citizens into opinions 
contrary to the laws. He made fun of the school 

V 

of Isocrates, declaring that his pupils kept on 
studying with him till they were old men, as if 
they were to practise their arts and plead their 
cases before Minos in Hades. And seeking to 

O 

prejudice his son against Greek culture, he indulges 
in an utterance all too rash for his years, declaring, 
in the tone of a prophet or a seer, that Rome 
would lose her empire when she had become infected 
with Greek letters. But time has certainly shown 
the emptiness of this ill-boding speech of his, for 
while the city was at the zenith of its empire, 
she made every form of Greek learning and culture 
her own. 

It was not only Greek philosophers that he hated, 
but he was also suspicious of Greeks who practised 
medicine at Rome. He had heard, it would seem, 
of Hippocrates' reply when the Great King of 
Persia consulted him, with the promise of a fee 
of many talents, namely, that he would never put 
his skill at the service of Barbarians who were 
enemies of Greece. He said all Greek physicians 
had taken a similar oath, and urged his son to 
beware of them all. He himself, he said, had 
written a book of recipes, which he followed in 
the treatment and regimen of any who were sick 
in his family. He never required his patients to 
fast, but fed them on greens, or bits of duck, pigeon, 
or hare. Such a diet, he said, was light and good 
for sick people, except that it often causes dreams. 
By following such treatment and regimen he said 
he had good health himself, and kept his family in 
good health. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXIV. Kal Trepl ye TOVTO fyalverai yeyova><$ OVK 
dve/AecrrjTOS' Kal jap TTJV yvvaiKa Kal TOV vlov 
cL7re/3a\ev. avrbs Be r&> trco/^art TT/JO? eve^iav KOI 



eVl 



cocr7e KOI jvvaLKi Trpea-fivrrjs wv a(f)6$pa 
%eiv /cal yfj/jiai yd/jiov ov Ka6* r)\iKiav 6K 
7rpG(f)dcrea)s. a7ro/3aX&)z/ T^V <yvvalKa rw /JLCV via) 
TlavXov dvyarepa, ^KrjTriwvos Se aSeX^)^ rjydyero 
7T/30? yd/jLov 9 auTO? Be ^pevwv e%prJTO TraiSiaKy 
2 Kpv<pa (froircoa-y TT/OO? avrov. rjv ovv ev OLKLO, 
jjiiKpa vvjjLcfrrjv e%ovcrr) rov irpdyfJiaro^ 
Kai Trore TOV yvvaiov pacrvrepov 
Trapa TO Sw/jidriov Bo^avros 6 veavias eiTre 
ov$ev, e/u/5Xe-^a? Se TTW? TTiKporepov Kal SiaTp 
OVK e\a6e TOV TT peer (BvTrfv. 009 ovveyvw ro7rpay/.ia 

V7T* avT&v, ovftev eyKa\eo~as ovBe 



a $>i\wv et? ayopav 2,a\a)Viov nva rwv VTTO- 
eypajjLjjLarevKorcov avrw Trapovra Kal (rv/jL7rpo- 
ejJLTrovTa [JLeyd\r) (fxovf) TTpocrayopevcras rjpwTijcrcv, 
3 el rb OvyaTpiov <Jvvi)piAOKe VV^'KO. TOV S' 
dv9p(t)TTov (prjcravTos, &)? ou8e /^eXXet fj,r) TrpoTepov 
Kii>M KOLVwadp.evo^ " Kal /jirjv eyct) aoi" (frrjcriv, 351 
" evprjKa KrjBecrT^v eirtrijo'eiov, el ^ vr) Ata ra 
T?}9 f)\iiclas Bva-^epaiVOLTO' raXXa yap ov fJiefji- 
TTTO? (TTi, o~(f>6Spa Be Trpecr/SuT?;?." fo>9 ovv 6 
SaXco^to? K\eve raOra (fipoi'TL^eiv Kal BiBovai 
Tr)V Koprfv w irpoaupelTai, TreXaTiv ovcrav avTov 
Kal Beofjivt]v r^? exeivov KrjSeftovla*;, ovSeftiav 6 

374 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 1-3 

XXIV. Such presumption on his part seems not 
to have gone unpunished, for he lost his wife and 
his son. He himself was well confirmed in bodily 
health and vigour, and long withstood the assaults 
of age. Even when an old man he was prone to 
indulge his sexual appetite, and at last married a 
wife when he was long past the marrying age. This 
was the way it came about. After the death of 
his wife, he married his son to the daughter of 
Aemilius Paulus, the sister of Scipio, but he himself, 
in his widowhood, took solace with a slave girl 
who secretly visited his bed. Of course, in a small 
house with a young married woman in it, the 
matter was discovered, and once, when the girl 
seemed to flaunt her way rather too boldly to his 
chamber, the old man could not help noticing that 
his son, although he said nothing, looked very sour, 
and turned away. Perceiving that the thing displeased 
his children, Cato did not upbraid or blame them at 
all, but as he was going down in his usual way 
to the forum with his clients, called out with a 
loud voice to a certain Salonius, who had been 
one of his under-secretaries, and was now in his 
train, asking him if he had found a good husband 
for his young daughter. The man said he had 
not, and would not do so without first consulting 
his patron. " Well then," said Cato, " I have found 
a suitable son-in-law for you, unless indeed his age 
should be displeasing ; in other ways no fault can 
be found with him, but he is a very old man." 
Salonius at once bade him take the matter in 
charge and give the maid to the man of his choice, 
since she was a dependant of his and in need 
of his kind services. Then Cato, without any more 

VOL. ii. N 375 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ava/3o\r)v 7roLrjcrd/j.vo(; avTos e<prj TTJV 

4 rrapOtvov airelv eavrw. Kal TO /JLCV TrpwTov, a>? 
etVo?, 6 Xoyo? e%eiT\ri%e TOV avOpwirov, rroppay 
yd/jiov TOV Karcoi/a, rroppco B* CLVTOV 

ical 0piafi/3iKO)v KrjBevfjLarwv Ti 
rj Be xpcti/juevov oputv acr/uero? eBe^aro, KOI 
vTes evOvs et? ajopav CTTOIOVVTO rrjv 
eyyvrjv. 

Uparro/jLevov Be TOV yd/jiov 7rapa\a/3a>i> TOVS 
eTrirrjBeiovs 6 wo? TOV Kara^o? ^/jcor^cre TOV 
TraTepa, fir) TI /le/A^o/ievo? f) \e\vrr rj/jievos VTT 

5 avTOV /JLrjTpviav eVayerat. o 8e Karw^ dva- 
/9o^o*a? '* }Lv<$j[jiT]o'ov" eiTrev, " a> 

yap dyaaTa JJLOI ra rrapa o~ov KOL ^^TTTOV o 
Be 7rXetoi/a? e/jLavrw re vrat^a? 

TT} TTdTpuBl TOLOVTOVS dTfiO\i7TLV." TaVTTjV 

Be TI]V yvco/jirjv rrpoTepov eLTretv <pacri 

aTpaTOv TOV 'AOiji'dicov Tvpavvov 

rot? evr)\ifcois rraicrl TTJV *Apyo\iBa 

et; ^? 'locfrcovTa KOI ecro-a\ov avrw \eyovo~i 

6 yeveaOai. yrfpavTi Be ra5 Karam yiveTai vra??, 
c5 TrapwvvfJLiov drro TT}? //.T^T/OO? eOeTO 

6 Be 7T/oecr/3uT6/309 L'/O? eTe\evTr)o-e 

jivrjTai fj,ev avTOV TroXXa/a? ev rot? /St- 
o Karo)i/ co? dvBpbs dyadov yeyovoTos, 
5e at ^>t\ocro^)&)9 Xeyerat r 

eveyfceiv Kal /j,r]Bev a/i/SXuTepo? St' avTrjv 

7 ra Tro\iTLKa yeveaOai. ov ydp, a>? 

vcTTepov KCU Me'reXXo? o TI/o?, 
VTTO 7^7pft)? vrpo? TO Brj/jLocrta, \enovp- 
yiav Trjv 7ro\iT6Lav rjyov/uevos, ovB' a><? rrporepov 
^iKijrrifDv 6 *A<jb/9:az/05 Sta TOI/ dvTiKpovcravTa 

376 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 3-7 

ado, said that he asked the damsel to wife for 
himself. At first, as was natural, the proposal amazed 
the man, who counted Cato far past marriage, and 
himself far beneath alliance with a house of consular 
dignity and triumphal honours ; but when he saw 
that Cato was in earnest, he gladly accepted his 
proposal, and as soon as they reached the forum 
the banns were published. 

While the marriage was in hand, Cato's son, 
accompanied by his friends, asked his father if it 
was because he had any complaint to make against 
him that he was now foisting a step-mother upon 
him. " Heaven forbid ! my son," cried Cato, " all 
your conduct towards me has been admirable, and 
I have no fault to find with you ; but I desire 
to bless myself and my country with more such 
sons." However, they say that this sentiment was 
uttered long before by Peisistratus, the tyrant of 
Athens, who gave his grown up sons a step-mother 
in the person of Timonassa of Argolis, by whom 
he is said to have had lophon and Thessalus. Of 
this second marriage a son was born to Cato, who 
was named Salonius, after his mother's father. But 
his elder son died in the praetorship. Cato often 
speaks of him in his books as a brave and worthy 
man, and is said to have borne his loss with all 
the equanimity of a philosopher, remitting not 
a whit because of it his ardour in the public service. 
For he was not, like Lucius Lucullus and Metellus 
Pius in after times, too enfeebled by old age to 
serve the people, regarding the service of the state 
as a burdensome duty ; nor did he, like Scipio 
Africanus before him, because of envious attacks 

377 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irpbs rrjv Bo^av avrov (f)06vov drrocrrpafyels rov 
BTJ/JLOV CK fjLTa/3o\r/<; erroirjcraro rov \OLTTOV fiiov 
8 TeXo? aTrpay/jiOcnjvrjv, d\\\ axnrep Atovvaiov 
T<? eTreicre fed\\t(7Tov vrd<f)iov yyeladau TTJV 
rvpavviSa, Ka\\icrTov auro? eyyrfpafJLa Trjv TTO- 
\irelav 7roir]crd/j,vo<; avaTravarecnv e%pr)TO KOI 
TratSiat?, OTrore a%o\d%oi, TO* (rvvrdrrea'dat: 
@i{3\La KOI TW yewpyelv. 

XXV. ^vverdrrero fjuev ovv \6yovs re iravro- 
SctTrovs /cat IcrTopiw yewpyla Be Trpocret^e veos 
fj.ev wv Ti KOL Sia ryv xpeiav ((f>r)al jap 
K%pr)a0cu JJLOVOL^ TTopHT/jLols jCMpyia KOI 

Tore Be Biaywyrjv KOI Oewpiav avry ra 
KCLT* dypbv irapefye. real a-vvrera/craL ye 
yecopyifcov, ev w /cal Trepl TrKaicovvTwv <7Kva<Tia<i 
KOL Trjprjaews OTroo/^a? yeypafav, ev iravn, ^>t- 

2 \OTijj,ov/Jivos Tre/JiTTO? elvaL /cal t'Sto?. rjv Be 
KOI TO Bei7rvov ev aypy a-^ri,\ecrTepov Kd\et 
yap e/cda-rore TWV aypoyeirovwv fcal Trepi^captDv 
rou? avvriOeis KOI (rvvBifjyev l\ap)s, ov rot? 

* r)\iKiav fiovois rjBvs wv avyyevecrOai teal 
bs, d\\a teal rot? veois, are Brj Tro\\(0v 
e/JLTreipos Trpayfjidrcav yeyovcos, TroXXot? Be 
KOI \6yois dgloi? d/corjs evrerv^riKa)^. 

3 rrjv Be rpdire^av ev rot? /nd^Lara <$>i\07roibv 
rjyelro' teal 7ro\\rj /j,ev eixfrrj/jLLa TWV rca\wv 
teal dyaOayv TrdXiTwv e'jreia'ijyero, 'TroXX.rj B* r)v 
dfjivrjcrria TWV a'xpricnwv /cal Trovrjpwv, fjL^re 

eTraivw TrdpoBov virep avrwv rov 

aTWl^O? 6t? TO GV/jLTTOCriOV BlBoVTOS. 

XXVI. "Etr^aTO^ Be rcov TroXirevjudrcw avrov 



373 



MARCUS CATO, xxiv. 7-xxvi. i 

upon his reputation, turn his back upon the people 
and make leisure his end and aim for the rest 
of his life ; but rather, as someone persuaded 
Dionysius to regard his sovereignty as his fairest 
winding-sheet, so he held public service to be the 
fairest privilege of old age. For recreation and 
amusement, when he had leisure therefor, he resorted 
to the writing of books and to farming. 

XXV. He composed speeches, then, on all sorts 
of subjects, and histories, and as for farming, he 
followed it in earnest when he was young and 
poor, indeed, he says he then had only two ways 
of getting money, farming and frugality, but in 
later life he was only a theoretical and fancy farmer. 
He also composed a book on farming, 1 in which 
he actually gave recipes for making cakes and 
preserving fruit, so ambitious was he to be superior 
and peculiar in everything. The dinners, too, which 
he gave in the country, were quite plentiful. He 
always asked in congenial country neighbours, and 
made merry with them, and not only did those 
of his own age find in him an agreeable and much 
desired companion, but also the young. For he was 
a man of large experience, who had read and heard 
much that was well worth repeating. He held 
the table to be the very best promoter of friendship, 
and at his own, the conversation turned much 
to the praise of honourable and worthy citizens, 
greatly to the neglect of those who were worthless 
and base. About such Cato suffered no table-talk, 
either by way of praise or blame. 

XXVI. The last of his public services is supposed 

1 De re rustica. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
rrjv Kap^rjSoi/o? avdaTacriv otovrat yeyovevai, rG> 



ev epyw re\o9 emOevTos TOV veov ^LKTJTTLMVOS, 352 
ov\fj Be Kai <yi>ot){Ar) ad\i(TTa rfj Kar&wo? dpa- 
rov 7r6\fj,ov e' alria^ TOiaa&e. Kar&>z/ 

TTPO? KaoSowou? KOL 
TOV 



ra? r?}? Sia^o/oa? Trpo^dae^. 6 /AGV jap 
TOV Stjjuov ^>tXo? a?r' ap^r)?, ol 8' eyy6vi<Tav ev- 



fjLerd rr)v VTTO iLKyTriwvos rjrrav, d(f>ai- 
pecrei re rfy dp%ri$ KOI jSapet Sacr/AW ^prujLaTwv 
2 Ko\ov6evTs. evpwv Se rrjv 7r6\iv ov%, &>? (povro 
'Pco/j,aiot, KtcaK(t)/jivr]V real raTreiva Trpdrrovcrav, 
d\\a TroXX^ fiev evav$pov(rav r) 
Se TT\OVTWV ye/uoucrav, QTT\WV Be 



/ecu 7rapacrKvr)s Tro/jucmjpiov /jLe&rrjv /cal 



ou&ev eVt rourot? <j>povovcrav, ov ra 
(Zero Kai yiaacravdcrcrov Trpdy/jLara ' 
&pav e^eiv TiOeaBai Kai Siairav, a\\' el 
KaTa\ifaovTai TToXtv avtoOev e^Opav Kai ftapv- 
6vjjiov r)vt;ri/jLevt]V aTrtVra)?, 7rd\Lv eV TO?? tVot? 
3 KIV&VVOIS ecrecrOat. ra^ew? ovv uTrocrr/oe^o? eSi- 
Saa-Ke TYfV /3ov\i]V, to? at Trporepov fjrrai real 
o"v/ji(f)Opal ^ap^]^>oviwv ov TOCTOVTOV T?;? Su^ayLtea)? 
oaov rr)? avoia<; aTrapvcracrai, Kiv&vvevovcnv 
OVK dcr0ve<TT6pov<?, efjLTreiporepovs & 
direpydaaaOaL, ij^rj Be KOL Trpoava- 
Kivel(jOai rot? NoyuaSt/coi? rovs TT/OO? 'Pw/xatou? 
, elpijvrjv Be Kai (nrovBds ovo/jia TOV 



380 



MARCUS CATO, xxvi. 1-3 

to have been the destruction of Carthage. It was 
Scipio the Younger who actually brought the task to 
completion, 1 but it was largely in consequence of 
the advice and counsel of Cato that the Romans 
undertook the war. It was on this wise. Cato was 
sent 2 on an embassy to the Carthaginians and 
Masinissa the Numidian, who were at war with one 
another, to inquire into the grounds of their quarrel. 
Masinissa had been a friend of the Roman people 
from the first, and the Carthaginians had entered into 
treaty relations witli Rome after the defeat which 
the elder Scipio had given them. The treaty de- 
prived them of their empire, and imposed a grievous 
money tribute upon them. Cato, however, found the 
city by no means in a poor and lowly state, as the 
Romans supposed, but rather teeming with vigorous 
fighting men, overflowing with enormous wealth, filled 
with arms of every sort and with military supplies, 
and not a little puffed up by all this. He therefore 
thought it no time for the Romans to be ordering 
and arranging the affairs of Masinissa and the 
Numidians, but that unless they should repress a city 
which had always been their malignant foe, now that 
its power was so incredibly grown, they would be in- 
volved again in dangers as great as before. Accord- 
ingly, he returned with speed to Rome, and advised 
the Senate that the former calamitous defeats of the 
Carthaginians had diminished not so much their 
power as their foolhardiness, and were likely to 
render them in the end not weaker, but more 
expert in war ; their present contest with Numidia 
was but a prelude to a contest with Rome, while 
peace and treaty were mere names wherewith to 

* 140 B.C. z 150 B.O. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7ro\eaov rfj /jL\\ij<rei Ketcrdai, tcatpov 
vovro?. 

XXVII. n/oo? TOUTOJ? (fiacrl rbv KoVwz'a KOI 
GVKCL rwv AifivKwv eVtTT/Se? K/3a\cv v rfj 
J3ov\f], rrjv rr'iftevvov dva/3a\6jjievov elra Qavua- 
Gavratv TO fieyeOo? Kal TO /taXXo? etVe/, &>9 
77 ravra fyepovua %wpa rpiwv rjfjiepwv TT\OVV 
aTTe^et Tr}9 'Pto^?. eKelvo 8* ^77 #a! ftiaiorepov, 
TO 7re/9t iravros ov B^TTOTC Trpdy/jLaros <yv(*)/utriv 
fyatvofjievov Trpoa-eTufywveiv OUTW?* " Ao/ce? Se 
Aral K.ap^rjB6va ^JLTJ elvat," TOVVCLVTIOV 8e 
V 6 NacTt/ca? 7ri/ca\ov/j,evo<; 
ael SteTeXet \eycov /cal aTro^aivojuevos' " Ao/fet 

2 yLtoi Ka/o^Soi^a elvai" iro\\a yap, co? eoucev, 
vftpei TOV ^TIIJLOV opwv 77877 7r\rj/jL/j,\ovvra /cal 
Si' VTV%ia,v Kal (ppovrj/ma rfj ftov\Tj Bva/cdOeKTOV 
ovra Kal rrjv Tro\t,v okrjv VTTO Svvd/j,ea)$ OTTT; 
pe^reie Tat? appals (Biq crvve^eXKo/Aevov, e(3ov\ero 
TOVTOV yovv rbv (j)6j3ov wcnrep l )(a\.ivbv eTriKelcrOai 

rfj dpao-vrrjn rwv rro\\wv, e\arrov 
Icr^yeiv Kap%r]>ovlov<; rov 
/JLCL^OV B rov Kar 

3 TO) Se KaTwi^i TOUT' auTO Seivbv 

ry B^/JLCO Kal (T(f)a\\o/jLeva) ra Tro\\a 



ael uerv, vvv 



vtj<f>ovcrav VTTO <rv/n(f)opa)v Kal 
eTTiKpe/JLacrdat, Kal fj,rj iravrdrcao'i TOU? 
dveKelv T?}? rjyeuovias (f)6{3ov$, dva(f)Opa<; avrois 
7T/3O9 Ta? OiKodev duaprias drroKiTrovras. 
4 Ovrco /iiev e%epydcraa6ai \eyerai rov rplrov 
l re\evralov 6 Kdrcov eVl KaSoviovs TroXe- 



382 



MARCUS CATO, xxvi. 3-xxvn. 4 

cover their postponement of war till a fit occasion 
offered. 

XXVII. In addition to this, it is said that Cato 
contrived to drop a Libyan fig in the Senate, as he 
shook out the folds of his toga, and then, as the 
senators admired its size and beauty, said that the 
country where it grew was only three days' sail 
from Rome. And in one thing he was even more 
savage, namely, in adding to his vote on any question 
whatsoever these words : " In my opinion, Carthage 
must be destroyed." Publius Scipio Nasica, on the 
contrary, when called upon for his vote, always 
ended his speech with this declaration : " In my 
opinion, Cartilage must be spared." He saw, pro- 
bably, that the Roman people, in its wantonness, was 
already guilty of many excesses, and in the pride of 
its prosperity, spurned the control of the Senate, 
and forcibly dragged the whole state with it, 
whithersoever its mad desires inclined it. He 
wished, therefore, that the fear of Carthage should 
abide, to curb the boldness of the multitude like 
a bridle, believing her not strong enough to conquer 
Rome, nor yet weak enough to be despised. But 
this was precisely what Cato dreaded, when the 
Roman people was inebriated and staggering with 
its power, to have a city which had always been 
great, and was now but sobered and chastened by 
its calamities, for ever threatening them. Such 
external threats to their sovereignty ought to be done 
away with altogether, he thought, that they might 
be free to devise a cure for their domestic failings. 

In this way Cato is said to have brought to pass 
the third and last war against Carthage, 1 but it had 

1 151-146 B.C. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

B 7rd\e/jL6Li> ereXevrrjcrev, airo- 
ire p rov /zeXXo;>To? e7 
reXo? ayS/oo?, 09 rjv rore JJLCV 

Se o-rparevo/Jievos arre^eiKwro KOI 
epya /ecu roX/z?;? TT/)O? TOU? aywva?. 
a7ra i y i ye\\.O[jievo)v Se TOVTWV et? 'Pwfjirjv nrvvOavo- 
TOP Kdrtovd (acriv el'JTetv 



olo? Triirvvraiy rol 8e <TKLOI atcrcrova't. 

5 ravrrjv fj.ev ovv rr)V airofyaaiv ra^v Si* epycov 
o ^.KrTriwv o 5e KaT&>z> 



yeveav eva /j,ev viov etc TT}? 7riyafj,i)0ei(Tr)<;, a> 

eva e 



viwvov K rov re\evrrjcravTO^ vlov. KOI 
[lev er\vrrj(7 GTparrjywv, 6 S' e^ avrou yevo- 
fj,vo<$ Ma/3/co? virdrevcrev. r)v Se TraTTTro? ouro? 
TOU (f)L\oo'6(j)ov Kara)^09, az^Spo? apery real Bo^rj 



ro)v KCLT CLVTOV 



[APKETEIAOY KAI KATQNO2 



I. Teypa/jL/^evwv Be KOI irepl TOVTWV T&V a^iwv 353 
, 0X0? 6 TOVTOV /?t'o? oXw TW darepov 
is OVK evOewprjrov e^eu rrjv oiacfropav 



et 8e Set /cara fAepos TTJ try^Kpiirei 
wcnrep eVo? >} ypafyrjv eKarepov, TO /J,ev ef; ov 

et? Tro\iTeiav KOL 



3*4 



MARCUS CATO, xxvn. 4-5 

no sooner begun than he died, 1 having first prophesied 
of the man who was destined to end it. This man 
was then young, but as tribune in the army, he was 
giving proofs of judgment and daring in his engage- 
ments with the enemy. Tidings of this came to 
Rome, and Cato is said to have cried on hearing 
them : 

" Only he has wits, but the rest are fluttering 
shadows." 2 

This utterance of Cato's, Scipio speedily confirmed 
by his deeds. Cato left one son by his second wife, 
whose surname, as we have already remarked, was 
Salonius ; and one grandson by the son who died 
before him. Salonius died in the praetorship, but the 
son whom he left, Marcus, came to be consul. This 
Marcus was the grandfather of Cato the philosopher, 
who was the best and most illustrious man of his 
time. 



COMPARISON OF ARISTIDES WITH 
MARCUS CATO 

Now that I have recorded the most noteworthy 
things in the careers of these men also, if one compare 
the entire life of the one with that of the other, it 
will not be easy to mark the difference between them, 
obscured as it is by many great resemblances. And 
even if, in our comparison, we analyse each life, as 
we would a poem or a picture, we shall find that 
the rise to political power and repute in consequence 

1 149 B.C. * Odyssey, x. 495. 

385 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
aperfj ical SvvdfjLei rrpoe\6elv d,<>oTeoi<$ tcoivov 



2 eari. <j)aiveTai 8* 6 /j,ev 'ApHTTeiSr)? OVTTW Tore 
fieyd\wv ovcrwv TWV A0rjv&v teal rat? overlain 
en <TVjj,/uieTpois /cal oyaaXot? 7ri/3a\(bv Brjfiayco- 
KOI err parr}y ois erfL^)avr]<i yevecrOai,' TO yap 



rjv Tifjuj/jia Tore irevraKQaiwv 
TO Be Sevrepov TpiaKOcrtutv, ecryaTov Be KOI TpiTov 

3 $LaKooria)v 6 8e Karco^ e/c TroXt^^? re /jLifcpas teal 
5iUT7;9 dypoi/cov SoKovarjs (pepcoi' dcfrrjtcev eavrov 
cbcnrep et9 7re\ayo<i d^aves TTJV ev'Pw/JLy iro\LreLav, 
ovfceTL Kovpiwv teal QaftpiKLWv teal y A.Ti\iwv 
cpyov ovo~av rjye/jLovcov, ovS* CLTC dporpov real 
<TKa<f)e[ov TrevriTds teal avTOvpyov? dva 

eVl TO fifjfAa Trpocne/Jiiv^v apyjovras teal 
yovs, d\\d 7T/309 76^7; fjieyd\a teal TT\OVTOV<S teal 
i/oyua? teal <T7rov$apyjias a7ro/3Xe < 7rei> eldicrjjLei'rjv, 
teal BS oyteov ij&r] ical Bvva/miv evrpvfy&crav rot? 

4 apyjeLv d^toucriv. OVK r>v 8 O/AOIOV 



airo 



^ 

teal Keteni/Aevy /xeTpia (rrevTe yap rj Tpiwv ra\dv- 
TWV ovaiav avTW yeveaOai \,eyov(nv ore 



teal 



vs teal ^epovlovs FaX/^a? teal Ko'ivriovs 

dfJLL\\a(j9ai irepl 

6p/jir}Tijpiov eyjovra rr\r)V <$>a)Vip> Trappier ia 
vTrep TWV StKaitov. 

II. "ETA S' 'Apicrreio'rjs fiev ev M.apa6cavt fcal 
ev 



, o'evTepos Be TL/JL^T^ ercTa 



feal 



inrep(Ba\QiJLvo<$. teal fjirjv 'AptcrTeiSiis fiev ev 
386 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, i. i-n. i 

of innate excellence and strength, rather than of 
inherited advantages, is common to both. But in 
the case of Aristides, Athens was not yet great when 
he rose to eminence, and the leaders and generals 
with whom he dealt were men of moderate and 
uniform fortunes. The highest assessment of pro- 
perty in those days was five hundred bushels of grain, 
the second three hundred, the third and last two 
hundred. Whereas Cato, coming from a little town 
and from ways of life deemed rustic, plunged headlong 
into the boundless sea of Roman politics when they 
were no longer conducted by such men as Curius, 
Fabricius, and Atilius, nor welcomed as magis- 
trates and leaders poor men who had mounted the 
rostrum after working with their own hands at the 
plough and the mattock, but were wont to have 
regard rather for great families and their wealth, 
largesses, and solicitations, while those who sought 
office, such was now the power and arrogance of the 
people, were wantonly handled. It was not the 
same thing: to have Themistocles for a rival, who was 

o * 

of no illustrious family and had only moderate 
possessions (he is said to have been worth three, or, 
at most, five talents when he entered public life), as 
it was to compete for pre-eminence with such men 
as Scipio Africanus, Servius Galba, and Quintius 
Flamininus, having no other advantage than a tongue 
which spoke boldly for the right. 

II. Besides, at Marathon, and again at Plataea, 
Aristides was only one of ten generals, while Cato 
was elected one of two consuls out of many com- 
petitors, and one of two censors over the heads of 
seven of the foremost and most illustrious Romans, 
who stood for the office with him. Furthermore, 

387 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovBevi TWV KaTop0a)udTO)v 76701/6 TT/OWTO?, aXXa 

e^ei TOV Ma/oa^c5i^o? TO 
?}9 Be rfjs ^LaXa/u^o?, eV Se 



2 Tlavaaviav, 'ApicrTeiBrj Be teal TWV Bevrepeicov 
^ijr ovat, ^axpdvai Kal 'A/xetz/tat ^at KaXX,t- 
teal Kvvaiyeipoi, BiaTrpeTrws dpiGTeva-avres 
ev eKeivoiS rot? djwcrr Kara)^ 8' ov povov auro? 



VTrarevwv errpwTevcre KOI %eipl /cat yvw/j,?] Kara 
TOV 'IftrjpiKov TToXefjiOv, d\\a /cal 



Trepl e/Jyu-oTTia? virarevovros erepov rrjv 

eV 



a/'avreracra? tcKTias tea TrpoGO) fiovov opwvrt, 
W ftacri\el TrepLarrjaas Kara VMTOV rbv 7ro\efJLOV. 
yap rj VIKJ] TrepLtyavws epyov ovcra 
TT}? 'EXXa^o? T?;^ 'Acrtaz/ /cat 



ovv rjTTrjTOi, jeyovacTiv 



, irepl Be rrjv iroXireiav ' 
e^ocrTpaKLcrOels Kal 
VTTO /jii,o"roK\eov<$, Kara)!/ B\ o'iirep r)<rav ev 
r Pa)/jLr) BwaTwraroi Kal aeyicrroi, TTCLGIV, &)? evro? 
elirelv, dvrnrdkois %pu>fjLevos Kal i^e^pi yrjpoos 
wcnrep d6\r)TTjs dywvi^o^evo^ aTrrcora BieTrjprjcrev 
4 kavTov. TrXetcrra? Be Kal fyvyioi' Br)fj,oaias BiKas 
Kal Sjco^a? TroXXa? aev etXe, Trdaa^ S' aTre^vye, 
7rpof3\rifJLa TOV fiiov Kal Bpacrrrjpiov opyavov 
e*X, wv rov ^-oyov, w BiKatorepov av Ti? v) Tv^rj 
Kal Baiuovi TOU dvBpos TO prjBev TraOelv Trap' 
d^iav dvaTiOeir). peya yap Kal 'A^icrroTeXet TO) 354 

388 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, n. 1-4 

Aristides was not the foremost man in any one of 
his victories, but Miltiades has the chief honour of 
Marathon, Themistocles of Salamis, and at Plataea, 
Herodotus l says it was Pausanias who won that 
fairest of all victories, while even for second honours 
Aristides has such rivals as Sophanes, Ameinias, 
Callimachus, and Cynaegeirus, who displayed the 
greatest valour in those actions. Cato, on the other 
hand, was not only chief in the plans and actions of 
the Spanish war during his own consulate, but also 
at Thermopylae, when he was but a tribune in the 
army and another was consul, he got the glory of 
the victory, opening up great mountain passes for the 
Romans to rush through upon Antiochus, and 
swinging the war round into the king's rear, when 
he had eyes only for what was in front of him. 
That victory was manifestly the work of Cato, and 
it not only drove Asia out of Hellas, but made it 
afterwards accessible to Scipio. 

It is true that both were always victorious in war, 
but in politics Aristides got a fall, being driven into 
a minority and ostracised by Themistocles. Cato, on 
the contrary, though he had for his antagonists 
almost all the greatest and ablest men in Rome, and 
though he kept on wrestling with them up to his 
old age, never lost his footing. He was involved in 
countless civil processes, both as plaintiff and 
defendant ; as plaintiff, he often won his case, as 
defendant, he never lost it, thanks to that bulwark 
and efficacious weapon of his life, his eloquence. To 
this, more justly than to fortune and the guardian 
genius of the man, we may ascribe the fact that he 
was never visited with disgrace. That was a great 

ix. 64. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOVTO Trpoa-efjLapTvprja-ev 
ypdfywv Trepi avToi) ficra rrjv TeXevnjv, on TT/OO? 
ro?9 aXX0i9 o dvrjp KOI TO iriOavov el^v. 

III. "On fjiev Brj T% TroXiTiKrjs avOpwiros apeTrjs 
ov KTOiTai TeX-Giorepav, ofjLO\oyov^evov ecm' rav- 

T?7? 6 TTOf /JLOptOV Oi TT/XetO-TOt T^ OlKOVO/JLlKrjV OV 

fjiiicpov TlOevrai' teal yap rj TroXt? OIKWV TL 
KOL K<f)d\aiov ovcra pwvvvTai TT/JO? ra 
rot? t'St'ot? /Stoi? TWI/ TTO\LTWV evOevovv- 
, OTTOV teal A.vfcovp<yos e%oucicra<s /JLCV apyvpov, 
KLcras Be xpwbv r-^9 2?ra/)T^9, i/oyu-tcryLta Se 
Bi(j>6ap/jLevov irvpl aiSijpov 0e/Avos awrot? ol/covo- 
yu.ta? ou d7r?;XXae TOU? 7roX,tra?, a\X,a ra T/9i>- 
(frwvra KOI V7rov\a /cat (j)\y/jia[,vovTa TOV TT\OVTOV 
7repie\(t)v, OTTO)? V7ropijo~(t)(ri, TWV avayicaitov KOI 



Trpovvorjcre, TOV aTropov real dvecmov KCU 



GvvoiKOv eVl KOii'covia TroiXireia? IACL\\OV TOV ir\ov- 
3 O~LOV KOL VTrepoyKov ^>o^r)6ei^. fyaiveTau TOIVVV o 

/JLV K.O.TCOV OVOV Ti 0auA.OT/309 OIKOV 7TpOCTTaT^9 

KCLI yap avTO9 rjv^rjae TOV 



avTOV ftLov Kal 



KOI yewpyias ere/oo9, TroXXa Kal %pijcri,/j,a 
TOVT(ov (7VVTadjLvof ' AicTTeiSrs Be TT irevia 



<rvvBie/3a\V (09 olrco(f)06pov 

l ITT W^OTT 01,0V Kal TTacri /JidX\OV rj TOt9 KKTfj- 

4 fjuevots (txfreXifjLOV. KaiToi TroXXa /j,ev ' 



390 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, 11. 4-111. 4 

tribute which was paid Aristotle the philosopher by 
Antipater, when he wrote concerning him, after his 
death, that in addition to all his other gifts, the man 
had also the gift of persuasion. 

III. Man has no higher capacity than that for 
conducting cities and states, as is generally ad- 
mitted. But the ability to conduct a household 
enters in no small degree into this higher political 
capacity, as most believe. For the city is but an or- 
ganised sum total of households, and has public 
vigour only as its citizens prosper in their private 
lives. When Lycurgus banished both silver and 
gold from Sparta, and introduced there a coinage of 
iron that had been ruined by fire, he did not set his 
fellow citizens free from the duty of domestic 
economy. He merely removed the swollen and 
feverish wantonness of wealth, and so provided that 
all alike might have an abundance of the necessary 
and useful things of life. He did this because, 
better than any other ancient legislator, he fore- 
saw that the helpless, homeless, and poverty-stricken 
citizen was a greater menace to the commonwealth 
than one who was rich and ostentatious. Cato, 
then, was no whit less efficient in the conduct of 
his household than in that of the city. He not only 
increased his own substance, but became a recog- 
nized teacher of domestic economy and agriculture 
for others, and compiled many useful precepts 
on these subjects. Aristides, on the other hand, was 
so poor as to bring even his righteousness into 
disrepute, as ruining a household, reducing a man to 
beggary, and profiting everybody rather than its 
possessor. And yet Hesiod l has much to say by 

1 Works and Days, 309. 

391 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



KOI oltcovofjiiav 
tprjK KOI rrjv dpylav ft>9 
XeXotSo pt]Kev, ev Se KOL 'O/xr/peo 



epyov Se pot ov <j)i\ov 
77 re Tpecfrei ay\aa T 
a\\d fjLOL alel vfjes eirripeTfioi <f)i\ai fjaav 

KOI TToXeyLtOt KOL CtKO vrre <: V^CTTOl KOi Ol(TToL* 

a/jbe\ovvTa<? ot/ct'a? /col 7ropio/Jiv- 
5 ou? e^ ttSt/aa?. ov 7/>, co? rov\aiov 01 larpoi 



rov (TcojLaros elvai rot? 



rarov, rot? 8' eVro? /3\a/3pcoTaTOV, ovTftx; 6 
erepoL<; /j,ev ecrri %p?;cr^o?, avrov Be KOI 
i&iayv a/^T/Sr;?, aXX* eoi/ce ravrp 
TO> 'Apicrreibr) TO TroXirifcov, eiTrep, &>? oi 
\eyovcriv, ovBe Trpolfca rot? Ovyarplots ov&e 
6 TCHprjv avTW Kard\.i r rrea'OaL Trpovvorjaev. o6ev o 
Karw^o? 04^09 a^/ot yevovs rerdprov crrparr)- 



7019 /cat VTTCLTOVS rfj coyLt?; irapel^e' /ecu yap 

KOI TOVTO)V " 



T^9 8' 'Apto - Tet8ou roO 
yeveas rj TroXAr) /cat a7TO/)o? TT evict rou9 
,ez> 6/9 dyvprifcovs rare/5aXe Triva/cas, 701)9 8e 877- 
fjioaiw r<29 ^6t/oa9 epdvo) Bi evSeiav vTre^etv rjvdy- 
tcacrev, ovSevl be \a/j,7rpbv ovBev ov& a^uov eiceivov 
TOV a^S/309 <ppovf)(rai TTapecr^ev. 

IV. '"H rovro Trpwrov d^L\oyiav %6i; irevia 
yap alcr^pov ov&afAOV JJLGV $i avTrjV, aXX OTTOI; 

d/cpacrias, 



392 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, HI. 4-iv. i 

way of exhorting us to righteousness allied with 
domestic economy, and abuses idleness as a source of 
injustice ; Homer also says well : 

" Labour I never liked, 

Nor household thrift, which breeds good children. 
But ships equipped with oars were ever my delight, 
Battles and polished javelins and arrows," l 

implying that the men who neglect their households 
are the very ones to live by injustice. Oil, as 
physicians tell us, is very beneficial when externally 
applied, though very injurious when used internally. 
But the righteous is not so. He is not helpful 
to others, while heedless of himself and his family. 
Indeed, the poverty of Aristides would seem to have 
been a blemish on his political career, if, as most 
writers state, he had not foresight enough to leave 
his poor daughters a marriage portion, 2 or even the 
cost of his own burial. And so it fell out that 
the family of Cato furnished Rome with praetors and 
consuls down to the fourth generation, for his grand- 
sons, and their sons after them, filled the highest 
offices of state. Whereas, though Aristides was 
foremost of the Greeks, the abject poverty of his 
descendants forced some to ply a fortune-teller's 
trade, 3 and others, for very want, to solicit the public 
bounty, while it robbed them all of every ambition 
to excel, or even to be worthy of their great 
ancestor. 

IV. Possibly this point invites discussion. Poverty 
is never dishonourable in itself, but only when it 
is a mark of sloth, intemperance, extravagance, or 

1 Odyxsey, xiv. 222 ff., Palmer's translation. 

2 Aristides, xxvii. 1. * Aristides, xxvii. 3. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

, dvSpl Se craxfrpovi fcal </uXo7roi>&> /cal 
Si/cairn real dvbpeiw /cal SijfJiocrivovTt, rat? aperai? 
airdcrais avvovaa ueaXo'ruta? ecrrl /cal 



ov yap e&Ti TcpaTTeiv fieydXa 
ILi/cpwv, ov&e 7ToXXot9 oeo/jievois 
TroXXwy avTov Beopevov. fieya & et9 
Tro\iTeiav etyoo'iov ov^l TrXovTos, aXX avTapiceia, 

Tto LLTlSeVOS ISia TWV TfGQiTTWV SelffOai 7TO09 OV- 

1 I I I 

da^o\iav dyovaa TWV Sij/jLOcricov. 

ydp a7rXw9 o #eo9, dvd pcoirii'rjs 8' d t 
o5 <rvvdyTai Trpb? TO e\,d%io~TOv rj %peta, TOVTO 

OeioTaTov. a>9 yap crw^a TO 355 
7T/9O? eve^iav /ce/cpa/jievov our' o~0fjros OVTG 



ourco /cal 



vyiaivwv CLTTO TWV TU^OVTWV Btoi/ceirai. Bel 8^ 
T ?7 XP ^ a GVfJLfJLeTpov e^eiv rrjv fcrrjaiv &>9 o 76 
TroXXa crvvdywv, 0X^70^9 8e ^pa>yuei/o9 ou/c eartv 
avTapicris, aXX' etre yu,^ Semw, r>}9 Trapacr/cevfjs a)v 
ov/c opeyerat, fidraios, etr* opeyerai, fju/cpo\oyia 
KO\OVWV T^V djroXavcriv a0\io<t. 

AVTOV ye TOI KaTft)z^o9 ^0)9 ai^ 7rv0oi/ji/r]v' 

4 et yLtei* a,7roXau<rTov o 7rXouro9 eVrt, rt (re^vvvrj TO> 

TroXXa KKT7]/jievos dpKtiorOai, peTpiOLs; el Be 

\ajjL7rp6v ecrTiv, wcrirep eaTiv, dpTw re 



TO) irpocrTv^ovTi /cal Trlveiv olov epyaTai TTL- 
/cal OepaTTOVTes olvov /cal "jrop^vpas 
ol/cia? KeKovLaevr^, ovBe 



ovev ovr 



oi/re rai'o9 afuos eveiirov TOV 



394 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, iv. 1-4 

thoughtlessness. When, on the other hand, it is the 
handmaid of a sober, industrious, righteous, and 
brave man, who devotes all his powers to the service 
of the people, it is the sign of a lofty spirit that 
harbours no mean thoughts. It is impossible for a 
man to do great things when his thoughts are busy 
with little things ; nor can he aid the many who are 
in need when he himself is in need of many things. 
A great equipment for public service consists, not 
in wealth, but in contented independence, which 
requires 110 private superfluities, and so puts no 
hindrance in the way of serving the commonwealth. 
God alone is absolutely free from wants ; but that is 
the most perfect and god-like quality in human 
excellence which reduces man's wants to their 
lowest terms. For as a body which is well tempered 
and vigorous needs no superfluous food or raiment, 
so a healthy individual or family life can be con- 
ducted with the simplest outlays. A man should 
make his gains tally with his needs. He who heaps 
up much substance and uses little of it, is not con- 
tented and independent. If he does not need it, he 
is a fool for providing what he does not crave ; and 
if he craves it, he makes himself wretched by parsi- 
moniously curtailing his enjoyment of it. 

Indeed, I would fain ask Cato himself this 
question : (< If wealth is a thing to be enjoyed, why 
do you plume yourself on being satisfied with little 
when possessed of much ? " But if it be a fine 
thing, as indeed it is, to eat ordinary bread, and to 
drink such wine as labourers and servants drink, and 
not to want purple robes nor even plastered houses, 
then Aristides and Epaminondas and Manius Curius 
and Gaius Fabricius were perfectly right in turning 

395 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yaipeiv edcrapres rrjv Krr\criv wv rijv 
5 xptitfiv cme^OKL^a^ov. ov jap YJV dvay/calav dv- 



6pa)TT(0 yoyyv\i,$a<> rf^tcrrov o-ty-ov TreTroirj/jLevy teal 



avrov ravras e^rovTL, /jiarrovcnjs d/xa TT? 
a\(j)ira, rocravra irepl aaaapiov 6pv\elv 
real ypdcfreiv d<f> 175 dv Tt9 cpyaaias rd^iaTa 
7T\ovcrio<i yevono. fieya yap TO eureXe? /cal 
avrap/ces, ort r?}? eVt^y/xtct? d/jia /cal rfjs (>pov- 

6 rt'So? aTraXXarret roov TrepiTTwv. &io /cal rovro 
fyaaiv ev rfj KaXXtou Sitcy rov 'AptcrTet^^i/ elirelv, 
a>9 ala"\yveaOai Treviav Trpoa-rfrcei, rot? dfcovcriajs 
Trevofjievois, rot? 8', wcTTrep auro?, e/tofcrt&)?, ey/ca\- 
XtoTTi^ecrOat,. ye\oiov <ydp o'ieaQai paOvjjiias elvai 
rrjv 'Apio-reiBou Treviav, w irap^v aicr^pov elpya- 
(T/jLeva) /jLtjBev, aXX* eva (TKV\evcravTi j3ap/3apov r) 
fiiav oK'tjvrjv Kara\a/36vTi TrXoucrtw <yevicrOai. 
ravra jnv ovv irepl TOVTMV. 

V. ^rparrjyiaL Se at /JLCV Kdravos ovSev a>? 
/jieydXois irpdyfiaa-i fieya 7rpo<T0rjtcav, ev Be rat? 
'ApicrTeiSov rd AcaXXicrra /cal \ajjL7rporara /cal 
Trpwra rwv 'EXXsi/viKoov epywv eariv, o Mapadcav, 
rj ^aXayut?, al OXaratat. /cal ov/c a%iov S/JTTOV 
7rapa/3a\eiv T&> Sep^ rov 'AVTLO%OV /cal rd 
TrepiaipeOevra rwv ']/3r)pt,Kwv TroXewv rei^rj rat? 
rocravrais pv ev yfj, roaavrais 8' ev Oa\dcrarrj 

2 rreaovaais fivpidcriv ev ol? 'AptcrTelSijs epyw 
/lev ouSe^o? eXetVero, So^?/? Se /cal crrefydvwv, 
axTTrep dfjieXei TT\OVTOV /cal ^prj/^drwv, v$ij/caro 
rot? fj.a\\ov &eo/j.ei>o(,$, on /cal Trdvrwv rovrcov 



396 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, iv. 4 -v. 2 

their backs on the gaining of what they scorned to 
use. Surely it was not worth while for a man who, 
like Cato, esteemed turnips a delectable dish and 
cooked them himself, while his wife was kneading 
bread, to babble so much about a paltry copper, and 
write on the occupation in which one might soonest 
get rich. Great is the simple life, and great its 
independence, but only because it frees a man from 
the anxious desire of superfluous things. Hence it 
was that Aristides, as we are told, remarked at the 
trial of Callias l that only those who were poor in 
spite of themselves should be ashamed of their 
poverty ; those who, like himself, chose poverty, 
should glory in it. And surely it were ridiculous to 
suppose that the poverty of Aristides was due to 
his sloth, when, without doing anything disgraceful, 
but merely by stripping a single Barbarian, or seizing 
a single tent, he might have made himself rich. So 
much on this head. 

V. The military campaigns of Cato made no great 
addition to the Roman empire, which was great 
already ; but those of Aristides include the fairest, 
most brilliant, and most important actions of the 
Greeks, namely, Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea. 
And certainly Antiochus is not worthy to be com- 
pared with Xerxes, nor the demolition of the walls 
of the Spanish cities with the destruction of so many 
myriads of Barbarians both by land and sea. On 
these occasions Aristides was inferior to no one in 
actual service, but he left the glory and the laurels, 
as he did wealth and substance, to those who wanted 
them more, because he was superior to all these 
things also. 

1 Aristides, xxv. 5. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'70) B* ov pe /Ji<f)0 pat, /nev Karwi/o? TO fieya\v- 
veiv del Kal rrpa)rov eavrbv drrdvrwv riOecrOar 
Kairoi (f>rfo-lv ev nvi Xoy&) TO erratvelv avrov 
warrep TO XoiBopeiv drorrov elvai' TeXetorepo? 
Be fiat Sofcei Trpo? dperrjv rov 7ro\\d/ci<; eawrov 
eyKWfJLid^ovro^ 6 yttT/8' erepcov TOVTO TTOIOVVTWV 
3 Seo/jLevo?. TO yap d^iXorLp-ov ov fjLiicpov et? 

e<f)6&iov, KCU Tovvavriov 



/cal 



975 6 /AW a7rij\\aKTO iravrd-rracriv, 6 Be /cal 
Trdvv TToXX?}? /jLerefyev. 'ApicrTeiBr)? ^ev ye 



ra /jLeyicrra crv/jLTrpdrrtw /cal rpoTrov 



Tiva Trjv (TrparriyLav avrou Bopvfopwv 
4 Ta? 'A^^ya?, Karaji; S' dvTnrpdrTwv 

(Jiev dverpe^re Kal BieXvp/jvaro rrjv eVl 
vs avrov crrparrjyiav, ev rj rov drjr- 
rtjrov 'Avvifiav KaOelXe, TeXo? Be ^^avwfJLevo^ 
del nvas vrro"fy*ias Kal Bt,aj3o\ds avrov fj,ev 

? TroXeco?, TOJ^ 5* dBe\(j)bv 
raBifcr) rrepieftdXev. 
VI. <N Hi> rolvvv TrXetcrroi? o Kara>i/ 
/cal AraXXtcrTOf? erraivois del o-wfypoavv^v 'Api- 
ffreiBrjs fj,ev aOiKrov a>? d\r)6a><; Kal Kadapav 
enjpij&ev, avrov Be rov KaTwi'o? o Trap* d^iav 
a/Jia Kal reap &pav yd/j,o<; ov fiiKpav ovSe cfiavXrjv 
els rovro Sia/3oX^ KarecrKeBacre. 7rpea/3vrr)v 356 
ydp rjSrj rocrovrov evrj\ a tcm rratBl Kal yvvaixl 
vvfji^r) rraiBbs emy^fjLaL Koprjv vmjperov Kal 
Brj/jt,oo~ievovro<i errl jjuaOu) rcarpos ov$ajj,ov 

398 



ARISTIDES AND CATO, v. 2 -vi. i 

For my own part, I do not blame Cato for his 
constant boasting, and for rating himself above 
everybody else, although he does say, in one of his 
speeches, that self-praise and self-depreciation are 
alike absurd. But I regard the man who is often 
lauding himself as less complete in excellence than 
one who does not even want others to do so. Freedom 
from ambition is no slight requisite for the gentleness 
which should mark a statesman ; and, on the con- 
trary, ambition is harsh, and the greatest fomenter 
of envy. From this spirit Aristides was wholly free, 
whereas Cato was very full of it. For example, 
Aristides co-operated with Themistocles in his 
greatest achievements, and as one might say, stood 
guard over him while he was in command, and 
thereby saved Athens ; while Cato, by his opposition 
to Scipio, almost vitiated and ruined that wonderful 
campaign of his against the Carthaginians, in which 
he overthrew the invincible Hannibal, 1 and finally, 
by perpetually inventing all sorts of suspicions and 
calumnies against him drove him out of Rome, and 
brought down on his brother's head a most shameful 
condemnation for embezzlement. 

VI. Once more, that temperance which Cato 
always decked out with the fairest praises, Aristides 
maintained and practised in unsullied purity ; 
whereas Cato, by marrying unworthily and un- 
seasonably, fell under no slight or insignificant 
censure in this regard. It was surely quite indecent 
that a man of his years should bring home as step- 
mother to his grown-up son and that son's bride, a 
girl whose father was his assistant and served the 
public for hire. Whether he did this merely for 

1 At Zama, 202 B.C. 

399 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



a\\ enre TT/JO? ^ovrjv TCLVT eTrpa^ev eir* opyf/ 
Bid Tr)v eraipav d/jLvvo/jievo? rov V'LQV, ala"^vvr}v 
e^et KCU TO epyov /cal 77 Trpo^aai^. w S' auro? 
e^ptjcraro Xoyw Kareipctyvevo/uevos TO p-eipdieiov, 
OVK rjv a/U?$77?. el yap /3ov\eTO vratSa? dyaflovs 

eSet, \aftelv <yevvcuov 
e\dv6avei' 



veyyvw yvvaiKL KOI rcoivj crvyKoifjLU)^vo^ ya- 
Trav, evret 8' e(f)ropd0ri TrotijcraadaL irevOepov, 
ov paorTa ireicreiv, 



400 



ARISTIDES AND CA TO, vi. 1-2 

his own pleasure, or in anger, to punish his son for 
objecting to his mistress, both what he did and what 
led him to do it were disgraceful. And the sar- 
castic reason for it which he gave his son was not a 
true one. For had he wished to beget more sons as 
good, he should have planned at the outset to marry 
a woman of family, instead of contenting himself, as 
long as he could do so secretly, with the society of a 
low concubine, and when he was discovered, making 



a man his father-in-law whom he could most easily 
persuade, rather than one whose alliance would 
bring him most honour. 



401 



CIMON 



KIMON 

I. Tle/JiTroXTa? o [JLCLVTIS /c erraXta? a? Botw- 
Tiav "O(j>e\rav rbv ySacr^Xea KOI TOU? L/TT' avrw 
Xaou? /carayaycov yevos ev$OKifj,r)<rav eirl TroXXou? 
Kare\.i7Tv, ov TO TrXetcrroz/ i^ 



TOU? /3a/3ySa/oou?. ot //.ev 01^ TrXetcrroi 

roi) yevov? (frvaei fjid^i^oi KCU dvB 

KaTava\(i)0ii<Tav ev rat? M?7^tAcat 

rot? FaXartArot? dySxriv a^ei^r/aa^re? eavratv 

2 XetTrerat ^e TTCU? optyavos yovecov, ovofj,a 
irapwvvfjuov Qe neptTroXra?, TroXu 8/; rt 
o-(t)fjuiTO<; AcaXXet /cat ^L^T}? (frpovrf/Aan TOU? 
avrov vTrepaiptov veovs, aXXw? 8' d 
<ric\ripos TO ^09. 

TOUTOU r Pa)//,ato? r^yefJiwv crireipa^ 
Xatpwz/eta Bia^LfjLa^oua"rj^ epacrOels apri 
iraiBiKrjv rfkiKiav 7raprj\\a'%oTos, a>? ou/c e 
Treipwv KOI SiSovs, ST}XO? ^i> oi)/c dcfregofjievos ^ta?, 479 
aTe S/) /fal TT;? TrarpiSos TJ/JLCOV rore \vrrpa Trpar- 
Tova"r)s KOI Sia /jLiKporrjra real irevlav Trapopwi^evr]^. 

3 TOVTO $r) SeBicos o Ad/jitov, Kal rrjv Trelpav avrrjv 






opys TreTroirjfjLevos, eeouefe TO) 

crvi'ia'rrj T&V ri\iKiwrwv TLvas eV CLVTOV, ov 

iro\\ovs evKa rov \a0elv, aXX* ot 

404 



CIMON 



I. PEIUPOLTAS the seer, who conducted King 
Opheltas with his subjects from Thessaly into 
Boeotia, left a posterity there which was in high 
repute for many generations. The greater part of 
them settled in Chaeroneia, which was the first city 
they won from the Barbarians. Now the most of 
this posterity were naturally men of war and courage, 
and so were consumed away in the Persian invasions 
and the contests with the Gauls, because they did 
not spare themselves. There remained, however, an 
orphan boy, Damon by name, Peripoltas by surname, 
who far surpassed his fellows in beauty of body and 
in vigour of spirit, though otherwise he was un- 
trained and of a harsh disposition. 

With this Damon, just passed out of boy's estate, 
the Roman commander of a cohort that was winter- 
ing in Chaeroneia fell enamoured, and since he could 
not win him over by solicitations and presents, he 
was plainly bent on violence, seeing that our native 
city was at that time in sorry plight, and neglected 
because of her smallness and poverty. Violence was 
just what Damon feared, and since the solicitation 
itself had enraged him, he plotted against the man, 
and enlisted against him sundry companions, a few 
only, that they might escape notice. There were 

405 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yevopevoi ^plovrai fiev aWd\<p ra 
Trp6o~a)Tra vvKros, epmovres Be aKparov dfjL rj/jiepa 
rrpoa-rriTTrovcn r> 'Pw/xat&> Kar dyopav Ovovn, 
Kal Kara/3a\6vres avrov re Kal rwv Trepl avrov 
4 OVK 6\f,yov<? eK rrjs TroXew? perea-rrjcrav. yevo- 
/jLevrjs Be rapa^fj^ 17 rwv Xaipwvewv f3ov\r) 
o-vve\6ovaa Odvarov avrwv Kareyvco' Kal rovro 
T)V vTrep T^9 TToXeco? aTT o\oyrj /j,a rrpos TOI>? P<o- 
fjLatovs. ecnrepas Be rwv dp-^ovrwv, Mcnrep eOos 
eo~ri, Koivfj Benrvouvrwv ol Trepl rov Adfitova 
Traneicnrecrovres et? TO dpyelov aTrecrcbaEav avrov<i 

i /v i . 

Kal rrd\LV w^pvro (fcevyovres eK 
Be Trepl ras 

iri riva Trpd, 

Gmo~rrio~a<; Be ryv rropeiav Kal 
rwv yeyovortov Trpocr^drcov ovrwv e^eraaiv Troir)- 
adpevos evpe rrjv rrb\iv ovBevbs alriav, aXXa 
fjia\\ov o~vvrjBiK'r)fj,evr)v Kal TOU? 
6 dva\afta)v drrrfyaye jj,eF eavrov. rov Be 
X^crTetat? Kal KaraBpofiats rropdovvra rrjv 
Kal rfi Tro\ei TrpoaKeifievov vTrrjydyovro Trpecr/3ei- 



ol 



Kare\06vra Be 
d\ei(f>o/J,evov ev 
TTO\VV Be xpovov elBa)\a)v nvwv ev rq> TOTTW Trpo- 



Kai ffrevayficov e^aKovojuevwv, co? ol 
\eyovo~i, T<z? Ovpas 



TOV 



olovrai rwas o-fyeis Kal fywvas rapa- 
7 %eo8et9 <fcepecr9ai. TOU? 5' diro rov yevovs avrov 
(Biacrw^ovrai yap evioi, ^d\i<rra 

406 



CIMON, i. 3-7 

sixteen of them in all, who smeared their faces with 
soot one night, heated themselves with wine, and at 
daybreak fell upon the Roman while he was sacri- 
ficing in the market-place, slew him, together with 
many of his followers, and departed the city. During 
the commotion which followed, the council of 
Chaeroneia met and condemned the murderers to 
death, and this was the defence which the city after- 
wards made to its Roman rulers. But in the evening, 
while the magistrates were dining together, as the 
custom is, Damon and his men burst into the town- 
hall, slew them, and again fled the city. 

Now about that time l it chanced that Lucius 
Lucullus passed that way, on some errand, with an 
army. Halting on his march and investigating 
matters while they were still fresh in mind, he found 
that the city was in no wise to blame, but rather had 
itself also suffered wrong. So he took its garrison 
of soldiers and led them away with him. Then 
Damon, who was ravaging the country with predatory 
forays and threatening the city, was induced by 
embassies and conciliatory decrees of the citizens to 
return, and was appointed gymnasiarch. But soon, 
as he was anointing himself in the vapour-bath, he 
was slain. And because for a long while thereafter 
certain phantoms appeared in the place, and groans 
were heard there, as our Fathers tell us, the door of 
the vapour-bath was walled up, and to this present 
time the neighbours think it the source of alarming 
sights and sounds. Descendants of Damon's family 
(and some are still living, especially near Stiris in 

1 74 B.C. (?) 

VOL. n. O 407 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Trepi ^Teipiv, aio\iovT<i) do~/3o\w{Aevov$ /ca\ovo~i 
Bia TO TOV Adprtyva TT/OO? TOV <f>6vov aaf3o\u> 



II. 'E-Trel ' cLcrrvyeiroves 6We? 'Op-%ofjivioi 
fcal Bid(f)opoi TOI? Xaipa)vevo~iv efjaadwcravTO 
'Pay/Mii/cov <TVKO<f)dvTrjv, 6 8* wcnrep evos avQp^irov 
TO T^? 7roXe&)9 ovofjia KareveyKODv eSiwfce <j)6vov 
TWV VTTO TOV AayLtcovo? dvyprjuevcov, 77 Se Kpi<ri$ 
TJV 7rl TOV crTpaTrjyov T^? Ma/teSoi/ta? (OVTTCO jap 
et? T^ 'EXXaSa r Pa)/j,aioi (TTpaTrjyovs SteTre/i,- 

2 TTOVTO), ol Xe70^T? i/7reyo TT}<? 7roXe&)9 eVe/taXoO^To 
T^ Aou/couXXou fjiapTvpiav, "/pdtyavTos Be TOV 
a-Tparrjyov TT/ao? Aou^ouXXo^ eiceivos efJiapTvpr^cre 
Ta\r)6ri, KOI Tr)V SLKTJV o/TO>9 aTreffrvyev f) TroXt? 
Kiv&vvevovcra Trepi TWV /zeyicrT&M'. etcelvoi /j,ev 

OVV OI TOT6 O~CO0VT<> LKOVa TOV AoVKOV\\OV 

\i6lvriv ev dyopa Trapa TOV kibwcrov dvecrTTj&av, 
r)fjiel<$ &', el fcal TroXXat? yXifclais Xe^Tro/xe^a, T^V 
fjLev yjapiv olo/jL0a SiaTeiveiv KOL TT/OO? 77//.a? TO 1)9 

3 ^0^ 6Wa?, eiKova Be TTO\V Ka\\Lova v 



elvai TT}? TO o-wfjia fcal TO TrpoawTcov 

TJ]V TO TJ00S KOI TOV TpOTTOV 



a TTJ ypafifj TWV Trapa\\r)\a)v (Slwv 
7rpd%i<i TOV dvSpos, Ta\rjOrj SiefyovTes. dp/eel 
yap rj Tr}? /JLVIJ/JLTJ? %a/ot?' d\r]0ov<s ^e 
ovo* av avTOs eVeti^o? rj^iuxre /Jiio~0bv \a/3eiv 
KOI 7T7r\a(T/u,6vrjv vrrrep avTOv Sirfyijcriv. 

"QcrTrep yap TOU? TO, Ka\a teal Tro\\r)v e 
X ( 'P lv ^V %yypa(j)ovvTas, av Trpoo-fj TL fjLifcpbv 
auTot? Sucr^epe?, u^iovfjiev /z^re Trapa\iTrelv TOVTO 
TeXect)? fJLrjTe ega/cpiftovv TO fj,ev yap alo-%pdv, TO 
S* nvopolav Trape^eTaL TVJV o-fyiv OI/TO)?, eVel 

408 



CIMON, i. 7-11. 4 

Phocis, Aeolians in speech) are called " Asbolomeni," 
or " Besooted," because Damon smeared himself 
with soot before he went forth to do his deed of 
murder. 

II. But the Orchomenians, who were neighbours 
and rivals of the Chaeroneians, hired a Roman in- 
former to cite the city by name, as though it were 
an individual person, and prosecute it for the murder 
of the Roman soldiers who had been slain by 
Damon. The trial was held before the praetor of 
Macedonia (the Romans were not yet sending 
praetors to Greece), and the city's advocates invoked 
the testimony of Lucullus. Lucullus, when the 
praetor wrote to him, testified to the truth of the 
matter, and so the city escaped capital condemna- 
tion. Accordingly, the people who at that time 
were saved by him erected a marble statue of 
Lucullus in the market-place beside that of Dionysus. 
And we, though many generations removed from 
him, think that his favour extends even down to us 
who are now living; and since we believe that a 
portrait which reveals character and disposition is 
far more beautiful than one which merely copies 
form and feature, we shall incorporate this man's 
deeds into our parallel lives, und we shall rehearse 
them truly. The mere mention of them is sufficient 
favour to show him ; and as a return for his truthful 
testimony he himself surely would not deign to 
accept a false and garbled narrative of his career. 

We demand of those who would paint fair and 
graceful features that, in case of any slight imper- 
fection therein, they shall neither wholly omit it nor 
yet emphasise it, because the one course makes the 
portrait ugly and the other unlike its original. In 

409 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ov ecrrt, fjia\\ov S' fcra>9 afitj^avov, a 
teal KaOapov dvbpos 7rtBeij;ai ftiov, ev rot? fcaXois 480 
di>a7r\yjp(oreov wajrep ofJLOLOTrjra TTJV d\ij0etav. 
5 -rd? S' K 7ra$0'-<9 T<i>09 rj TroXiTt/o}? avdytCTj? 

rat? Trpd^ecriv a/^a/m'a? /ral tcfjpas 
yu-aXXoi/ dperrj^ TIVOS rj KdKias 
ovTas ov Set irdvv TT po6 v fjiws 
rfj Icrropia KOI TrepiTrays, aXX 
wcnrep aiSov/jbevovs vTrep T?)? dvOpwrrivTrjs 
et KCL\QV o 



perrjv 

III. 'O 8* ow AOVKOV\\O<; eSo/cet CTKOTTOVO-IV 
rjfuv T&) Ktyuco^t Trapa/SXrjreos elvat,. 7ro\e/jiiKol 
yap d/ji(j)OTpOL KCU TT^O? TOW? /3a/?/9a/30U? \a/jL7rpoi > 
Trpdoi Be rd TroXiTtfcd /cal /jidXia-ra TWV 
cfrdaewv dvaTrvorjv rat? irarpicn 
e/cacrro? Se rt? avrwv aTijaavres rpoTraia /cal 
2 VIKCLS dvekopevoL Trepiftoijrovs. ovre yap 'EX- 
\rivwv KtyLtwi/o? oure 'Pw/zatft)^ AOVKOV\\OV irpo- 
T/)o? ouSet? oi/TO) (Jiafcpdv TroXe/xwi/ 7rpor)\0i>, 
e^o) \6yov TiOefjiivMv TWV icad^ 'HpavXea /cat 
&.IOVVO-OV, ei re rt Ile/ocrea)? TT^O? A/#t07ra? ^ 
M^Sou? /cat *Apyxe^tou9 ?'} 'lacrcwo? epyov d 

(TTOV K TO)V TOT 



KOLVOV e 7TW9 avrwv KOI TO 
areXe9 yeyove rf/9 a-Tpar^jLa<;, eteciTepov pev 
crvvTptyavTOS, ovBerepov 6e KardXvaavro^ TOV 
dvraywvicmjv. fj,d\t(TTa 5' ?; ?T6/?t ra9 L7ro^o^a9 
^at ra9 $i\av@pw7ria<; TavTas vyporijs real Saiffi- 
Xeta /cat TO veapov /cat aveifJLevov ev rfj Biairy 
7rapaTT\r)<7iov GTT d^orepcov ISeiv V7rdp%i. 

410 



CIMON, ii. 4-m. 3 

like manner, since it is difficult, nay rather perhaps 
impossible, to represent a man's life as stainless and 
pure, in its fair chapters we must round out the 
truth into fullest semblance ; but those trans^res- 

* ^ 

sions and follies by which, owing to passion, perhaps, 
or political compulsion, a man's career is sullied, we 
must regard rather as shortcomings in some particu- 
lar excellence than as the vile products of positive 
baseness, and we must not all too zealously delineate 
them in our history, and superfluously too, but treat 
them as though we were tenderly defending human 
nature for producing no character which is absolutely 
good and indisputably set towards virtue. 

III. On looking about for some one to compare 
with Lucullus, we decided that it must be Cimon. 
Both were men of war, and of brilliant exploits 
against the Barbarians, and yet they were mild and 
beneficent statesmen, in that they gave their coun- 
tries unusual respite from civil strifes, though each 
one of them set up martial trophies and won victories 
that were famous. No Hellene before Cimon and 
no Roman before Lucullus carried his wars into 
such remote lands, if we leave out of our account 
the exploits of Heracles and Dionysus, and whatever 
credible deeds of Perseus against the Aethiopians or 
Medesand Armenians, or of Jason, have been brought 
down in the memory of man from those early times 
to our own. Common also in a way to both their 
careers was the incompleteness of their campaigns. 
Each crushed, but neither gave the death blow to 
his antagonist. But more than all else, the lavish 
ease which marked their entertainments and hospi- 
talities, as well as the ardour and laxity of their 
way of living, was conspicuous alike in both. Pos- 

411 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

v 8* icrcos Kal aXXa? rivas 6/1016- 
nyra?, a? ov f )(a\errov e/c TT}? BirjyrjcreQ)? 
crvvayayeiv. 

IV. KL/AWV 6 MiXridSov yu^T/oo? 
TrvKrjs, yevos /OCITTT;?, Ovyarpos *Q\6pov rov 
/3a(Ti\e(t)s, cw? eV rot? 'A/^eXaof /cat 



avrbv .iu>va eaAJievois tcrro- 



prjrai. Bio teal ovKvBi&r]$ 6 ieropiKos rot? 7re/o< 
Kt/A&)i/a /cara yevos irpoa/jKcov *Q\6pov re rrarpos 
rjv, et? rof rrpoyovov ava$>epovros rrjv ofju&vvfuav, 

2 /cat ra ^pvcr&ta rrepl rrjv Hpa/c?;^ e/cefcrrjro. Kal 
r\evrf)crai, fj^ev ev rfj ^Kairrfj v\y (rovro 8' eart 

pa/ny? ^(wpiov) \eyerai <povv0el<; exel, 
8' avrov rwv Xei^rdvcov et? r^ 'ArriKrjv 
v roi? KifKoveiois 8?i>cvvrai rrapa 
rov 'Ei\7riviKris TT}? KL/JLWVOS (iBe^rjs rdfyov. 
aXXa ovKvSi8'r]5 f-iev 'AXi/jLova-ios yeyove rwv 
&r)fjL<ov, 01 Be rrepl rov MiXridSrjv AaKidSai. 

3 M/Xr/aS^? p.ev ovv rrevrrjKOvra ra\di>ra)V o<p\a)i> 

Kal Trpos rrjv exriGiv eip%0el<; ereX-evrr^aev ev 
tw, Kifjitov Be /neipaKiov Travrdrracrii' 
p,era T7)5 aSeX^)/}? en A-O/??;? ovcrrjf; 
Kal dydjjiov rov rrpwrov ^Bo^ei ^povov ev rf) 
KOL KaKws rjKovev &>? ara^ro? Kal iro\v- 






, ov 8t' evtjOtidv (fracri KodXepov rrpocrayo- 
4 pevdrjvm. ^rija-i/n/Spnro^ 8' o Hacrto? 
avrov Ofjiov ri ^povov rco Kifjifovi ytyovws 
avrov ovre /jLouaiKtjv oure a\Xo n fJLdOtijJLa rwv 



eK8i,8a%0>}vai, Beivorrjros re Kal 
412 



CIMON, in. 3-iv. 4 

sibly we may omit still other resemblances, but it 
will not be hard to gather them directly from our 
story. 

IV. Cimon was the son of Miltiades by Hegesipyle, 
a woman of Thracian stock, daughter of King Olorus, 
as it is stated in the poems of Archelaiis and Melan- 
thius addressed to Cimon himself, That explains 
how it was that the father of Thucydides the his- 
torianand Thucydides was connected with the 
family of Cimon was also an Olorus, who referred 
his name back to that of the common ancestor, and 
also how it was that Thucydides had gold mines 
in Thrace. 1 And it is said that Thucydides died 
in Skapte Hyle, a place in Thrace, having been 
murdered there ; but his remains were brought to 
Attica, and his monument is shown among those 
of Cimon's family, hard by the tomb of Elpinice, 
Cimon's sister. However, Thucydides belonged to 
the deme of Halimus, the family of Miltiades to 
that of Laciadae. 

Now Miltiades, who had been condemned to pay a 
fine of fifty talents and confined till payment should 
be made, died in prison, and Cimon, thus left a mere 
stripling with his sister who was a young girl and 
unmarried, was of no account in the city at first. He 
had the bad name of being dissolute and bibulous, 
and of taking after his grandfather Cimon, who, they 
say, because of his simplicity, was dubbed Coalemus, 
or Booby. And Stesimbrotus the Thasian, who was 
of about Cimon's time, says that he acquired no 
literary education, nor any other liberal and 
distinctively Hellenic accomplishment; that he 
lacked entirely the Attic cleverness and fluency 

Thuc. iv. 105. 

413 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ris 6'X&>? d-TTTyXXa^cu, KOL rw Tporrw TTO\V 
TO ryevvalov KOI aXr^e? VVTrdp%eiv, KOI fjba\\ov 
elvai He\07rovi'i](Tiov TO a-^fia T?}? ^f^ 7 !? T0 ^ 
dv&pos, 

<$>av\ov, dfco/jL^rov, TO, /iey<7T* dyaQov, 
Kara TOV EvpiTTtBeiov 'V\paK\.ea' ravra yap ecrrt 



TOt? U7TO TOV 



7TIV. 

5 "Ert Se i^eo? wv aiTiav ecr^e 7r\yjcri,d^LV 
d&e\<f>f}. KOI ydp ovS* aXXw? rr/z/ 
evrarcTov TIVCL jeyovevai \eyovcriv, d\\a teal 
7T/30? YloXvyvwrov e^auapTeiv TOV ^wypdfyov 
real Sid TOVTO (fracriv ev TTJ Yleicnai'aKTeiw rore 
tca\ovfj,evrj, Tloi/ciXrj Be vvv CToa, ypdfyovTa TCLS 481 
TpwaSa? TO TT}? Aao&LKrjs TTOL^aaL Trpbawrrov 



6 ev el/covi Tf9 'EXTTt^tV??. o 5e IIoXy'rcoTO? OVK 



fiavavcrwv ou8' a?r' 

d\\a TTpollCa, <f)l\OTlfJLOV[JLVO<> 7T/50? 

TTO\LV, &)? oT TC <ivyypa(j)eis iaTOpovai Kal 
o 7roir)Tr)<t \eyei TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV 

AVTOV yap SaTrdvaKTi, Oewv vaov<$ dyopdv T6 
KeKpoTciav Kocrfjn]^ rffiiOewv dperais. 

7 etrl 8' o? Trjv 'Ei\TriviK?jv ov icpvfya TO> KLUCOVI, 
(fravepws $6 yrj^ia^evriv GvvoiK^crai, \eyovcriv, 
uf*iov T/}? evyeveias vvfjifylov Bid TVJV Treviav 
dTropovaav eVei Be KaXXt'a? T&V evrronwv Ti? 
'AOijvrjo-iv epacrQels irpoa-^]\0e Trjv VTrep TOV 
7raT/>o9 KdTuo'LKrjv CKTiveiv eVoi^o? wv TT/DO? TO 
Brjfjiocriov, avTi]v T rret.crOtjj'aL fcal TOP 
W KaXXta GvvQiitiacn, TTJV ' 



414 



CIMON, iv. 4-7 

of speech ; that in his outward bearing there 
was much nobility and truthfulness; thatthe fashion 
of the man's spirit was rather Peloponnesian, 

" Plain, unadorned, in a great crisis brave and true," 

as Euripides says of Heracles, 1 a citation which we 
may add to what Stesimbrotus wrote. 

While he was still a youth he was accused of im- 
proper intercourse with his sister. And indeed in 
other cases too they say that Elpimce was not very 
decorous, but that she had improper relations 
also with Polygnotus the painter, and that it was for 
this reason that, in the Peisianacteum, as it was then 
called, but now the Painted Colonnade, when he was 
painting the Trojan women, he made the features of 
Laodice a portrait of Elpinice. Now Polygnotus 
was not a mere artisan, and did not paint the stoa 
for a contract price, but grati c , out of zeal for 
the welfare of the city, as the historians relate, and 
as Melanthius the poet testifies after this fashion : 

" He at his own lavish outlay the gods' great fanes, 

and the market 

Named Cecropia, adorned ; demigods' valour his 
theme." 

Still, there are some who say that Elpinice did not 
live with Cimon in secret intercourse, but openly 
rather, as his wedded wife, because, on account of her 
poverty, she could not get a husband worthy of her 
high lineage ; but that when Callias, a wealthy 
Athenian, fell in love with her, and offered to pay 
into the state treasury the fine which had been 
imposed upon her father, she consented herself, and 
Cimon freely gave Elpinice to Callias to wife. 
1 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 473. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ov fJLijv a\\a teal oX&><? (fiaiverai rot? irepl 
yvvaitca<i epwrixols 6 Kifiayv eVo^o? yeveaOai. 
teal yap 'Acrrepta? rS> yevei SaXa/Ufia? 
TraK.iv Mz/>?(7Tpa9 TWOS o Troiijr 
fjLvrj/jiovevei 777)09 TOI> Kt/zeoz'a irai^wv Si 
9 to? dirov^a^o^vwv vrr' avrov. 8>}Xo9 
:al 7T/305 'laoSi/crjv rrjv ^upVTTro\ 
dvyarepa rov MeyaK\eovs, Kara vbfjiovs 8' avr(o 
GVHtftiuMjaaav 6 Kt/^&>z> e/jLTradecrrepov 
/cat Bua(j)op)j(ras d7ro9ai'ovar}s, el TL Bel 
pecrOai, rat? yeypafji/jievais eVt iraprjyopia rov 
TrevQovs eXeyeiais Trpbs avrov, wv 
o <f)i\6(ro(pGS oierai, iroij]Triv yeyovevai rov 
KOV *Ap)(6\aov, OVK OLTTO rporrov rot? 
eltcd^cov. 

Vrii \ * >/ -v / V/1 > \ 

. la o aXXa rravra rov TJUOVS ayacrra 

yevvaia rov JSiifKovos* ovre yap r6\fJLrj M.i\ridoov 
XetTTOyue^o? ovre crvveGZL e/uo-ro/cXeou?, Si/caio- 
re/oo? dfji(f>oii> 6fjLO\oyelrai yevecrOai, Kai rat? 
? ovBe [JLitcpov dTToSewv dperals eicelvwv 
oaov ev rat? rro\iri,Kal<s v7rep(3a\ea-0ai 
cov en Kai rro\efjiwv djreipos. ore yap rov 
emovrav Mrf&wv e/jii<rroK\rjs erreiOe 
rrjv rcoiKiv Kai rr)V ^copav eK\irr6vra 
rrpo r% 2!aXa/i^O9 ev rat? vaval ra orr\a 
Kai &iaycovL(racr@at, Kara 0d\arrav, 
vcov rwv rro\\(j)v TO ToX/z^a irpcoros 
w<j)0)') Sid rov KepafjieiKOv (fraiopos dviwv et? TTJV 



nerd ra)V eraipwv ITTTTOV nvd 



dvaOelvcu rfj 0ew, Sid j(eipt*)v KO^I^WV, a>? ovSev 

i7r7riKr)<; aX^i}?, aXXa vavfjid^wv dvSpwv ev TW 

3 rrapovrt, T>}? TroXea)? Beo/ievr]?. dvaOels Be rov 

416 



CIMON, iv. 8-v. 3 

However, it is perfectly apparent that Cimon was 
given to the love of women. Asteria, of a Sala- 
minian family, and a certain Mnestra are mentioned 

/ * 

by the poet Melanthius, in a sportive elegy addressed 
to Cimon, as wooed and won by him. And it is 
clear that he was even too passionately attached to 
his lawful wife, Isodice, the daughter of Euryptole- 
mus and grand-daughter of Megacles, and that 
he was too sorely afflicted at her death, if we 
may judge from the elegy addressed to him for 
the mitigation of his grief. This was composed 
by the naturalist Archelaiis, as Panaetius the philoso- 
pher thinks, and his conjecture is chronologically 
possible. 

V. All other traits of Cimon's character were 
admirable and noble. Neither in daring was he 
inferior to Miltiades, nor in sagacity to Themistocles, 
and it is admitted that he was a juster man 
than either, and that while not one whit behind 
them in the good qualities of a soldier, he was 
inconceivably their superior in those of a statesman, 
even when he was still young and untried in war. 
When the Medes made their invasion, and Themis- 
tocles was trying to persuade the people to give up 
their city, abandon their country, make a stand with 
their fleet off Salamis, and fight the issue at sea, 
most men were terrified at the boldness of the 
scheme ; but lo .' Cimon was first to act, and with 
a gay mien led a procession of his companions 
through the Cerameicus up to the Acropolis, to 
dedicate to the goddess there the horse's bridle 
which he carried in his hands, signifying thus that 
what the city needed then was not knightly prowess 
but sea-fighters. After he had dedicated his bridle, 

417 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOI \a/3a)V ere TWV irepl TOV vaov /epe/jta- 
d(T7riB(i)v, real 7rpO(rvufjLros Trj Oew, /care- 
ftaivev 7rl OaXacrcrav, OVK 6X(/ycu9 &PX*} ro ^ 
Oappelv yevo/jiei'os. 

Be teal rrjv IBeav ov yLte/iTrro?, w? "\wv 6 
d\\a yae^a?, ov\rj KOI 7ro\\fj 
rrjv K<j)a\i]V. (pavels Be KCLI /car' 
avrov TOV dyMva Xa/A7rpo? real dvBpooBr)? ra^v B6- 
%av ev rf) TroXet /xer' evvoias eo-^v, ddpoL^o/jLevcov 
7ro\\a)v Trpo? avTOV Kol 7rapaKa\ovvT(0v dia TOV 
4 MapaQwvos ffBrj BiavoelaOai teal Trpdcrcreiv. 6p/Aij- 
cravTa 8* avrov eirl rrjv Tro\iTeiav acr/xei/o? 6 
BrjfAOS eBeaTO, KOI /zecrro? wv TOV e/j,i,(TTOK\eov<; 
dvfjye 7T/90? l ra? /xeyto'Ta? ev TTJ iro\ei TI/JLCL^ KOI 
dp%ds, evdp/Jioo-Tov QVTO, real Trpocrc/uXr; rot? TTO\- 
\ot? Bid rrpaoT^Ta teal dtyeXeiav. ov% rfKia~Ta Be 
avTov rfv^aev 'AptaTeiSrjs 6 Avcri/^d^ov, Trjv 
ev(f)viav evopwv TU> r)0et,, real Troiovfjievos olov CLVTI- 
7ra\ov TT/JO? Trjv e/xtcrro/cXeoL'? BeiroTrjTa real 



VI. 'E?ra Be M.rjBa)V (frvyovTwv ere 
XaSo? 7refjL$>0ri crTpa 777709, KCLTCL 9d\aTTav OUTTO) 
Tr)v dp%rji> ' A.0r}vai(0v e^ovTWV, eTi Be \\avaavla 
re real Aa/eeSat/jiovLois eirofjievdiv, TTpWTOv /j,ev eV 



el Traee Toi/9 



re 6av/uacrTOv<; real TrpoOv^ia TTO\V TTCIVTWV Bia- 
2 <j)epovTa<i' erreiTa ilavaaviov rot9 ^tv /3ap- 482 
ySapot9 Bia\eyo/jievov Trepl TrpoBocrias real /3acn\et 
<ypd<j)ovTO<; 7riCTO\d<f, rot9 Be cruyu,/ua^oi9 rpa^ea)? 
KOI av6aBa)<i Troa-co/jievov real 7ro\\d Bi* 



supplied by Stephanas, and confirmed by S ; Bekker 
supplied ls. 

418 



CIMON, v. 3-vi. a 

he took one of the shields which were hung up about 
the temple, addressed his prayers to the goddess, and 
went down to the sea, whereat many were first made 
to take heart. 

He was also of no mean presence, as Ion the poet 
says, but tall and stately, with an abundant and curly 
head of hair. And since he displayed brilliant and 
heroic qualities in the actual struggle at Salamis, 1 he 
soon acquired reputation and good will in the city. 
Many thronged to him and besought him to purpose 
and perform at once what would be worthy of Mara- 
thon. So when he entered politics the people 
gladly welcomed him, and promoted him, since they 
were full to surfeit of Themistocles, to the highest 
honours and offices in the city, for he was engaging 
and attractive to the common folk by reason of his 
gentleness and artlessness. But it was Aristides, 
son of Lysimachus, who more than any one else 
furthered his career, for he saw the fine features 
of his character, and made him, as it were, a foil to 
the cleverness and daring of Themistocles. 

VI. After the flight of the Medes from Hellas, 
Cimon was sent out as a commander, 2 before the 
Athenians had obtained their empire of the sea, and 
while they were still under the leadership of Pausa- 
nias and the Lacedaemonians. During this campaign, 
the citizen-soldiers he furnished on expeditions were 
always admirably disciplined and far more zealous 
than any others ; and again, while Pausanias was 
holding treasonable conference with the Barbarians, 
writing letters to the King, treating the allies with 
harsh arrogance, and displaying much wantonness of 

1 480 B.C. 478-477 B.U. 

419 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

l OJKOV dvorfrov v/3piovro<$, v7ro\afA- 
Trpa&j? rovs dbiKov/jievovs KOI <f)i\avfipa)7r(i)<; 
e\a0ev ov Si* orr\wv rrjv 
aXXa \6yw Kal tf0i 
3 TrpocreriOevTO jap ol TrXetcrroi TWV 

etceivw re /cal 'Apia-TeiSy rrjv ^a\e7rorr]ra 

rov Tlavaaviov /j,r) <f>epoi>T<;. ol & 



/cal Tourof? a/jia TrpocrijyovTo Kal rot? 



e<J)paov, co? 

Kal rapaTTO/jLevT)? 7779 'EXXaSo?, dvaKa\elv rov 
\\avaaviav. 

4 Aeyerai 5e irapOevov TLVCL Bv^avriav eirufcav&v 
yovewv, ovo^a KXeovitrrjv, eV ala-^vvr} TOV Tlav- 



cramou /jLTa7Tfj,7ro/jLvov, Tou? fiev yoveis VTT* dvdy- 



Kal (j)6/3ov TrpoecrOat rrjv TralSa, rrjv Be 
irpo TOV Bco^ariov SerjOeicrav dve\ecr6aL TO 

Sid (7/COTOU9 Kal <7tW7T7)9 TT) K\ll>rj 7T pOGlOlMJCL 

rov Ylavcraviov KaQev&ovros, e/jLTrecrelv Kal dva- 
5 rpetyat TO \V)(yiov aKovcrav rov &' VTTO rov 
rapa^Oevra Kal arfacra^vov l TO 

ov, W9 rivos err avrov e^dp<>v 
tfdl Kara(Ba\elv rrjv rrapOevov, eK 8e TT}? 
77X7777)9 drroOavovcrav avrrjv OVK eav rov Ylavaa- 
viav (rvdeiv, aXXa vvKrw el&w\ov avru> 



rwo~av et9 rov VTTVOV 0/3777 \eyeiv roBe TO rjpwov 

81^779 acrcrov fidXa rot KaKov dvSpdcriv 



o 



ffTraffdfUVOv with S : 
42O 



CIMON, vi. 2-5 

power and silly pretension, Cimon received with 
mildness those who brought their wrongs to him, 
treated them humanely, and so, before men were 
aware of it, secured the leadership of Hellas, not by 
force of arms, but by virtue of his address and 
character. For most of the allies, because they 
could not endure the severity and disdain of Pausa- 
nias, attached themselves to Cimon and Aristides, 
who had no sooner won this following than they sent 
also to the Ephors and told them, since Sparta had 
lost her prestige and Hellas was in confusion, to 
recall Pausanias. 

It is said that a maiden of Byzantium, of excellent 
parentage, Cleonice by name, was summoned by 
Pausanias for a purpose that would disgrace her. 
Her parents, influenced by constraint and fear, 
abandoned their daughter to her fate, and she, 
after requesting the attendants before his chamber 
to remove the light, in darkness and silence at 
length drew near the couch on which Pausanias 
was asleep, but accidentally stumbled against the 
lamp-holder and upset it. Pausanias, startled by 
the noise, drew the dagger which lay at his side, 
with the idea that some enemy was upon him, 
and smote and felled the maiden. After her death 
in consequence of the blow, she gave Pausanias 
no peace, but kept coming into his sleep by 
night in phantom form, wrathfully uttering this 
verse : 

" Draw thou nigh to thy doom ; 'tis evil for men to 
be wanton." 

At this outrage the allies were beyond measure 

421 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rov Ktyu<wi>o? %Tro\i6pKrj<Tav 
6 avrov. o 5' eKTrecrwv rov Ru^avriov Kal rw 



Trpo? TO i'Kvo/jiavreLov 64? 'HpdK\(,av, real rrjv 
dvaKa\ov/jLevo$ rijs K.\OVLKT]<; Traprjrelro 
opytjv. 77 S* et? O"\ITIV \0ovcra ra^ew? e(f)ij 
TWV icafcwv avrov ev ^Traprrj yevo- 

JJL6VOV, alviTTOfJievr], ft)? OIK, TT)V /JL\\OV(TaV 

Te\vr/)V. ravra fiev ovv VTTO Tro 

VII. KtyLtwf Se, TWV avfjifjid^wv ^S?7 irpocrKe- 
aura), crrparrjyo^ et? fypatcrjv 7r\eucre, 
Ylepawv avSpas eV^o^oy? Kal cryy- 
t? /5acrtXea>9 'Hto^a iroXiv rrapa r 
Ket,/ji6i>rji> 7roTa/z<w /care^ovra^ eVo^Xet^ rot? 

2 TOt* TQTTOV 6K61VOV " KXX^CTt. TTpWTOV (JLV OVV 

CLVTOVS fidxy TOV< > Hepaa? evi/crjcre KOI fcareK\i- 
crev et? T^ TTO\LV' eTreira TOI)? y 
yoa/ca?, o^ey auTOt? e^oira O-^ 
7roia)v Kal rrjv -%wpav Trapa^vXdrTwv aTraaav et? 
ToaavTrfv cnropiav rovs 7ro\iopicovp,evov^ Karecrrr)- 
o~ev, Mare l&ovrr)v rov /3ao-fXeo)? crrparrjyov arco- 
yvovra ra TT pay para rfj rroXeu rcvp evelvau Kal 
(rvvSia(f)0Lpai fjiera rwv <f)i\a)v Kal rwv 
3 eavrov. ovrw Be \a/3wv rrjv Tro\iv d\\o 
ov&ev dio\oyov GD<p\ijdr), rwv 7r\ei<jrwv 

o-vyKararcaevrwv, rrjv Be %ct)pav 



ovcrav 
Tot? 'AO^vaiois. Kal TOU? 



422 



CIMON, vi. 5-vii. 3 

incensed, and joined Cimon in forcing Pausanias 
to give up the city. Driven from Byzantium, and 
still harassed by the phantom, as the story goes, 
he had recourse to the ghost-oracle of Heracleia, 
and summoning up the spirit of Cleonice, besought 
her to forgo her wrath. She came into his presence 
and said that he would soon cease from his troubles 
on coming to Sparta, thus darkly intimating, as 
it seems, his impending death. At any rate, this 
tale is told by many. 

VII. But Cimon, now that the allies had attached 
themselves to him, took command of them and sailed 
to Thrace, 1 for he heard that men of rank among the 
Persians and kinsmen of the King held possession of 
Eion, a city on the banks of the Strymon, and were 
harassing the Hellenes in that vicinity. First he 
defeated the Persians themselves in battle arid shut 
them up in the city ; then he expelled from their 
homes above the Strymon the Thracians from whom 
the Persians had been getting provisions, put the 
whole country under guard, and brought the besieged 
to such straits that Butes, the King's general, gave 
up the struggle, set fire to the city, and destroyed 
with it his family, his treasures, and himself. And 
so it was that though Cimon took the city, he gained 
no other memorable advantage thereby, since most of 
its treasures had been burned up with the Barbarians ; 
but the surrounding territory was very fertile and 
fair, and this he turned over to the Athenians for 
occupation. Wherefore the people permitted him to 

1 476-475 B.C. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ty rovs \i6lvov$ o Bfj/jLos avaOelvai <rvve')((a- 



prjcrev, wv eTriyeypaTrrcu TO> /J,ev 



4 *Hi> apa fca/ceivoi rd\aKdp^t,oi, oi TTOTC M^ 
iraiaiv eV 'Hiow, 2,Tpv/j,6vo<t a^l ooa?, 
\ifjiov T* aWcova icpvepbv T' eTrdyovres "Aprja 
SvcrfjiV(0v evpov a 



Be Bevrepw* 



avr 1 evpycrir]<; teal /jLeydXwv a 
fjiaX\.6v T? ra'S' t'Sooif /cal eTrecrcro/z.ez/wz; e 
dfji(f)l Trepi %vvols Trpdy/jiaa-i Srjpw e 



5 TO) Be 

TTore rrja-Se IT 0X7709 ayu,' 'ATpeiSya-i, Me/e- 



rjyeiro ^dOeov Tpwl/cbv e? TreSiov 
ov 7ro0^ f/ OjLo<; (>r kavaayv Trv/ca 



ovra fio\eiv. 
OUTCO? ovSev dei/ces A.6rjvaioio~i Ka\ei<r0at 

tcocrfjuiTais 7ro\jj,ou T' a//^)l /eat rjvopr)<; 
424 



CIMON, VH. 3-5 

dedicate the stone Hermae, on the first of which is 
the inscription : 

(i Valorous-hearted as well were they who at Ei'on 

fighting, 
Facing the sons of the Medes, Strymori's current 

beside, 
Fiery famine arrayed, and gore-flecked Ares, 

against them, 

Thus first finding for foes that grim exit, 
despair ; " 

and on the second : 

" Unto their leaders reward by Athenians thus 

hath been given ; 
Bent-fits won such return, valorous deeds of 

the brave. 
All the more strong at the sight will the men 

of the future be eager, 

Fighting for commonwealth, war's dread strife 
to maintain ;" 

and on the third : 

" With the Atridae of old, from this our city, 

Menestheus 
Led his men to the plain Trojan called and 

divine. 
He, once Homer asserted, among well-armoured 

Achaearis, 
Marshaller was of the fight, best of them all 

who had come. 
Thus there is naught unseemly in giving that 

name to Athenians ; 
Marshallers they both of war and of the vigour 

c 

01 men. 

425 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

VIII. TaOra Kaiirep ovBa/jiov TO K///,a>z/o9 
Br)\ovi>ra TI/JLIJS V7rep{3o\i]v e%eiv eBotcet, 
TOt9 rore dv6p(jL>7rois. ovre jap e/j,LcrTOK\ris 
roiovrov TWOS ovre Mi\Tid8r]<? erv^ev, aXXa 
TOUTCO 76 6a\\ov arefyavov alrovvri ^cDcfrdvys 6 
Ae/teXeu? /c [Meaov TT}? KK\r)(ria<i avaaras avr- 
eLTrev, OVK vjva)/jLova /AV, dpeaaa'av Be rw 
rore <f)(i)v>iv a(/>etV ""Orav yap" etyrj, " 
dywvia-d/jiei'os, w Mi\rtd8r), viK^cry^ TO vs ftap- 

2 fidpovs, Tore KCU Ti^a(T0ai fJLovos dlov." Bid 
rl TOivvv TO \\ifjiwvos vTreprjydTrrjo-av epyov ; 17 
OTi TWV [Jiev CL\\WV ar parity OVVTCOV inrep TOV /JLTJ 
TraOeiv ^/JLVVOVTO TOL? TroXeyLttof?, TOVTOV Be teal 
TTOiijcrai /ca/tco? rjBvvyjOrja-av eVt rrjv e/ceivwv avrol 
crTpa-revcravTes, Kal TrpocreKTijcravro ^copa? avTi]v 
re rrjv 'Hiot'a, Kal rrjv 'A/u.<t7roX> OLKiaavre^ ; 

3 "SliKiaav Be Kal ^rcvpov eXoi^ro? Kt/z,wz^09 e'^ 
atrta? TOiavrris. AoXovre? ca/covv rrjv vr^crov, 
epydrat tcaKoi 7%' \r}l6/j,evoi Be rrjv 0d\aacrav 
ere TraXaiov, reXeurw^re? ouBe rwv elcnrXeovTwv 
irap avrovs KOL %pu>}JLevwv dTrei^ovro ^evcoi', dXXa 
eTTaXoi;9 Tivas e^Tropov^ irepl TO KT/;<T^O^ 

4 opfjLicraiJLevovs <rv\r)cravT6<; elp^av. eiret Be Bia- 
Bpdvres CK TWV Becr/jLcov ol avOpwiroi BLK^V xare- 

roXect>9 'A/AifiiKTVOviKijv, ov /3ov\o- 
rd ^prj/uLaTa TWI> TTO\\WV crvveKTiveiv, aXXa 
'xovras KOI BtrjpTraKOTas djroBovvai K\ev- 
OVTWV, BeicravT<; eicelvoi Trefjiirovcn ypd/jLjuLara 
tce\evovTes rj/cetv perd rwv vewv 
rrjv r jro\i,v VTT CLVT&V 

426 



CIMON, viii. 1-4 

VIII. Although these inscriptions nowhere men- 
tioned Cimon by name, his contemporaries held 
them to be a surpassing honour for him. Neither 
Themistocles nor Miltiades achieved any such, nay, 
when the latter asked for a crown of olive merely, 
Sophanes the Deceleian rose up in the midst of the 
assembly and protested. His speech was ungracious, 
but it pleased the people of that day. " When/' 
said he, " thou hast fought out alone a victory over 
the Barbarians, then demand to be honoured alone." 
Why, then, were the people so excessively pleased 
with the achievement of Cimon ? Perhaps it was 
because when the others were their generals they 
were trying to repel their enemies and so avert 
disaster ; but when he led them they were enabled 
to ravage the land of their enemies with incursions of 
their own, and acquired fresh territories for settle- 
ment, not only Eion itself, but also Amphipolis. 

They settled Scyros too, which Cimon seized for 
the following reason. Dolopians were living on 
the island, but they were poor tillers of the soil. 
So they practised piracy on the high sea from 
of old, and finally did not withhold their hands 
even from those who put into their ports and 
had dealings with them, but robbed some Thessalian 
merchants who had cast anchor at Ctesium, and 
threw them into prison. When these men had 
escaped from bondage and won their suit against 
the city at the Amphictyonic assembly, the people 
of Scyros were not willing to make restitution, but 
called on those who actually held the plunder to 
give it back. The robbers, in terror, sent a letter 
to Cimon, urging him to come with his fleet to 
seize the city, and they would give it up to him. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



5 7rapa\a@a)V 8* OVTW rrjv vfjaov o Ki/jiwv TOV<; 
AoXoTra? e^Xacre /cal TOV Klyalov 
7TVv0av6fjLvos >e TOV ira\aLov Stjaea TOV 

fjiev e ' ' A.0r)vwv et? ^tcvpov, avrov S* 
B6\w Bia fyoftov VTTO Au/co/Ar;Soi;9 TOV 
8 /BaviXews, eairovSaae TOV Tafyov avevpeiy. teal 
yap rjv ^pTjcr/io? 'AOrjvaiois TO, Bereft)? \etyava 
K\evcov avafconi^eiv et? acrru /ral TL^LCLV co? rjpwa 
aXX' yyvoovv OTTOV tcelrai, 



rore 



a TOV CT1]KOV 

ev@ep,ei>os 6 K.ipwv et9 rrjv avTOV Tpi^prj TO, ocrra 
teal rdXXa KOG/JLijcras }JLeya\OTrpeTrws 
et? T^ avTov Si* eTwv cr^eSov TeTpaKoaiwv. 
co teal /j,d\i(TTa rrpbs avrbv rj&ea)? o Sr}yu,o? eo")(ev. 
7 "E^ez^ro 8' et<? fJLvtffiriv avTov real TYJV TWV 
TpaywSwv Kpiaiv ovojJLCio~Tr)V yevofievrfv. TrpooTrjv 
yap 6iSacTKa\iav TOV So^o/cXeou? ert veov 



iwv o 



/cal Trapara^eo)? TWV deaTWv, /epiTa<? p,ev ov/c 
K\^pa}(T TOV aywvos, co? Be Ki/jLotv yttera TWV 
crvcrTpaT/)ya)i> Trpoe\9u>v els TO BeaTpov e 
TO> Beat ra? vevofJLio-fjLeva^ crTroi'&ds, OVK 
aurou? aTreKOelv, a)OC o/o/fwcra? r]vdyKao~e Kadlcrai 
teal icplvai Betca 6Wa?, drrb <f)V\t]S /iia? e/cacrTOv. 
8 o /J,ev ovv dywv KOL &ia TO TCOV KpiTwv d^icofia 
Ttjv <t\<m/uaz> vTrepefiaXe. vi/ctjcravTOS Be TOV 
428 



CIMON, viii. 5-8 

In this manner Cimon got possession of the island, 
drove out the Dolopians, and made the Aegean a 
free sea. 

On learning that the ancient Theseus, son of 
Aegeus, had fled in exile from Athens to Scyros, 
but had been treacherously put to death there, 
through fear, by Lycomedes the king, Cimon 
eagerly sought to discover his grave. For the 
Athenians had once received an oracle bidding them 
bring back the bones of Theseus to the city and 
honour him as became a hero, but they knew not 
where he lay buried, since the Scyrians would not 
admit the truth of the story, nor permit any search 
to be made. Now, however, Cimon set to work 
with great ardour, discovered at last the hallowed 
spot, had the bones bestowed in his own trireme, 
and with general pomp and show brought them back 
to the hero's own country after an absence of about 
four hundred years. This was the chief reason why 
the people took kindly to him. 

But they also cherished in kindly remembrance of 
him that decision of his in the tragic contests which 
became so famous. When Sophocles, still a young 
man, entered the lists with his first plays, Apsephion 
the Archon, seeing that the spirit of rivalry and 
partisanship ran high among the spectators, did not 
appoint the judges of the contest as usual by lot, 
but when Cimon and his fellow-generals advanced 
into the theatre and made the customary libation to 
the god, he would not suffer them to depart, but 
forced them to take the oath and sit as judges, 
being ten in all, one from each tribe. So, then, the 
contest, even because of the unusual dignity of the 
judges, was more animated than ever before. But 

429 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xeyerat TOV hlcr^vKov 
KOI /9a/je&>9 eveytcovTa ^povov ou TTO\VV 
\\0/jvrjat, btayayelv, etr' oi^eadat, Si opyl/v et? 



OTTOV 



IX. ^LvvSenrvfjcrai Se raJ KL/JLCOVL (frrjcriv 6 "\wv 48 

aTTaat peipaKiov r)K.wv e/9 'A^^va? etc Xtou 
trapa Aao/jLeSovri,' teal ra)v <T7ro/'8wi/ 
7raparc\r)flevTOS l acrai, KCU acravTos 1 OVK ar 
7raiveli> rou? irapovra^ &>? Set; LOOT epov 
K\eov*s' e/celvov yap a&eiv jj,ev ov <f)dvai 



ov&e Kidapi^iv, TTO\IV Be iroirjorcLL fJLeya\rjV Kal 
2 7r\oua-Lav e-rrLcrraadaf rovvrevftev, olov etVo? eV 
TTOTW, rov \oyov pvevTO? eVl ra? vrpa^et? roO 
/rat jLVvjLovevoMei'wv rcov 



e/ceii'ov ev &t,\0ii> (rrpaT^y^/jia T<MI> IBi&v 
a>? cro<coTaroi/. eVel yap eV ^rjCTTOv teal Bu- 
7ro\\ov<f TWV ftaptfdpwv 
ot (Tv/jL/jLa^oi, TW Kt/xcoi/t 
v, 6 

i rot? awfjLacrt, tcocr/uov CLVTWV eBrjKev, IJ 
3 T?)I' Siavo/jLrjv &>? CLVLCTOV. 6 e TCOI^ jJuepCSeoy etce- 
\evaev avrovs eXecrdai rrjv erepav, TJV 
e/ceivoi KaraXiTrwcTiv, aya7ri](reiv 
'Hpo^i^TOf ^e TOU ^La/jLiov o"v/jL/3ov\vcravTo<; at- 
pelaflai ra \]epcrwv fjia\\ov rj Tlepcras, rbv 

avTcn eXa/3o/', AOrjvaiois Se TOVS 
aTreX-tTTOv. Kal Tore /JLCV 6 KLUWV aTrrj 
elvai SoKwi'Siavo/j-evs, TWV fiev (rv/^/jid^wv 

T/^eVTos, clrravros Bekker corrects, after Schafer, 
to 

43 



CIMON, vni. 8-ix. 3 

Sophocles came off victorious, and it is said that 
Aeschylus, in great distress and indignation thereat, 
lingered only a little while at Athens, and then 
went off in anger to Sicily. There he died also, 
and is buried near Gela. 

IX. Ion says that, coming from Chios to Athens 
as a mere stripling, he was once a fellow-guest with 
Cimon at a dinner given by Laomedon, and that 
over the wine the hero was invited to sing, and did 
sing very agreeably, and was praised by the guests 
as a cleverer man than Themistocles. That hero, 
they said, declared that he had not learned to sing, 
nor even to play the Ivre, but knew how to make a 
city great and rich. 1 Next, Ion says, as was natural 

* o * * 

over the CUDS, the conversation drifted to the ex- 
ploits of Cimon, and as his greatest deeds were 
being recounted, the hero himself dwelt at length 
on one particular stratagem which he thought his 
shrewdest. Once, he said, when the Athenians and 
their allies had taken many barbarian prisoners at 
Sestos and Byzantium and turned them over to him 
for distribution, he put into one lot the persons of 
the captives, and into another the rich adornments 
of their bodies, and his distribution was blamed as 
unequal. But he bade the allies choose one of the 
lots, and the Athenians would be content with 
whichever one they left. So, on the advice of Hero- 
phytus the Samian to choose Persian wealth rather 
than Persians, the allies took the rich adornments 
for tht-mselves, and left the prisoners for the 
Athenians. At the time Cimon came off with the 
reputation of being a ridiculous distributer, since 
1 Cf . Themistocles , ii. 3. 



43 1 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



xpvcra /cat paviaKas Kal o-rpeTrrovs KOI 
Kal Tropfyvpav ^epOfJLevwv, TWV 8' 'A0?;- 
vpva <T(i)fj,ara /caKco? r)dKr]p.eva irpos 
4 epya&lav irapa^a^ovrwv. fjii/cpbv Be varepov 
ol TCOV ea\wKOT(jL>v fy'Ckoi Kal oliceloi KarafiaivovTes 
/c <&pvyias Kal AfSta9 e\vrpovvro fjLeyakwv 
Xprj/jLarcov efcaarov, wcne T& KI/JLWVI recrodpwv 
/Arjvwv rpo(f)as eh Ta? vavs virdp^au KOL TrpoaerL 
rfj TroKeu ^pvalov OVK o\iyov e/c T&V \vrpa)v 



X. "HS?7 8' evTropwv o K^cov e(f)6$ia 
(TTpaTrjyLas a Kakws diro TWV 7ro\e/jiicov e 
a)(f)\TJcr0ai, tfd\\tov avrf\.icrtc6V eh 
TCOJ' re yap dypwv TOU? (^pay/jiov^ dfyelXev, iva 
Kal rot? %evoi<s Kal TWV irokiT&v rot? 

vTrdp^rj \a/J,j3dvtv TT}? OTrcopa?, Kal 
Trap* avro) \irbv /lev, dpKovv Be 



eTToielro Kad* i}/j,pav, e^>' o rwv Trevtjrcov 6 



/3ov\6fJ<vo<; elarjei Kal Biarpotyrjv el%ev dirpdy- 
2 pova, fjLovow TO!? BrjfjLOcriois (T\p\u^a)V . w? 



cnrdvrwv 



d\\a TWV Br)/jLOTO)v avrov. AaKia&wv TrapecrKCi'd- 
TO) ftovXofjievw TO SeiTTVOv. avry Be veaviaKoi 
crvvrjOei,^ d/jL7re%6fjLevoi tfaXw?, wv 
, et rt? (Twrv^oi rco Kt/iwi/t TWV acrrwv 
r/p(f)ie(T/jLevos e^Sew?, Birj/jLei/Bero -rrpo? 
avrov ra ifjidrta' Kal TO yivo^vov efyaivero 
3 cre/Livov. ol 8' avrol Kal vo/jna/jia Koiii^ovTes 
afyOovov Trapicrrd/jiei'Oi T0t9 Kop.'fyois ra)v Trei'rjrwv 
ev dyopa criWTrfj TWV KepfAaricov vej3a\\ov et? 



432 



CIMON, ix. 3-x. 3 

the allies had their gold anklets and armlets and 
collars and jackets and purple robes to display, 
while the Athenians got only naked bodies ill- 
trained for labour. But a little while after, the 
friends and kinsmen of the captives came down 
from Phrygia and Lydia and ransomed every one 
of them at a great price, so that Cimon had four 
months' pay and rations for his fleet, and besides 
that, much gold from the ransoms was left over for 
the city. 

X. And since he was already wealthy, Cimon 
lavished the revenues from his campaign, which he 
was thought to have won with honour from the 
enemy, to his still greater honour, on his fellow- 
citizens. He took away the fences from his fields, 
that strangers and needy citizens might have it in 
their pow r er to take fearlessly of the fruits of the 
land ; and every day he gave a dinner at his house, 
simple, it is true, but sufficient for many, to which 
any poor man who wished came in, and so received 
a maintenance which cost him no effort and left him 
free to devote himself solely to public affairs. But 
Aristotle says 1 that it was not for all Athenians, but 
only for his own demesmen, the Laciadae, that he 
provided a free dinner, ffe' was constantly attended 
by young comrades in fine attire, each one of whom, 
whenever an elderly citizen in needy array came up, 
was ready to exchange raiment with him. The 
practice made a deep impression. These same fol- 
lowers also carried with them a generous sum of 
money, and going up to poor men of finer quality in 
the market-place, they would quietly thrust small 
change into their hands. To such generosity as this 

1 Coiisi. of Athens, xxvii. 3, 

433 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra? 'xelpas. a)v Brj real Kparivo? 6 tccofjUKO*; ev 

'A/9^Ao^Ot<> eOlKe /JLe/JLVrj(T0aL BlCL TOVTCOV 

Ka/y&> <yap rjv^ovv ^J\.r)rpo(Bios o ypa/jifjiarevs 
vv dv&pl Oelw Kal (f)i\oev(t)TaT(a 
l irdvr* dpuarw TWV T\.ave\\^vwv irpo rov 
\nrapov 



alwva Trdvra o-vvLarreLv. 



\{,TTCOV /3e{3r)K 

5 en Tolvvv Yop<yias pev 6 Aeoi/rt^o? (frrjcri rov 
ra ^pijfjLara KTaaQai f.iev co? ^pwro, 
Be a)? TLJJLWTO, Kptrta? Se rail' TpiaKovTa 
ev rat? eXeyeiais eir^erar 

yuej/ ^KOTra&wv, p,<ya\ofypocrvvriv Be 



vLKas S' 'ApKeaiXa rov 

Katrot Afyav ye rov 'S.Trapridrrjv drf ov< 
aXXou yivwcTKO/jLev ev rot? ' Ej\\rjcnv ovo/jLacrrov 
yevo/mevov rj on rovs evov<s ev rat? yvfAVOTraiSiais 48 
eBeiTTVi^ev r) Be Kt^tcoi/o? dfyOovla Kal rrjv 
TraXaidv rwv ^AO^vaicov (j)t\oei'iav Kal fyiKav- 
6 Op f >)7riav vrrepe(Ba\ev. 01 p,ev ydp, e<f) ot? 77 
(bpovel SiKaiws, TO re arrepuia 

ii If 



TOU? ^i^a? 6(DKav VCLTWV re 

..... 1 /cat rrvpos evavcriv yprj^ovcnv 

'^'^ f- 9 ' ^V V V ' /* ' 

eoioa^av, o ce rrjv fiev oi/ciav rot? 
rrpvravelov aTroSet^a? tcoivov, ev 8e 



r %to/oa KapTrayv eroijuwv arrap"^a^ Kal ocra 



wpai Ka\a (f)epov(ri, XpfjaQai Kal \ajj,/3dveiv 
arravra rot? %evoi<; 7rape%(i)v, rporrov riva rrjv tVt 

The lacuna can only be conjecturally filled. 
a t'Sioa^av Bekker corrects, with Schafer, to 

434 



CIMON, x. 3-6 

Cratinus seems to have referred in his Archilochi, 
with the words : 

" Yes, I too hoped, Metrobius, I, the public scribe, 
Along with man divine, the rarest host that lives, 
In every way the best of all Hellenic men, 
With Cimon, feasting out in joy a sleek old age, 
To while away the remnant of my life. But he 
Has gone before and left me." 

And again, Georgias the Leontine says that Cimon 
made money that he might spend it, and spent it 
that he might be honoured for it. And Critias, one 
of the thirty tyrants, prays in his elegies that he may 
have " the wealth of the Scopadae, the great-minded- 
ness of Cimon, and the victories of Arcesilaus of 
Lacedaemon." 

And yet we know that Lichas the Spartan became 
famous among the Hellenes for no other reason than 
that he entertained the strangers at the boys' gym- 
nastic festival ; but the generosity of Cimon sur- 
passed even the hospitality and philanthropy of the 
Athenians of olden time. For they and their city 
is justly very proud of it spread abroad among the 
Hellenes the sowing of grain and the lustral uses 
of spring waters, and taught mankind who knew it 
not the art of kindling fire. But he made his home 
in the city a general public residence for his fellow 
citizens, and on his estates in the country allowed 
even the stranger to take and use the choicest of the 
ripened fruits, with all the fair things which the 
seasons bring. Thus, in a certain fashion, he 



435 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

K/3oi>ou uvOoXoyovfuLevrjv KOIVWVICLV et? rov ftiov 

7 avdis /carrjyev. 01 Be ravra KO\a/celav o^\ov teal 

elvai 8ial3d\\ovTS VTTO TTJS aXX?;9 
rov dvBpos Trpoaipeaew dpiaro/cpa- 
/cal AaKO)ViKf)S ovcnjs, 09 76 fcal e/ucrro/cXet 
Trepa TOV BOVTO<> eiraipovn rrjv Brj/^o/cpariav 
avreftaive IJLGT 'ApicrreiSov, teal irpos '(f)id\Tr}v 
vaiepov xdpiri, TOV S^/JLOV KaiaKvovra rrjv % 

8 'Apeiov irdyov fiov\r)V Bi^ve^Orj, \r)jj,/jidTcov 8e 

TOI)? a'XXou? 7rX?)i/ 'ApicrTeiBov /cal 
Tra^ra? dmTn/XTrXa^eVou? opwv, avrov 



KOI dOiKrov etc rfj TroXireia 

/cal Trdvra Trpoi/ea KCLI Ka6apo)<$ Trpdrrovra /cal 
\eyovra Sid reXou? Trapecn^e. 

i ye TOL 'Poicrdrcrjv TLVCL {BdpjSapov djro- 
acrtXew? e\0elv /aera xprj/ndrayv 7ro\\a)V 
et? 'A #7^0,9, real GTraparTo/jievov viro rwv CTVKO- 
(fravrwv /ca7a(j)vyeiv ?rpo? K//xco^a, real Oelvat 
Trapd rrjv av\iov avrov ^>iaXa? Svo, rrjv 
dpyvpeiwv 6{A7r\r](TdiAevov AapeiKcov, rr]v Se 
GWV l&ovra Be rov Kt/zwi'a KOL 
9 TTvOecrOai, rov dvOpaiTrov, irorepov alpelrau Kipcova 
jjLicrdwrov rj (f)i\ov e^eiv' rov Be <$>i'}(Tavro<$ $>i\ov 
" OVKOVV" fydvai, " ravr amSi /nerd creavrov 

yap avrols orav Bew/jiat, 



XI. 'E-Tre! S* ol cri/yLtyLta^ot rovs (f)6pov$ 
CTtXovv, dvBpas Be /cal vavs <o? erd^Orjcrav ov 
rrapel^ov, aXX' aTrayopevovres ijBrj 77/909 ra-9 
<rT/3are/a9, /cal 7ro\ejj,ov ^ev ovBev Beo/jLevoi, yewp- 
yelv Be /cal fjv /ca@* i]avylav eTTiOvfJiovvrev, 
aTrr/XXay^ei'dyv rwv (SapjBdpwv fcai JATJ Bio%\ovv- 

436 



CIMON, i. 6-xi. i 

restored to human life the fabled communism of the 
age of Cronus, the golden age. Those who slan- 
derously said that this was flattery of the rabble and 
demagogic art in him, were refuted by the man's 
political policy, which was aristocratic and Laconian. 
He actually opposed Themistocles when he exalted 
the democracy unduly, as An'stides also did. Later 
on he took hostile issue with Ephialtes, who, to 
please the people, tried to dethrone the Council 
of the Areiopagus ; and though he saw all the 
rest except Aristides and Ephialtes filling their 
purses with the gains from their public services, he 
remained unbought and unapproached by bribes, 
devoting all his powers to the state, without recom- 
pense and in all purity, through to the end. 

It is told, indeed, that one Rhoesaces, a Barbarian 
who had deserted from the King, came to Athens 
with large moneys, and being set upon fiercely by 
the public informers, fled for refuge to Cimon, and 
deposited at his door two platters, one filled 
with silver, the other with golden Darics. Cimon, 
when he saw them, smiled, and asked the man 
whether he preferred to have Cimon as his hireling 
or his friend, and on his replying, " As my friend," 
" Well then," said Cimon, take this money with thee 
and go thy way, for I shall have the use of it when I 
want it if I am thv friend." 

i 

XI. The allies continued to pay their assessments, 
but did not furnish men and ships according to allot- 
ment, since they were soon weary of military service, 
and had no need of war, but a great desire to till 
their land and live at their ease. The Barbarians 
were gone and did not harass them, so they neither 

437 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ro>v, ovre ra? vav$ 7r\ijpovv OUT' avSpas atre- 
crreXXof, 01 u(v aXXot (rrparrjyol TWV ' \0rjvalwv 
' CLVTOV? ravra Troielv Kal TOI>? 



vTrdyovres Si/cat? KOI 

2 7rax&f] rrjv dp"^rjv teal \VTrrfpdv e 

Be TTJV evavriav 6$ov ev rfj arparijjLa Tropevo- 
(3iav pev ov&evl TWV 'Ej\\ijva)v Trpoarjye, 
Se \apfSdv(i)V irapd rwv ov j3ov\o/j,ev(iyv 
crQai /cal vavs Kevds, eVet/'Of? eta Se\ea- 
rf) a"X,o\f) Trepl rd oiKela SLaTpifieiv, 
real ^prj^ana-rd^ d7ro\euovs etc 7ro\e- 
VTTO rpv(f)ij<f Kal avoids yvo/jLevovs, TWV 8' 
'AOrjvaicov dvd pepos TroXXoz)? eaftiftd^wv Kal 
SiaTrovwv rat? (Trpareiais ev o\iya) %p6v(p rot? 
Trapd rcou crv fM^d'^wv atcrOoL^ Kal xpij/jLa&i, SecrTro- 

3 ra? avrwv TWV SiSovrwv eTroirjcre. ir\eovTa<; ydp 

Kal Bia p^et/oo? e^ovra? del rd 



O7r\a Kal Tpefyofjievovs Kal dcrKovvras CK 
avTwv da-Tpareias l eOia-Oevre^ <f>o/3elcr0ai 
Ko\aK6i>iv, e\a6ov dvrl <rv f^fjid^cov uTroreXet? Kal 
BOV\OL yeyovorcs. 

XIT. Kat /jirjv avrov ye rov /j,eyd\,ov /8a<7i\ew5 
ovSels eraTreivwcre Kal crvvecrTeiXe TO <f)p6vr)/jia 
/jid\\ov rj Kijjiwv. ov ydp dvrJKev eic TT}? 'EX- 
XaSo? d7rr)\\ayjjLevov, aXX* axnrep K TTO^O? 
, Trplv Btajrveva'ai Kal (Trfjvai, rovs fiap- 
, ra fjLev eiropOei, Kai Karecrrpe^eTO, ra Se 
d<j)i(rrrj Kal Trpoat/yero rot? "EiXXrjcriv, axrre rrjv 
'Acrtai' a 1 na^fXta? TTavrdrracrL 



the correction of Reiske, adopted by Sintenis 
and Bekker. The MSS., including S, have trrparfias, which 
must be referred to the Athenians. So Coraes. 

438 



CIMON, XL MIL i 

manned their ships nor sent out soldiers. The rest 
of the Athenian generals tried to force them to 
do this, and by prosecuting the delinquents and 
punishing them, rendered their empire burdensome 
and vexatious. But Cimon took just the opposite 
course when he was general, and brought no com- 
pulsion to bear on a single Hellene, but accepted 
money from those who did not wish to go out 
on service, and ships without crews, and so suffered 
the allies, caught with the bait of their own ease, 
to stay at home and become tillers of the soil 
and unwarlike merchants instead of warriors, and all 
through their foolish love of comfort. On the other 
hand, he made great numbers of the Athenians man 
their ships, one crew relieving another, and imposed 
on them the toil of his expeditions, and so in a little 
while, by means of the very wages which they 
got from the allies, made them lords of their 
own paymasters. For those who did no military 
service became used to fearing and flattering those 
who were continually voyaging, and for ever under 
arms and training, and practising, and so, before 
they knew it, they were tributary subjects instead of 
allies. 

XII. And surely there was no one who humbled 
the Great King himself, and reduced his haughty 
spirit, more than Cimon. For he did not let him go 
quietly away from Hellas, but followed right at his 
heels, as it were, and before the Barbarians had come 
to a halt and taken breath, he sacked and overthrew 
here, or subverted and annexed to the Hellenes 
there, until Asia from Ionia to Pamphylia was 



VOL. n. p 439 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



2 HepcriK&v O7r\a>v epr)/j,$)(rai. TrvOo/jievos 8 rovs 
/3a(TtXe&>9 <rrparrjyovs /.leydXa) (rrparw KOI vaval 486 
TroXXat? e(f>eSpvei,v Trepi TIa/jL(j)v\iav, KOI &OV\Q- 
/jivo<f avrols dir\ovv teal dvefiiftarov oX&>? LTTO 
(f>6(3ov rrjv eVro? XeXt8<Wa>v iroir\cra<TQ 
rav, a>pfir)(TV apas OLTTO KviSov /cal 



rpirjpea-i, TT/JO? {lev ra%o? air 
Trepiaycoyrjv VTTO He/xtcrTO/cXeou? aptcrra 



/career tcevaajjievcus, etcevos e rore Ka 
7roirj(TV auras KOI BidjSaaLv rot? 
eBoj/cev, co? av VTTO iroXkwv oirXirwv 

3 irpoa-^epoivro rot? TroXe/uof,?. eViTrXeucra? Se 
TroXet ra>^ Oatr^Xtrwz/, 'EXX^w^ /zez/ ovrwv, ov 
Be^o/jievcov Be rov crroXov ov&e fiovXo/jievwv d<j)i- 
crra(T0ai /9acrtXea)?, rrjv re ^wpav /carco)? 

Kal l jrpocre(3a\\e rot? refyeaiv. ol Se Xtot 
TrXeoz/re? avrq>, TT/OO? 3e TOW? QaarfXiras e/c 
nra\aiov <f)i\t,/ca)$ e^ovres, a/ma /Jiev rov ~K.Lp.wva 
'Ov, apa 5e roevovre<; virep ra rei-)(rj 
TTpocncei/jLeva rot? oia-rols e^yye\\ov 

4 rot? OacTT/Xtrat?. reXo? 5e Siij\\af;v l avrovs, 
OTTO)? 5e/ca rd\avra 8o^re? d/coXovdwai /cal <7U- 
(rrparevcao-iv eVt TOU? (Sapftdpovs. 

"Ecj^o/309 yttei' GUI/ Tidpavarijv (frycrl rwv ftacn- 
\IKWV vewv ap%i,v /cal rov rre^ov ^epevBdrrjir, 
KaXXto-^e^? 8' 'Apto/JLdvSrjv rov Twfipvov Kvpico- 
rarov ovra rr}? Su^a/Aea)? irapa rov QvpvfjieSovra 
rat? vavcrl Trapop/jLeiv, ov/c ovra /JLa^eadat, rols 
EXX77O~t rrpo0v(jLov, aXXa TrpocrSexo/jLevov oySoij- 
Kovra vavs QoivLdcras diro KvTrpov TTpoarr\e- 



ev Corals and Bekker give S^XAa^a?', as does S, 
referring to the Chians as reconciling the two hostile parties. 

440 



CIMON, i. 3-4 

entirely cleared of Persian arms. Learning that the 
generals of the King were lurking about Pamphylia 
with a great army and many ships, and wishing to 
make them afraid to enter at all the sea to the west 
of the Chelidonian isles, he set sail from Cnidus 
and Triopium l with two hundred triremes. These 
vessels had been from the beginning very well con- 
structed for speed and manoeuvring by Themistocles ; 
but Cimon now made them broader, and put bridges 
between their decks, in order that with their numer- 
ous hoplites they might be more effective in their 
onsets. Putting in at Phaselis, which was a Hellenic 
city, but refused to admit his armament or even to 
abandon the King's cause, he ravaged its territory 
and assaulted its walls. But the Chians, who formed 
part of his fleet and were of old on friendly terms 
with the people of Phaselis, laboured to soften 
Cimon's hostility, and at the same time, by shooting 
arrows over the walls with little documents attached, 
they conveyed messages of their success to the men 
of Phaselis. So finally Cimon made friends with 
them on condition that they should pay ten talents 
and join him in his expedition against the Bar- 
barians. 

Now Ephorus says that Tithraustes was com- 
mander of the royal fleet, and Pherendates of the 
infantry ; but Callisthenes says that it was Ario- 
mandes, the son of Gobryas, who, as commander-in- 
chief of all the forces, lay at anchor with the fleet 
off the mouth of the Eurymedon, and that he was 
not at all eager to fight with the Hellenes, but was 
waiting for eighty Phoenician ships to sail up from 

1 About 467 B.C. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ravra<; $Qr\vai /3ov\6[jLevo<; o 
/3ide(r6ai TrapeaKevacr/jLevos, av eKo 

ol Be Trpwrov /Jiev, o><? //,?) 
et? TOV irorafjiov elawp/JLia-avro, irpocr- 
<f>epo/JiV(i)v &e TWV * &.6r]vaia)v 
&)? i&TOpel t&avoBriijLos, e^/caocrtat? vavalv, 
8' "E<o/>o9, TrevTTjKovra KOI Tpicucocriais. epyov 
Be Kara yovv rqv OaXarrav ov$ev VTT CLVTWV 
6 7rpd%0rj TT}? SvvdfjLews a^tov, aXV evOvs 
Tr)V 'yijv d7ro(TTpe<f)ovTes e^eTTurrov ol 
real Karetyevyov et? TO Tre^bv 6771)9 
vov, ol Be Kara\afjL^av6fJLevoL Biefydelpovro 
rwv vewv. o> KOI BTJ\OV e&riv, on 7ra/x7roXXat 
al TreTrXrjpca/jLevat TO?? ftapfidpois vfjes rjcrav, 



ore 




Be 

ol ' A.0rjvaloi. 
XIII. Twv Be ire^wv eTriKarafidvTcov TT/OO? rrjv 
6d\acrcrav fieya fiev epyov efaivero TM KL/JLGWI, 
TO (3id%a6ai rrjv airoftaaiv KOL 
cLKpria-i Kal 7roXXa7r\ao~tot5 eTrdyeiv 
vas, o/ta)? Be pco/jiTf /ecu (f)povij^ari, TOV tcparelv 
opwv eTrrjpfjievovs Kal TrpoQv/jiovs o/mocre ^wpelv 
Tot? ftapfidpots, aTreftifta^e TOU? oTrXtVa? en 
Oep/jiovs TW Karct, TTJV vavfia^iav dywvt, 
2 Kpavyri? KOL Bpopov 7rpoo~(>epo/jLevov<i. 
rcov Be TWV TLepacov Kal Be^afjuevcav OVK 
Kparepa /^d^tj crvvearrj- KOI TMV 

dyaOol Kal rot? dfyw/jLao'i, irpwroi 
s eTrecrov. iro\\w S' dy&vi 

442 



CIMON, xii. s-xin. 2 

Cyprus. Wishing to anticipate their arrival, Cimon 
put out to sea, prepared to force the fighting if his 
enemy should decline an engagement. At first the 
enemy put into the river, that they might not be 
forced to fight ; but when the Athenians bore down 
on them there, they sailed out to meet them. They 
had six hundred ships, according to Phanodemus ; 
three hundred and fifty, according to Ephorus. 
Whatever the number, nothing was achieved by 
them on the water which was worthy of such a force, 
but they straightway put about and made for shore, 
where the foremost of them abandoned their ships 
and fled for refuge to the infantry which was drawn 
up near by ; those who were overtaken were de- 
stroyed with their ships. Whereby also it is plain 
that the Barbarian ships which went into action 
were very numerous indeed, since, though many, 
of course, made their escape and many were de- 
stroyed, still two hundred were captured by the 
Athenians. 

XIII. When the enemy's land forces marched 
threateningly down to the sea, Cimon thought it a 
vast undertaking to force a landing and lead his 
weary Hellenes against an unwearied and many 
times more numerous foe. But he saw that his men 
were exalted by the impetus and pride of their 
victory, and eager to come to close quarters with 
the Barbarians, so he landed his hoplites still hot 
with the struggle of the sea-fight, and they advanced 
to the attack with shouts and on the run. The 
Persians stood firm and received the onset nobly, 
and a mighty battle ensued, wherein there fell brave 
men of Athens who were foremost in public office 
and eminent. But after a long struggle the Athenians 

443 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rot"? j3ap/3dpov<? KTivov, elra rjpovv avrovs 
re Kal crKrivas rravroBaTrow ^p 
3 KL/AWV cT wcrrrep ud\rjrr]S Beivos rj/juepa 
&vo rcaOrjpriKtoS dy(i)Vicrp,ara t Kal TO /JLW ev 
Tre^o/jLa^ia, TO S* ev T\Xaraial(; vav- 
ici 7rap\rj\v0a)S rpoTraiov, i 

, Kal Ta? oy&orj/covra <$>oivi(rcra.<j 
at T?}? ytia^r;? d7re\L<j)0'rj(rav, f 'T>pw 7rpoa-{36/3\rj- 
icevai 7rv06/j.evo<; &ta rd^ov 
el&orwv /3e/3aiov OVTTCI) Trepl TT}? /zet^bro? 



en 



4 yLteTCO/3&)? %OVTCi)V' f] KOI 



diruikecrav Ta? raO? aTracra?, /cat 

ol TrXetcrTOfc a-vvSietpOdpTjcrav. rovro TO epyov 



Ta7Tta>o-e T yvaijjLrjv rov 



ITTTTOV fjiev ^pojjiov del rrj<; e R\\rjvi/cr)s dire 
@a\d<T 0*775, eVSov 8e Kvavecov Kal 
fiaKpa vrjl KOI ^a\K/ji(36\a) pr) TT\IV. 
5 KatVot Ka\\icr0vr]$ ov (frrjcri, ravra 

rov ftdpftapov, epyy 8e TTOIGLV Sia (>6/3ov 
e/eeivrjs, Kal fiaKpav OUTO)? a7ro(JTr\vai 



TrevTij/covra vavcrl lepi/c\ea 
rptdfcovra fjiovais *E,(f)id\Trjv eireKeiva 7T\evcrai 
\\t&ovio)v Kal /j,r)Scv a^Tot? vavriKov dTravTrjaai, 
6 irapa TWV fBapftdpwv. ev Be Tot? ^^t'o-yuao-fz/, 
a o-vvrjyaye Kparepos, dvrlypafya crvvdrjKcov a 

t. cfracrl 8e Kal 



444 



CIMON, xin. 2-6 

routed the Barbarians with slaughter, and then 
captured them and their camp, which was full of all 
sorts of treasure. 

But Cimon, though like a powerful athlete he 
had brought down two contests in one day, and 
though he had surpassed the victory of Salamis 
with an infantry battle, and that of Plataea with 
a naval battle, still went on competing with his 
own victories. Hearing that the eighty Phoenician 
triremes which were too late for the battle had 
put in at Hydrus, 1 he sailed thither with all speed, 
while their commanders as yet knew nothing definite 
about the major force, but were still in distrustful 
suspense. For this reason they were all the more 
panic-stricken at his attack, and lost all their ships. 
Most of their crews were destroyed with the ships. 
This exploit so humbled the purpose of the King 
that he made the terms of that notorious peace, 
by which he was to keep away from the Hellenic 
sea-coast as far as a horse could travel in a day, and 
was not to sail west of the Cvanean and Chelidonian 

j 

isles with armoured ships of war. 

And yet Callisthenes denies that the Barbarian 
made any such terms, but says he really acted 
as he did through the fear which that victory 
inspired, and kept so far aloof from Hellas that 
Pericles with fifty, and Ephialtes with only thirty, 
ships sailed beyond the Chelidonian isles without 
encountering any navy of the Barbarians. But in 
the decrees collected by Craterus there is a copy 
of the treaty in its due place, as though it had 
actually been made. And they say that the Athenians 

1 Hydrus is the name in the MSS. , but no such place is 
known. Syedra is the most probable correction. 

445 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bta ravra rovs *A.0r}vaiov<> lBpv<racr0ai, 
teal Ka\\iav rov irpecr^evcavra rip^cn Biafa- 



povrcos. 

TLpa0evT(t)i> Be rwv al^fjLa\(ora)v \a<f)vpo)v ef? 
re TO, d\\a xprj/jiacriv 6 Brjfios epp(t)cr0r^, ical rfj 



TO voriov T6o? teaT<TK6vacrv air 



einroprfo-as TT}? arpareia^. \eyerai Be teal 
paKpcov rei^wi't a axeX?) Ka\oucri, <TVVT\- 
crdfjvai fMP vcrrepov rrjv olKoBofiLav, rrjv Be 
0fjL\ia)criv et? roTrof? eA.a>8efc< teal 
TWV epywv e/jLTrecrovrcov epeicrOrjvaL Bia 
acr^aXco?, %d\i,Ki Tro\\fj teal \idois jSapecri rwv 
e\(*)V TnecrdevTtov, eiceivov xprj/jiara Tropi^ovros real 
8 BiBovros. 7T/)WT09 Be rat? \yo/jLvai<; eXevdepiois 
teal y\a<f)vpai<; BiaTpiftais, cu fJLiicpov va-repov 
inrepfyvws r)ya7rr]drjo'av,fea\\(t)7rt(T TO acrrv t rrjv 
[lev dyopav TrXardvois teara(f)VTV(Ta<;, rrjv S' 
'A.KaBrjfjii,av e dvvBpov KOI av^fjirjpd<? tcardppVTOv 
aTToBei^as aXtro? rjGtcrmevov {JIT avrov Bpo^ioi^ 
tcaOapols teal crvcrteiois Trepnrdrois. 

XIV. 'E-Tret Be rwv Heptrwv rives ovtc efiov- 
\ovro rrjv XeppovrjGov eteXnreiv, d\\d teal TOI)? 
dvwfiev eiretea\ovvTo rcaratypovovvTef rov 
o? /ACT' 6\Lya)v TravrdTraai rpiqpcov 'AOrj- 
6/c7r7rXeu/coTO?, opurjcras eV auTOi/? recr- 
(rapcri fj^ev vavcrl rpiffteaiBetea Ta<? eiceivwv e\a@ev, 
e^eXacra? Be rovs Ilepcra? teal Kparrjaas rwv pa- 
tccov Trdcrav <pteeia)(Taro rfj TroXet rrjv Xepp6i>r]croi>. 
2 IK, Be rovrov Qaalovs pev dtroGravras ' K6r)vaiu>v 
tearavav/jLa^rja'as rpets teal rpidrcovra vav<$ eXa/3e 
teal rrjv 7r6\tv e%e7ro\i6ptC7)o~ teal ra xpvcrela ra 

446 



CIMON, xiii. 6-xiv. 2 

also built the altar of Peace to commemorate this 
event, and paid distinguished honours to Callias 
as their ambassador. 

By the sale of the captured spoils the people was 
enabled to meet various financial demands, and 
especially it constructed the southern wall of the 
Acropolis with the generous resources obtained from 
that expedition. And it is said that, though the 
building of the long walls, called " legs," was 
completed afterwards, yet their first foundations, 
where the work was obstructed by swamps and 
marshes, were stayed up securely by Cimon, who 
dumped vast quantities of rubble and heavy stones 
into the swamps, meeting the expenses himself. 
He was the first to beautify the city with the so- 
called " liberal ' and elegant resorts which were 
so excessively popular a little later, by planting 
the market-place with plane trees, and by converting 
the Academy from a waterless and arid spot into 
a well watered grove, which he provided with clear 
running-tracks and shady walks. 

XIV. Now there were certain Persians who would 
not abandon the Chersonese, but called in Thracians 
from the North to help them, despising Cimon, who 
had sailed out from Athens with only a few triremes 
all told. 1 But he sallied out against them with 
his four ships and captured their thirteen, drove 
out the Persians, overwhelmed the Thracians, and 
turned the whole Chersonese over to his city for 
settlement. And after this, when the Thasians were 
in revolt from Athens, 2 he defeated them in a sea- 
light, captured thirty-three of their ships, besieged 
and took their city, acquired their gold mines 

1 466 B.G. 8 465 B. a 

447 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Trepav 'Atf^atoj? Trpocrcfcr^araro /cal ^copav, 779 

, rrape\a/3ev. 

Be paBiax; eTriftrjvai, Ma/ce8oz>tas real 
ore/JLecrdai 7rapaa"%6v, a>? eBotcei, /xr; 
air lav ecr^e Bcopois VTTO rov /3a<7jXea>? 
*A\edvBpov (TV^TreTrelarOai, KCU SLK^JV etywye rwv 
3 e^Opwv (TvaravTCDv eV avrov. d7r6\o<yov/j,i>o<? Be 



ovBe 6cro"<xXa>^, TrXoucrta)^ ovrwv, axnrep ere 
'iva OepaTrevtovrai /cal \a^avw(iiv, aXXa Aa- 
/ceBaifjiovicov, yu-^ou/uero? /cat dyaTrwv rrjv Trap 1 
aurot? vre\eiav /cal craxftpocrvvrjv, 979 ovBeva Trpo- 

TifJLCLV "Tr\OVTOV y d\\Ci TT\OVrL^(M)V ttTTO T(WZ> 7TO- 

4 \fJLiwv rrjv TTO\IV d<yd\\e(r6ai. fjLvrjO'deis Be TT}? 
e/ceivrjs 6 ^Trjcri/jifipOTOs <f)r)(rt rrjv 'EX?rt- 
V7Tp rov Kt/Aw^o? Beo/jLvr)v e\0elv eVl ra? 
rov ne/oi/cXeof? (ouro? 7a/o 77 p rail' /cari)- 
yopwv o (T<j)oBp6raTos), rov B fJieiBidaavra 
"Tpavs el," <pdvai, " ypavs, a> J R\7rivi/cr), co? 
rr)\i/cavra BtaTrpdrrecrdat TT pay par a'" TrXrjv ev 
ye ry Bi/crj Trpaorarov ryevecrOai ru> Kt/ifcm /cal 
7T/9O? T^I/ tcarijyopiav a-nat; dvaa-rfjvai JJLOVOV, 
wcnrep d^>ocrLovp,evov. 

XV. 'E/cetV^p yu-ei' OLV airefyvye rrjv BLKTJV ev Be 
rfj \OLTrfi TroXtreta Trapwv fjuev eicpdrei /cal crwe- 
crreXXe rov Brj/jiov ZTTifiaivovra rot? dpiGrow /cal 
rrjv nraaav et? eavrbv dp%i)v /cal Bvva- 
a>? Be 7rd\iv eVl crrpareiav e^eTrXeucre, reXeco? 
oi7ro\\ol /cal crvyyeavres rov KaOearw- 

^ , > / 

ra T?79 7ro\ireta<; KOCT/AOV ra r 



448 



CIMON, xiv. 2 ~xv. i 

on the opposite mainland for Athens, and took 
possession of the territory which the Thasiaiis con- 
trolled there. 

From this base he had a good opportunity, as 
it was thought, to invade Macedonia and cut off 
a great part of it, and because he would not consent 
to do it, he was accused of having been bribed 
to this position by King Alexander, and was actually 
prosecuted, his enemies forming a coalition against 
him. 1 In making his defence before his judges he said 
he was no proxenus of rich lonians and Thessalians, 
as others were, to be courted and paid for their 
services, but rather of Lacedaemonians, whose 
temperate simplicity he lovingly imitated, counting 
no wealth above it, but embellishing the city with 
the wealth which he got from the enemy. In 
mentioning this famous trial Stesimbrotus says that 
Elpinice came with a plea for Cimon to the house 
of Pericles, since he was the most ardent accuser, 
and that he smiled and said, " Too old, too old, 
Elpinice, to meddle with such business." But at 
the trial he was very gentle with Cimon, and took 
the floor only once in accusation of him, as though it 
were a mere formality. 

XV. Well then, Cimon was acquitted at this trial. 
And during the remainder of his political career, 
when he was at home, he mastered and constrained 
the people in its onsets upon the nobles, and in its 
efforts to wrest all office and power to itself; but 
when he sailed away again on military service, 2 the 
populace got completely beyond control. They con- 
founded the established political order of things and 
the ancestral practices which they had formerly 

1 463 E.G. * 462 B.C. See chapter, xvii. 

449 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



2 fypwvTO rrpOTepov, 

XOVTO T?)<; ej; 'Apeiov rrdyov ftovXrj? ra? 
TT\IJV 6\iya)V dirdcraSj fcal 
Kvpiovs eavTovs TroujcravTes els afcparov 
Kpariav eveftaXov rrjv irciKiv, tfSrj KOI 

Bwa/UL6VOV KOL T TCOZ/ 7TO\\(t)V 



tea TOV tytift)z/O9, a>? eTravrev, yavaKTOvvros 
eVl TW TrOTrrXaKi^ecrOaL TO dLwfJLa TOV avve- 



Spiov, /ecu TreipwfJLGvov 7rd\iv dvw ra? 
dvatca\elcr0ai KOI Trjv eVl K\i(T0evov<; eyeipeiv 
dpiO'TOKpaTiav, Kare06a)V a-vviarrd/JLevoi, /cal TOV 
3 ^ij/Jiov e^rjpeOi^ov, Keivd T ra Trpo? ri] 
dvaveov/Jievoi KOI AaKtovia/jibv 7TiKa\ovvTes. 
a fcal ra Ev7roXt8o9 BtareOpvXrjrat, Trepl Kt 



rf 

QTl 



aTre/cot/^ar* av e 






el 8* dfji\&v KCU fjieQva-KOfjLevos Toaavras 

rocraura9 viKas evLtcrjcre, &fj\ov on 



avrov KOL 7r/}o<je^oi>TO9 ouSels" ai' cure 
TTporepov ovre TWV 



XVI. *Hvi,ev ovv dir 



ye TraiBcov TMV oi&vpwv TOV erepov 

lov tovo/jiCKTe, TOV S' eTepov 'HXetoz/, etc yvvaitcos 



Bio 7roXXa/a9 TOV HepitcXea TO 
aurot9 yevos oveiou^etv. AtoSa>/309 6' o Ylepirjyij- 
Kal TOVTOVS foiarl fcal TOV TQ'ITQV TWV 



45 



CIMON, xv. i-xvi. i 

observed, and under the lead of Ephialtes they 
robbed the Council of the Areiopagus of all but a 
few of the cases in its jurisdiction. They made them- 
selves masters of the courts of justice, and plunged 
the city into unmitigated democracy, Pericles being 
now a man of power and espousing the cause of the 
populace. And so when Cimon came back home, 
and in his indignation at the insults heaped upon 
the reverend council, tried to recall again its juris- 
diction and to revive the aristocracy of the times of 
Cleisthenes, they banded together to denounce him, 
and tried to inflame the people against him, renew- 
ing the old slanders about his sister and accusing 
him of being a Spartan sympathiser. It was to 
these calumnies that the famous and popular verses 
of Eupolis about Cimon had reference : 

" He was not base, but fond of wine and full of 

sloth, 
And oft he 'Id sleep in Lacedaemon, far from 

home, 
And leave his Elpinice sleeping all alone." 

But if, though full of sloth and given to tippling, he 
yet took so many cities and won so many victories^ 
it is clear that had he been sober and mindful of his 
business, no Hellene either before or after him 
would have surpassed his exploits. 

XVI. It is true indeed that he was from the first 
a philo-Laconian. He actually named one of his 
twin sons Lacedaemonius, and the other Eleius, 
the sons whom a woman of Cleitor bare him, as 
Stesimbrotus relates, wherefore Pericles often 
reproached them with their maternal lineage. But 
Diodorus the Topographer says that these, as well 

451 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



viwv %ecr(ra\ov e 'ItroSt/o?? yeyovevai 

2 HLvpV7rTO\ejiiov TOV MeyaK\Ov<;. t]vt;r)6ri 8' VTTO 
T&V AaKeSaifAoviwv 7/87; TU> (*)eyLU<7To/cXe 

\fJiOVVT<JL>V Kal TOVTOV OVTCL VSOV V * A0 t'j 

pa\\ov ia"%veiv teal Kpareiv fiovXo/uevcov. ol 
S' ' AOrjvaioi TO irpwTov rj&ews eaapwv ov /juicpa TT}? 
TT/OO? eicelvov evvoias rwv ^Trapriarwv airo\avov- 
r9* av^avo/jL6voi<t yap CLVTOLS tear* ap^a^ KOI ra 
(TVfifJLa\iKa TroXvTrpay/uovovaiv ov/c rj^dovro 

3 KCU %dpiTi, TOV Ki/Acoi'o?. TO, yap 7r\elcrra 



eiceivov 



rot? o-fyu/ia^ot?, /ce^aptcryLteVa)? Be rot? 
/JLOVLOIS O/J.I\OVVTOS. enreira $vvaT(i>Tepoi yevo- 
[j,evoi Kal TOV Kt/xw^a rot? ]S7ra/3Tiara9 OVK 
ripe/ma r jrpo<TKeLfiVov opwwres rj^dovro. KOI yap 
avro? 7rl Trai/rl fieyaXvvwv Trjv Aa/ce&ai/jLova 
'AQrjvaiovs, Kal fid\i(rra ore TV%OI /j,/jL(f)6- 
aurot? 17 irapo^vvwv, eo? (prjcn ''rr]a-i/j,/3pOTo<; ) 
\eyeiv " 'AXX' ov AaKeBai/jLovioi ye 
4 rotouTOt." oOev $>0ovov eavry crvvrjye 
Bva fiiveidv Tiva irapa rcov 7ro\LTO)v. 

C H S* ovv layycracra /J>d\ia-ra /car* avrov 
&ia/3o\(*)V alrlav ecr^e Toiavrrjv. 'Ap%i&dfjLOv TOV 



TeTapTOv 1 ero? ev 
TO? VTTO a-eiff/jLov p,6yicrTov Brj TMV 
rrporepov r) T 

aiv ev(i>\t,a6 tro\\(>l^ Kal TCOV TavyeTMV 
GevT(t>v Kopv&ai Tives aTreppdyrjaav, avrij 8 
TroXi? 6\r) ffwevvOr) rr\r)v OLKIWV Trez/re, ra? 
aXXa? rjpei^rev o 



Bekker adopted Niebuhr's correction to Tr<ra- 
pfffnaiStKaTov fourteenth. 



CIMON, xvi. 1-4 

as the third of Cimon's sons, Thessalus, were born 
of Isodice, the daughter of Euryptolemus, the son 
of Megacles. And he was looked upon with favour 
by the Lacedaemonians, who soon were at enmity 
with Thernistocles, and therefore preferred that 
Cimon, young as he was, should have the more 
weight and power in Athens. The Athenians were 
glad to see this at first, since they reaped no slight 
advantage from the good will which the Spartans 
showed him. While their empire was first growing, 
and they were busy making alliances, they were not 
displeased that honour and favour should be shown to 
Cimon. He was the foremost Hellenic statesman, 
dealing gently with the allies and acceptably with the 
Lacedaemonians. But afterwards, when they became 
more powerful, and saw that Cimon was strongly 
attached to the Spartans, they were displeased 
thereat. For on every occasion he was prone to 
exalt Lacedaemon to the Athenians, especially when 
he had occasion to chide or incite them. Then, as 
Stesimbrotus tells us, he would say, " But the Lace- 
daemonians are not of such a sort." In this way 
he awakened the envy and hatred of his fellow- 
citizens. 

At any rate, the strongest charge against him arose 
as follows. When Archidamus, the son of Zeuxida- 
mus, was in the fourth year of his reign at Sparta, 1 
a greater earthquake than any before reported rent 
the land of the Lacedaemonians into many chasms, 
shook Taygetus so that sundry peaks were torn away, 
and demolished the entire city with the exception 
of five houses. The rest were thrown down by the 
earthquake, 

1 464 B.C. 

453 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



5 *Ei> Be }A<Tr) rfj a~roa yv^va^of^evcov O/JLOV 
e<fil3(i)v /cal r&v veavicTKwv \eyerai fjurcpov irpo 
rov creia-jjLov \aywv irapatfravrjvai, KOI TGI/? fj,ev 
veavicrtcovs, axnrep rjcrav a\,rj\ifj,jj,voi, 
TratSta? e/cBpa/Aeiv KOI SiMtceiv, rot? 8' 
v7ro\i<f)0L<n:V eirnrecrelv Toyvfjivdcriov KOI 

O/JLOV reXevrijcrai. TOV Be rd(j)ov avrwv GTI vvv 
Set<r jjiaTiav Trpocrayopevovat,. 

6 Ta^i) $r) cruviStiyv airo rov irapbvros rov jne\- 
\ovra KivSvvov 6 'Ap^tSa/^o?, KCLI rot/? TroXt'xa? 48 
opS)V /c rwv OLKicov ra nfjaayrara 

/le/'Of? <r<w^ei^, 6/ce\V(T rrj cr<i\7ri,yyi, 
vew, w? 7ro\/jLLO)v 7ri6vro)V, OTTW? on, 

a rwv 6 r jr\wv aQpoit^vrai TT/JO? avrov. o 



/cal pbvov ev TO) Tore tcaipa) rr)v ^LTrprrjv 
crev. ol yap eiXeore? eV rwv dypwv 
Travra^oOev &>? dvapTraabfJievoL rovs 
7 rwv *5LirapriaTu>v. a)7r\icr/jievovs Be teal crvvre- 
evpovres dve^iitp^crav eVl ra? TroXef? 
TTo\e/j,ovv, ru>v re TrepioL/ccov dva- 
OVK 6\iyov<t, real MecrcrrjvLajv a/JLa rot? 



ovv ol AatceBaL/jiovioi, TIepiK\,ei$av 
et? 'A^Va? Beojuevoi f3or)6elv, ov tyrjcri 



enl rot? 



8 ev <poivifciBi o~rparidv eTrcureii'. 'E(/)/aXTOf Be 
K(o\vovro<; 



em 



av KelcrOai ical 7rarr)0i}vai TO <^po^yu,a T/}? 
^Trdprrjs, Kt/z&)m ^>7/<rt K/otrta? rr/i^ TT}? 
avgrj<riv V varepw Qe^evov rov 



454 



CIMON, xvi. 5-8 

It is said that while the young men and youths 
were exercising together in the interior of the colon- 
nade, just a little before the earthquake, a hare made 
its appearance, and the youths, all anointed as they 
were, in sport dashed out and gave chase to it, but 
the young men remained behind, on whom the gym- 
nasium fell, and all perished together. Their tomb, 
even down to the present day, they call Seinmatias. 

Archidamus at once comprehended from the 
danger at hand that which was sure to follow, and 
as he saw the citizens trying to save the choicest 
valuables out of their houses, ordered the trumpet 
to give the signal of an enemy's attack, in order that 
they might flock to him at once under arms. This was 
all that saved Sparta at that crisis. For the Helots 
hurriedly gathered from all the country round about 
with intent to despatch the surviving Spartans. But 
finding them arrayed in arms, they withdrew to 
their cities and waged open war, persuading many 
Perioeci also so to do. The Messenians besides 
joined in this attack upon the Spartans. 

Accordingly, the Lacedaemonians sent Pericleidas 
to Athens with request for aid, and Aristophanes 
introduces him into a comedy as " sitting at the altars, 
pale of face, in purple cloak, soliciting an army." 1 
But Ephialtes opposed the project, and besought the 
Athenians not to succour nor restore a city which 
was their rival, but to let haughty Sparta lie to be 
trodden under foot of men. Whereupon, as Critias 
says, Cimon made his country's increase of less 
account than Sparta's interest, and persuaded the 

1 Lysistrata, 1137 S. 

455 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



(TVfjL<pepoi>TO<; dvarreiaavra rov 

a TTO\\WV orr\Lrwv. 6 

teal rov \6yov, c5 jjidXiorra rov? 

Trapa/caXtov ^]re rrjv 
rrjv 



XVII. 'Evret Se ftorjQrfcras rot? 

Sia KopivOov ryv arpartav ayow, e 

avTU) Trp'tv evrv^etv rot? 
elcrayayovri, TO (rrpdrevfjia' KOL yap dupav tco- 
tyavras a\\orpiav OVK elcrLevai Trporepov rj TOV 

KVplOV K\V<Tat. KOi Kt/Zft)!' ' 'AXX' OV% L'yU.et?," 

elirev, " a) Ad^apre, ra? }L\ewvaiwv KOI Meyapeayv 
7ruXa9 Kotyavres, d\\a Karaa-^ia-avTe^ elcreftid- 
aaaOe yuera rwv O7r\a>v di;ioi>i>T6<; avewyevai 
irdvra rot? /xei^ov SwaiJievots" ovra) [lev eOpa- 
crvvaro TT/DO? rov KopivQtov ev Seovn, teal 



2 Oi 8e AaKe&aiiJLovioi TOU? 'A.0rjvalpvs 

Ka\ovv eVt Tou? ev '[dto/jir) M.ffa"r)viovs teal 
etA.a)Ta?, e\6ovru>v ^e r^v roX/JLav KOI rrjv \a/j,- 
irpor^ra SetVa^re? arrerre^i-^ravro JJLOVOVS rcov 
(TV fjLfjLd^wv &)? vewrepicrrds. ol e 77^09 opyrjv 
drrekObvres i^tf rot? XaKcovi^ovat (fravepcos e'^aXe- 
rrau>ov t KOI rov K.ljj,wva [UKpas 7Ti\a/36/jLevoi 
7rpo<j)d.(T(i)^ e^warpcLKiaav et? err) Serca- rocrovrov 
yap r)v ^povov rerayfxevov arrcLGi rot? 



e TOVTW rwv AaK$ai/jLoviwv, a>? e 



CLTTO a)Kea)V eva)aravres, ev 



456 



C1MON, xvi. 8-xvn. 3 

people to go forth to her aid with many hoplites. 
And Ion actually mentions the phrase by which, 
more than by anything else, Cimon prevailed upon the 
Athenians, exhorting them "not to suffer Hellas to 
be crippled, nor their city to be robbed of its yoke- 
fellow." 

XVII. After he had given aid to the Lacedaemo- 
nians, he was going back home with his forces through 
the Isthmus of Corinth, when Lachartus upbraided 
him for having introduced his army before he had 
conferred with the citizens. " People who knock at 
doors," said he, " do not go in before the owner bids 
them " ; to which Cimon replied, " And yet you 
Corinthians, O Lachartus, did not so much as knock 
at the gates of Cleonae and Megara, but hewed 
them down and forced your way in under arms, 
demanding that everything be opened up to the 
stronger." Such was his boldness of speech to the 
Corinthian in an emergency, and he passed on 
through with his forces. 

o 

Once more the Lacedaemonians summoned the 
Athenians to come to their aid against the Messe- 
nians and Helots in Ithome, and the Athenians went, 
but their dashing boldness awakened fear, and they 
were singled out from all the allies and sent off as 
dangerous conspirators. They came back home in a 
rage, and at once took open measures of hostility 
against the Laconizers, and above all against Cimon. 
Laying hold of a trifling pretext, they ostracised him 
for ten years. 1 That was the period decreed in all 
cases of ostracism. 

It was during this period that the Lacedaemonians, 
after freeing the Delphians from the Phocians, 

1 461 B.O. 

457 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tavdypa KaraGrparoTreBevaavrcov 'AOtivalot aev 

rwv 



avrov 

wv dfjivvecrOai rov<? AaK$ai/jLoviov<; //.era 
4 rwv TTO\LTWV. fj Se (3ov\r) TWV TrevraKocricov irvOo- 
Kal (f>o/3rjdicra, rwv e%dpwv avrov Kara- 

co? a-vvrapd^ai rr)V <f>d\ayya 
/j,evov Kal rfj 7ro\i 



djrrjyopeva'e rot? (TrpaTrjyois fir) ^e^ecrOai rbv 



rov *Ava(f)\varTiOV Kal TWV a\\wv eraipwv, oaoi 
rrjv rov \aKO)vi^eiv aiTiav ecr%ov, eppwfie- 
dya>vLcracr0ai TT/JO? rou? TroXe/utou? Kal St 
epywv aTTciKvcraa-Oai rrjv alriav TT^O? TOV? 

5 o/ Se \a/36vTS avrov r^v r navo r n\lav 6f9 rov 
eOevro' Kal per d\\rf~\,cov (rvardi'Te 

oVre? eirea'ov, TTO\VV avrwv iroOov 

av e<^* 0*9 rjTidOricrav d$Lxa)$ 
re? rot? ' A.0r)vaioi,<$. odev ov&e T> jrpbs 
S) TTO\VV %povov eve/jLii>av, rd [tev 
eiraOov ev ue/jLvrjuevoi, rd Be rov Kaipov <rv\- 

6 \afjL(3avofJLevov. veviKrjfjieroi, yap ev Tavdypa 49 



err par Lav Yl\07rovv?i<7La)v eV avrovs Ka\ovv K 
TOV Ktyueoi^a* Kal Karrj\0e TO 

avTW HepiK\ov<>. ovrw rare 
Kal IJL&V rjcrav at Bia^opai, uerpioi 8' ol 



458 



CIMON, xvii. 3-6 

encamped at Tanagra on their march back home. 1 
Here the Athenians confronted them, bent on fight- 
ing their issue out, and here Cimon came in arms, to 
join his own Oenei'd tribe, eager to share with his 
fellow-citizens in repelling the Lacedaemonians. 
But the Council of the Five Hundred learned of this 
and was filled with fear, since Cimon's foes accused 
him of wishing to throw the ranks into confusion, 
and then lead the Lacedaemonians in an attack upon 
the city ; so they forbade the generals to receive the 
man. As he went away he besought Euthippus of 
Anaphlystus and his other comrades, all who were 
specially charged with laconizing, to fight sturdily 
against the enemy, and by their deeds of valour to 
dissipate the charge which their countrymen laid at 
their door. They took his armour and set it in the 
midst of their company, supported one another 
ardently in the fight, and fell, to the number of one 
hundred, leaving behind them among the Athenians 
a great and yearning sense of their loss, and sorrow 
for the unjust charges made against them. For this 
reason the Athenians did not long abide by their 
displeasure against Cimon, partly because, as was 
natural, they remembered his benefits, and partly 
because the turn of events favoured his cause. For 
they were defeated at Tanagra in a great battle, and 
expected that in the following spring-time an armed 
force of Peloponnesians would come against them, 
and so they recalled Cimon from his exile. The 
decree which provided for his return was formally 
proposed by Pericles. To such a degree in those 
days were dissensions based on political differ- 
ences of opinion, while personal feelings were 

1 467 B.C. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

teal Trpo? TO KOIVOV eva)'dK\r)TOi (rvfjt<f)epov, fj Be 
(f)i\OTifiia TrdvTwv eTTiKparovcra TCOV iraOwv rot? 
TT)? TraTpi&os VTre^copei Kaipols. 

XVIII. Eu$i)? jxev ovv o Kt/*ft>i> Kare\Oa)V 
e'Xvae TOV irokefjiov KOL &iij\\aj*e ra? TroXei?' 

elpijrrj<; opow rovs ^Kd^vaiov^ 
ayeii' ^rj ^vvafjievovs, a\.\a KLvel<r9ai /cal 
rat? crrpareiai^ /3ov\ofjLevov<j, 'iva 
j rot? r/ EX,\7;cri Sio^Xwcri /jirjBe Tr^pl ra? 

vaval 



atrta? jL(vi(Dv 7roejLwv tea 



prwv a^Y9 CTTia'Tra'tavTat Kara 
2 7r\rfpov SiaKocrias Tpujpeis &)? eV ALJVJTTOV KOI 
KvTrpov av9t,s eKa-Tparevcrojjievo^, afjia, /j,ev f/A- 
av TO?? TTyoo? Tou? ftapftdpov 9 dywai /3ov\6- 
TOL>? 'A^/'a/ou?, a/^a 8' tofaXeicrdat Si/caiws 
a?ro TCOI/ (frvaei 7roXe/u'a)i> evTropias eis rrjv 






8e 



TrapecrKevao'fjLej'cov aTrvTwv tea TOV 
(rrparou irapa Tat? ^at'O'li/ 6Wo? 6Va/9 et^ez^ 6 
3 Kt'yLta)^. ebo/cei KVVCL 6 v [Jbov jjLei>t]v vXafcreiv Trpo? 
avrov, etc Be T)}? u/cXa?}? fuLe/juy/ievov dfyelcrav 



* (^>tXo? 7a/3 e'er?; /eal 



8e Bvcr/cpiTOV TT}? o'-v/rea)? over?)? 
6 DocreiSwi'/aTT;?, {jLavriKos dvrjp Kal crvvijdr)? rfo 
covi, (frpd^ei QdvaTQv av-rw TTpon^jjiaii'eLV rrjv 
, ovro) Siaipcov KVMV dv^pajTrw, TT/JO? 01^ 

i S' OJ)A: ai 



460 



CIMON, xvn. 6-xvm. 3 

moderate, and easily recalled into conformity with 
the public weal. Even ambition, that master passion, 
paid deference to the country's welfare. 

XVIII. Well then, as soon as Cimon returned 
from exile he stopped the war and reconciled the 
rival cities. After peace was made, 1 since he saw 
that the Athenians were unable to keep quiet, but 
wished to be on the move and to wax great by 
means of military expeditions ; also because he wished 
that they should not exasperate the Hellenes gener- 
ally, nor by hovering around the islands and the 
Peloponnesus with a large fleet bring down upon the 
city charges of intestine war, and initial complaints 
from the allies, he manned two hundred triremes. His 
design was to make another expedition with them 
against Egypt and Cyprus. He wished to keep the 
Athenians in constant training by their struggles with 
Barbarians, and to give them the legitimate benefits 
of importing into Hellas the wealth taken from their 
natural foes. 

All things were now ready and the soldiery on the 
point of embarking, when Cimon had a dream. He 
thought an angry bitch was baying at him, and that 
mingled with its baying it uttered a human voice, 
saying : 

" Go thy way, for a friend shalt thou be both to me 
and my puppies." 

The vision being hard of interpretation, Astyphilus of 
Posidonia, an inspired man and an intimate of 
Cimon's. told him that it signified his death. He 
analysed the vision thus : a dog is a foe of the man 
at whom it bays ; to a foe, one cannot be a friend 

1 450 B.C. 

461 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r\vrr)<ra<; <tXo<? yevoiro- rb Be ficjf^a rrjs 
(f)0)vf)<; MrjBov aTToBrjXol rbv %6p6v 6 yap 
4 MijBwv crparbs "\\\r)ariv OJAOV real ftapfidpois 

lL/J,iKrai. fJLEra B TCLVTrfV TTJV otylV CIVTOV TO) 

Aiovvaq) Ovcravros 6 fj^ev pavris ttTrere/ie TO 
lepeiov, rov &* atVaro? TO Trrjyvv/jLevov r/S?; 
/jLvp/Jir)K<; 7ro\\ol XayaySai/o/'T65 Kara fjurcpbv etfrepov 
TTyoo? rov \HifJLwva Kal rov vroSo? rcepl rov jjLeyav 
&d/crv\ov rrepierr\arrov t evrl TTO\VV ^povov \av- 
Odvovres. ayaa Be 7ra>5 o T6 Kt/zwi/ rw yivo^ei'w 
TTpoo-ecr^e KOL Trapijv o 6vri]<t e-TrioeiKi'V/jievo*; avrq* 
rbv \o/3bv OVK e%ovra K(f)a\ijv. 

ov yap r)V dvd&vcriv Tr}? arpareias 



xal ra)V vewv 



t? AiyvTrrov, Tat? 8' aXXeu? rrd\iv . . . e 

5 al KaravavfJLa^rjffa^ fyoivLcr&wv VCMV KCU 
<7wv ftacriXiKov crroXov dvercrdro re Ta? ev 
TroXet? ^at TO?? Trepl Kiyvrrrov efajBpevev, 
fii/cpov, aXX* 6Xr;? tmvowv T^? /3aa"iXea>5 rjye/jio- 
vias Kard\V(7LV, Kal /jid\tcrra on rov e/uicrro- 
AcXeou? 7Tvv6dvero &6%av elvai Kal cvvajuv ev 
TO?? ftap&dpois fieydXrjv, vTro^eBey/jievov 
icivovvri rbv f R\\rjviK,bv rroXe^ov 

6 fjii(rroK\f]<; fiev ovv ou% ij/cicrra \eyerat 
'EXX7;i;t:a? rrpd^eis drroyvovs, &>? ou/c ai; vrrep- 
fia\6fjivo<; ryv K/yu-w^o? i>rv%Lav teal dperrfv, 
Ka)v r\evrr)vai, K.L/JLWV Be /j.eyd\a)v erraij 'Oyuei^o? 
a/9^a? dyojvwv ical Trepl KUTT/JOV crfve^wt' TO 
vavriKov 7re/ji^rev et? " ' KfJLp,wvos av&pas diropprj- 
rov nva pavrelav 7rot,r)crojj,evov<; rrapd r& 

1 IT<A<V . . . fa\d either ird\iv is a corruption (vcpl 
?), or words have fallen out. 



462 



CIMON, xvin. 3-6 

any better than by dying ; the mixture of speech 
indicates that the enemy is the Mede, for the army 
of the Medes is a mixture of Hellenes and Bar- 
barians. After this vision, when Cimon had sacrificed 
to Dionysus and the seer was cutting up the victim, 
swarms of ants took the blood as it congealed, 
brought it little by little to Cimon, and enveloped 
his great toe therewith, he being unconscious of their 
work for some time. Just about at the time when 
he noticed what they were doing, the ministrant 
came and showed him the liver of his victim without 
a head. 

But since he could not get out of the expedition, 
he set sail, and after detailing sixty of his ships to go 
to Egypt, with the rest he made again for Cyprus. 
After defeating at sea the royal armament of Phoeni- 
cian and Cilician ships, he won over the cities round 
about, and then lay threatening the royal enterprise 
in Egypt, and not in any trifling fashion, nay, he 
had in mind the dissolution of the King's entire 
supremacy, and all the more because he learned that 
the reputation and power of Themistocles were great 
among the Barbarians, who had promised the King 
that when the Hellenic war was set on foot he would 
take command of it. At any rate, it is said that it 
was most of all due to Themistocles' despair of his 
Hellenic undertakings, since he could not eclipse the 
good fortune and valour of Cimon, that he took his 
own life. 1 

But Cimon, while he was projecting vast conflicts 
and holding his naval forces in the vicinity of Cyprus, 
sent men to the shrine of Ammon to get oracular 
answer from the god to some secret question. 

1 Cf. Themistocles, xxxi. 4. 

463 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



7 <yt,v(t)(TKi yap ovo'els VTrep wv e 

%pr)(T/uLbv aurot? 6 0eo? e^rjvey/cev, aXX' apa T&> 
TrpocreXOelv exeXevcrev airikvai rou? OeoTrpoTrov^ 
avrov jap r/S?/ rbv KtyLtwrn Trap' eavru) rvy^dveiv 
OVTCL. ravra aKovcravTZS ol OeoTrpoiroi rcare- 
7rl QaXaacrav ryevofievoi Be ev TW arparo- 
&v 'EXX^oji/, o TOT Trepl AtyvTrrov ty, 
eirvOovTO reOvavai rov Kt/xtoi/a' /cal ra? 
TT/oo? TO fiavTeiov avdyovres eyvwaav rj 
rrjv re\evrr)V rov dvBpos, a>? ijBrj jrapa 0eol<i 



XIX. 'ArreOave Be Tro\iopKwv Kmoi>, o>9 ol 49 
TrXetcrrot \eyovo~i, vocnjo~a<$' eviot, Be <f>acriv e/c 

e'cr^e. re\evrwv Be TOU? Trepl avrov etceXevaev 
ev0v<> diroTrKeiv dTroKpv^rafjLevov^ rbv Odvarov 
avrov' KO\ (Tvvej3rj jjnjre r&v TroXe/nitov fAijre 
rcbv (TVfjL/jLd%a)v alcrdo/jLevfov acr^aXco? aurou? 

o~rparrjyovfjLevov<; VTTO 



rpitcovra. 

2 Mera 8e rqv eiceivov re\evrrjv TT/^O? i^ev TOU? 
ftapftdpovs ovBev en \afJLirpov VTT ovo'evbs eTrpd- 
'%0ri (rrparrjyov rwv 'EiXX-rfvcov, d\\d rpaTrevres 
V7TO Brjfjiayayy&v /cal Tro\e^OTroiwv eV* d\\ij\ov<$, 
ov&evbs ra? xeipas ev /^ccreo 8iacr^6vro<;, crvveppd- 
yrjarav t? rbv 7ro\e/-iov, dvaTrvorj /nev rot? (Bacn- 
Xe'ft)? TrpdynacTL yevo/jLevoi, <f)06pov 8' 

3 rrjs 'EtXXrjviKijs $vvd/j,(0s dTrepyao'd^evoi. 

8' ol Trepl rbv 'AyrjaiXaov et? rrjv ' ACT Lav etfevey- 
ra 



464 



CIMON, xvin 6-xix. 3 
No one knows what they were sent to ask. nor did 

y 

the god vouchsafe them any response, but as soon as 
the enquirers drew nigh, he bade them depart, 
saying that Cimon himself was already with him. 
On hearing this, the enquirers went down to the sea- 
coast, and when they reached the camp of the 
Hellenes, which was at that time on the confines of 
Egypt, they learned that Cimon was dead, and 
on counting the days back to the utterance of the 
oracle, they found that it was their commander's 
death which had been darkly intimated, since he was 
already with the gods. 

XIX. He died while besieging Citium, of sickness, 
as most say. 1 But some say it was of a wound which 
he got while fighting the Barbarians. As he was 
dying he bade those about him to sail away at once 
and to conceal his death. And so it came to pass 
that neither the enemy nor the allies understood 
what had happened, and the force was brought back 
in safety " under the command of Cimon," as 
Phanodemus says, " who had been dead for thirty 
days." 

After his death no further brilliant exploit against 
the Barbarians was performed by any general of the 
Hellenes, who were swayed by demagogues and 
partisans of civil war, with none to hold a mediating 
hand between them, till they actually clashed to- 
gether in war. This afforded the cause of the King 
a respite, but brought to pass an indescribable 
destruction of Hellenic power. It was not until long 
afterwards 2 that Agesilaiis carried his arms into Asia 
and prosecuted a brief war against the King's 

1 Thuc. i. 112. a 396-394 B.C. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOU<? e?rt 0a\d<ra7) /3acr/Xeft>? crrpar^yov^ teal 
\afji7rpov ov^ev ov&e /zeya Spdo-avres, 
rat? 'EAA-T/w/ceu? (rrdaea'i real 
ere/oa? ap^s vireve^Oivre^t W^OVTO rovs 
ev jiecrais rat? 



01)8' ITTTTO? TT/OO? 6a\dcrar) rerpaKoa-- 
iwv crra&Lcov eWo? a><j)0r) o-TparrjyovvTOs Ktyu-w^o?. 
"Ort /xez^ ot't' e/<? T^ *A.TTttcr]v dTre/cofjiia'O'rj 
ra \el^rava avrov, /jLaprvpei rwv fivrnjidriav rd 



/tat Ktrtet? -rdfynv Tiva Kt/iwi/o?, w? 

o pijrwp (frrjariv, ev \oifiq> KOI 7% dfyopia 
rov Oeov Trpocrrd^avro^ avrofc fj,rj djjieXelv Kt- 
, aXX' &)? Kpeirrova aefBeaOcu /cal yepaipeiv. 
yuey o 



466 



CIMON, xix. 3-4 

generals along the sea-coast. And even he could 
perform no great and brilliant deeds, but was over- 
whelmed in his turn by a flood of Hellenic disorders 
and seditions and swept away from a second empire. 
So he withdrew, leaving in the midst of allied and 
friendly cities the tax-gatherers of the Persians, not 
one of whose scribes, nay, nor so much as a horse, 
had been seen within four hundred furlongs of the 
sea, as long as Cimon was general. 

That his remains were brought home to Attica, 
there is testimony in the funeral monuments to this 
day called Cimonian. But the people of Citium 
also pay honours to a certain tomb of Cimon, as 
Nausicrates the rhetorician says, because in a time 
of pestilence and famine the god enjoined upon 
them not to neglect Cimon, but to revere and honour 
him as a superior being. Such was the Greek 
leader. 



467 



LUCULLUS 



AOYKOYAAO2 



I. T&> 8e AovKov\\(p TraTTTTO? fjicv rjv v 
Oelos oe 7T/JO? /jLtjrpos MereXXo? o 
7riK\r)0ei<;. TWV Se yovecov o fj,ev Trarijp ka 
Ke/aXia Se 17 fJ>r)T*ip rj& 
craxfipova)?. auro? 8' o 
ert fjieupaKLOv wv, Trplv ap%jjv TLVCL 
KOI TToXtreta? a^aa-Oat, irpwrov epyov etroirjcraTO 
TOV rov Trarpo? Kanjyopov icplvai ^epovi\iov 
avyovpa, \a^cav dSi/covvra Srjjjiocria. KOI TO 
\afj,7rpov ecfxivj] 'Pwyuatot?, /col rrjv 
wcnrep apiffrelav &ta <jTo/iaro? 
. eBo/cei Be teal a\A.&>? auro:? avev 7rpo<pd- 
<7eco? OVK dyevves elvai TO TT;? Karriyoplas epyov, 
d\\a Kal irdvv TOL>? veovs /3ov\ovro TO?? 
d&iKOv<Tiv 7ri<J)vofjivovs opav wcnrep Oripiois evye- 
i/et? (TKi>\afca<}. ov firjv d\\a /teyaX?;? irepl 



ware /ca 



L Tivas Kal irecrelv, direcfrvyev 6 
Xto?. 

3 'O 8e Aou/coiA,\o<? tfa-tcrjTO Kal \eyeiv t/ 
eKarepav y\corrav, WCTTC KOI SuXXa? Ta? avrov 
7rpdei<; dvay pd^cov eWti'ft) TrpoaecfxowiGev a>? o'l'i'- 
Kal StadrjcrovTi. rrjv icropiav a^etvov. 



rjv yap OVK eVt TTJV xpeav povijv e/i/zc.? avrov 
470 



LUCULLUS 



I. IN the case of Lucullus, his grandfather was 
a man of consular rank, and his uncle on his mother's 
side was Metellus, surnamed Numidicus. But as 
for his parents, his father was convicted of peculation, 
and his mother, Caecilia, had the bad name of a 
dissolute woman. Lucullus himself, while he was 
still a mere youth, before he had entered public 
life or stood for any office, made it his first business 
to impeach his father's accuser, Servilius the Augur, 
whom he found wronging the commonwealth. The 
Romans thought this a brilliant stroke, and the 
case was in everybody's mouth, like a great deed 
of prowess. Indeed, they thought the business of 
impeachment, on general principles and without 
special provocation, no ignoble thing, but were very 
desirous to see their young men fastening themselves 
on malefactors like high-bred whelps on wild beasts. 
However, the case stirred up great animosity, so 
that sundry persons were actually wounded and 
slain, and Se vllius was acquitted. 

Lucullus was trained to speak fluently both Latin 
and Greek, so that Sulla, in writing his own memoirs, 
dedicated them to him, as a man who would set 
in order and duly arrange the history of the times 
better than himself. For the style of Lucullus 
was not only businesslike and ready ; the same 

VOL. IL Q 471 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

real Trpo^e^o? o Xoyo?, Ka9d-nep o TWV aXXwv Ti]V 
fjiV dyopav 

tWo? /3oXouo? TreXayo? w? Sita-rpolBei, 

yevo/JLvo<i Be TT}? dyopd? e/CTo? auo?, d/novoria 

4 Te^^VAra)?, aXXa Acal r^ e/JLjj,\ij ravrrjv K.OL 49: 
\yo/Ai]v e\evGepiov eVl TW /caXw 

Trai&eiav ert ^at jjieipaKLov wi>. 
TTpeafivTepos ij&rj TravrdTracriv wairep etc 
d<ya)voov d(j)^JK rr/z/ Suit otav ev (f)i\ocro(f)ia 
:al dvairavea-Oai, TO 6ewp^TiKOi> 
, Kara\vcra<; 8' eV Kdipw teal /coXoucra? TO 

5 (f)i\6n/jLOv K TT}? Trpo? HO/XTTIJLOV $ia(f)0pa<?. irepl 
nei> ovv TT}? (f)i\o\oyia$ avrov TT/^O? rot? elprj^evois 
KCU ravra \eyerai' vkov ovra TT/QO? 'QpTijaiov rov 
8iKo\6yov Kctl *Liaevvav TOV iaropiKov CK TraiSm? 

et? (TTTOvSrjv TrpoeXdovcn'is OLio\oytj(raL, Trpo- 
oirj/jia teal \6yov 'lL\\r)viKov re /cat 
et? o rt ai^ Xa%/7 TOVTWV, TOV Map- 

(TiKOV VTVelv 7r6\/jLOV. KCLL 7T(t)$ OIKV 6/9 \6yOV 

o K\rjpo<i d(fjt/cecr0at,' SiCKTw^erai yap 

Tf? ICTTOpia TOV MapatKOV TToXfyUOl/. 

6 TT}? ^e Trpo? TO^ dSe\(f)bv O.VTUV \ldpKOV evvoias 

KfjLT)piCtyp OVTOOV /JLU\l(7Ta 'Poi/jLaiOl TOV 

jjivrmovevovcri. 7rpecr/3vTpos yap wv 
avTov \aftelv dpxrjv /novo? OVK r}(9eX?;f7^, d\\a 
TOV e/ceivov Kaipbv dvapeivas OVTCOS eTrrjydyero 

41* 



LUCULLUS, i. 3-6 

was true of many another man's in the Forum. 
There, 

" Like smitten tunny, through the billowy sea it 
dashed/' 

although outside of the Forum it was 

O 

" Withered, inelegant, and dead." 

But Lucullus, from his youth up, was devoted to 
the genial and so-called "liberal' culture then in 
vogue, wherein the Beautiful was sought. And 
when he came to be well on in years, he suffered 
his mind to find complete leisure and repose, as 
it were after many struggles, in philosophy, en- 
couraging the contemplative side of his nature, and 
giving timely halt and check, after his difference 
with Pompey, to the play of his ambition. Now, 
as to his love of literature, this also is reported, in 
addition to what has already been said : when he 
was a young man, proceeding from jest to earnest 
in a conversation with Hortensius, the orator, and 
Sisenna, the historian, he agreed, on their suggestion 
of a poem and a history, both in Greek and Latin, 
that he would treat the Marsic war in whichever 
of these forms the lot should prescribe. And it 
would seem that the lot prescribed a Greek history, 
for there is extant a Greek history of the Marsic 
war. 

Of his affection for his brother Marcus there 
are many proofs, but the Romans dwell most upon 
the first. Although, namely, he was older than 
his brother, he was unwilling to hold office alone, 
but waited until his brother was of the proper 
age, and thus gained the favour of the people 

473 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOV Srj/jiov, UXTTC GVV e/ceivqy fj,r) irapwv dyopavo/jios 
aipeOi]vat. 

II. Neo? 5' wv ev TO) Mapa-iKW TroXe///*) TroXXa 
fj,V ToX/Ar;? Seij/nara Trapecr^e KCU avveaecos, 
fjia\\ov ye /j,rjv avTov 8S evarddeiav KOLI 
Si^XXa? TrpoarjydyeTO, Kal ^pco/xei/o? air 
7rl ra TrXetVrr;? a%ia ffTrovSrjs StereXecrezr wv rjv 

2 /cal f) Trepl TO voyncr^a TT pay par eta. &' exeivov 
yap eVovr?; TO vrXetcrTO^ v Yle\O7rovv)]a'(D Trepl TOV 

^llOpl&aTLKQV 7rO\.fJLOV, Kal AOVKOV\\IOV aTT* 

e/ceiuov Trpoa'rjyopevdij, /cal SiereXecrev eVl vrXet- 

(TTOV, U7TO TO)V (TTpaTlWTlKWV ^peitoV V TO) 7TO\/jL(t) 

\an$avov dfJLOi/3r)V Ta^elav. etc TOVTOV Trjs [lev 
77)5 eTriKparwv 6 SuXXa? eV Tat? 'A.fiijvaK, Trepi- 
O/jLevos 8e rrjv dyopav IK T>)? $aXaTT?;? VTTO 
7TO\efjLLa)V vavfcparovvTCDV, e^eire^i^rev eV 
Kal Aifivrj? rov A.OVKOV\\OV agovra 

3 vavs etceWev. fjv /nets ovv aK^rj ^et/^wfo?, e'^e- 

8e rpicrlv 'EXX^n/eot? /jLvoTrdpwcri Kal 
i? 'Poo\a/cat? Trpo? yue^a TreXayo? /cal 
7roX.e/.tta5, Travra^oa-e TW KpaTeiv 7ro\Xa? 
, 7rapa/3aXXo/i6^09. ou /u^ aXXa 
l Kprjrrjv Kardpas (aKeiwo-aro Kal 
Kara\a(Bu>v eK Tvpavvi&wv (rvve^ayv KOI 
Taparrofjievov^ dveXafte, Kal Karea-rtjaaTO rrjv 
7ro\iTeiav 






4 &eo/j,ev(i)v ydp, OK eoiKev, OTTO)? Te v6} 
Kal TOV Srj/Jiov avrbv 6i? TVTTOV Ttvd 

474 



LUCULLUS, i. 6-n. 4 

to such an extent that, although in absence from the 
city, he was elected aedile along with his brother. 

II. Though he was but a young man in the Marsic 
war, 1 he gave many proofs of courage and under- 
standing. It was, however, more owing to his 
constancy and mildness that Sulla attached him to 
himself and employed him from first to last on 
business of the highest importance. Such, for 
instance, was the management of the mint. Most 
of the money used in Peloponnesus during the 
Mithridatic war was coined by him, and was called 
Lucullean after him. It remained current for a long 
time, since the wants of the soldiery during the war 
gave it rapid circulation. Afterwards, at Athens, 
Sulla found himself master on land, but cut off from 
supplies by sea, owing to the superior naval force of 
the enemy. He therefore despatched Lucullus to 
Egypt and Libya, 2 with orders to fetch ships from 
there. Winter was then at its worst, but he sailed 
forth with three Greek brigantines and as many 
small Rhodian galleys, exposing himself not only to 
the high sea, but to numerous hostile ships which 
were cruising about everywhere in full mastery of it. 
However, he put in at Crete and won it over to his 
side. He also made Cyrene, and finding it in con- 
fusion in consequence of successive tyrannies and 
wars, he restored it to order, and fixed its constitution, 
reminding the city of a certain oracular utterance 
which the great Plato had once vouchsafed to them. 
They asked him, it would seem, to write laws for 
them, and to mould their people into some form of 
sound government, whereupon he said that it was 
hard to be a lawgiver for the Cyrenaeans when they 

1 90-89 B.C. 87-86 B.C. 

475 






PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vofJiodeTeiv. ovBev yap dvOpco- 
TTOV Bu<rapKTOTepov ev Trpdacreiv BOKOVVTOS, 
ovB* av TraXil/ BeKTiKcoTtpov eTria'Tacrias avcrTa- 
\evTO$ UTTO TT}? TI^T??. o Kal Tore Ivypv/yatof? 
vo/j,o9eTOVvTi AovKOuXXfi) Trpdovs Trapeo~%6v. 

5 *&KeWev S' dva^Oel 1 ^ eV AlyvTrTov TCI TrXetcrra 

TKatyiov aTrefSaXe Trei.paTWV 7ricj)avevT(i)r, 
Be 8iacro)^a? xaTt'iyeTO Xa/^Trpco? et? 'AXe- 
dTrrjVTrjcreydp avTco crvfjiTras o <TTO\O?, 
elctiflet, /3acri\el KaTa7r\eovTi, 
/xe'z'o? eKTrpeTTO)^' Kal TO (jLeipdiaov o 

TC 6av[Jia<TT^v eTreBeiKWTo (f)i\ocf)pocrvvr)v 
avTov, oiK7)(Tiv Te Kal BiaiTav ev 
Xetot? eBcoKev, ovBev6$ TTW ^evov rrpoTepov rjye/noi 

6 avToOi KaTa*)(0evTO<s. BaTrdvrjv Be xal 

oi>% ocrrjv eBibov rot? aXXot?, aXXa. TTpa7r\rji> 
eKelvw Trapefyev, ov Trpoo'Lefj-evw TCOV dvayKaiwv 
rr\eov ovBev ovBe B(~pov \a(3ovTi, KaiTrep oyBot'j- 
KGVTa Ta\dvTcov dia Tre^i^avTO^ aura). \eyT(n 493 
Me'^<j5' dva^rjvai /nrfr^ aXXo TV 
v ev Alyi>7TTu> Kal 7repi/3o^Tft)v LCTTO- 



Tpv(f)(Ji)i>To<>, ov%, a)? at*ro?, eV viraLOpw TOV 
KpaTOpa o~Kr)vovvTa irapa rai? 7r 



III. 'E?re< 5' avreXtTre T//V <TVfj,fj.avLai> 6 rTroXe- 
?rpo? TO^ vroXe/xoz' aTroSetX^/cra?, etceivw Be 
vavs aj(pi K.v7rpov TTO/XTTOI)? 7rapea")(, Kal TTf.pl 
TOV eKTrXovv avTov d<nra%6/J.evo$ Kat par: GVMV 
e&wpeiTO yj)va.voeTQv (T/jidpayBov TOW 7ro\VTe\a)V t 

476 



LUCULLUS, n. 4-in. i 

were having such good fortune. In fact, nothing is 
more ungovernable than a man reputed to be pros- 
perous ; and, on the other hand, nothing is more 
receptive of authority than a man who is humbled 
by misfortune. This was what made the Cyrenaeans 
at that time so submissive to Lucullus as their law- 
giver. 

From thence he set sail for Egypt, but was 
attacked by pirates, and lost most of his vessels. 
He himself, however, escaped in safety, and entered 
the port of Alexandria in splendid style. The entire 
Egyptian fleet came to meet him, as it was wont to 
do when a king put into port, in resplendent array, 
and the youthful Ptolemy, besides showing him other 
astonishing marks of kindness, gave him lodging and 
sustenance in the royal palace, whither no foreign 
commander had ever been brought before. The 
allowance which the king made for his expenses was 
not the same as others had received, but four times 
as much, and yet he accepted nothing beyond what 
was actually necessary, and took no gift, although 
he was offered the worth of eighty talents. It is 
also said that lie neither went up to Memphis, nor 
sought out any other of the famous wonders of 
Egypt ; this he held to be the privilege of a leisurely 
and luxurious sight-seer, not of one who, like him- 
self, had left his commander-in-chief encamped under 
the open sky alongside the battlements of the 
enemy. 

III. Ptolemy abandoned his alliance with Rome, 
out of fear for the outcome of the war, but furnished 
Lucullus with ships to convoy him as far as Cyprus, 
embraced him graciously at parting, and offered him 
a costly emerald set in gold. At first Lucullus 

477 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO fJiev Trpwrov 6 AovKov\\os TraprjTeiTO, Bei^av- 
ros Be rr)V y\V(frr)V rov /3aai\eo)S eiicova, ovcrav 
IBiav e<f>o(3)'i0ri Bi(0(racr0ai, /JLIJ rravrdrracriv e%- 
Opos drrorr\elv vofuadels eTTifiovXevQeir) Kara 

2 0d\arrav. tVet Be Tr\fj0o$ ev TrapaTrXco vewv etc 
TWV Trapa\iwv Tro\ewv ddpoicras, 7r\r)V oaot, Tret- 
pari/cwv /juereL^ov dBifcrj/jidTwv, els Trjv Kvjrpov 
SitTrepacrev, evravOa irvvOavofjievos rou? TroXe- 
/uou<? vav\o%ovvTas eVl Tat? aKpals f jrapa<f)V\dr- 

avTOV, evediX/crjae rd GKafyr] irdvra, teal ral^ 
eypa-^re irepl ^if^aBid)v Kal dyopas, a>? 

3 avToOi rijv wpav ava^vwv. eira TT\OU (fravevros 
e^aTTLvrjs Karacnrdcras Ta? i/au? dvi'^dt], Kal //,#' 
rj/uepav fj^ev iKfrei/Aevois TrXecoz/ TCH? iarioLS Kal 
TaTreivols, VVKTWP S 1 eTraipo/jievois els 'PoSov 
e<r(i)6ri. 'PoBitov Be vavs avru> TrpocrTrapaa-^ovra)^ 
Kwov? eTreicre Kal KviBiov? rcov {3acn\iKcov aTraX- 
\ayevras eVl Sa/iiof? orvcrrpaTeveiv. eK Be XI 



TOU? ftacri\LKOv<i avros 



crv\\aj3ci)v ^Triyovov rov rvpavvov 
avrdov. 

4 'E.rvy%ave Be Kar eKelvov rov %povov ijBt] 

TO Ylepya/jiov e/cXeXoi7rco? Kal avve- 
yo? els Tlirdvrjv. eKel Be Qi/Ji/BpLOV Kare- 
avrov eK 7779 Kal 7ro\iopKovvros, els Ti}V 
6d\arrav dfyop&v Gvvrjye Kal f^ereTre/^Trero rovs 
Travra-^oOev aro\ovs Trpbs aurov, dvBpl roXfJLrjrf) 
Kal veviKrjKori rq> Ofyu./9/ot'a (TVfJL-rT\eKecrOai Kal 

5 7ro\fjLiv d7reyv(i)K(t)S. o Be ravra crvvopwv, vav- 

O) Be \ei7r6jjievos irpbs AOVKOV\\OV e 
T&5 o-ToX&) BeofjLCVos Kal crvve%e\elv e 



478 



LUCULLUS, in. 1-5 

declined to accept it, but when the king showed 
him that the engraving on it was a likeness of him- 
self, he was afraid to reject it, lest he be thought to 
have sailed away at utter enmity with the king, and 
so have some plot laid against him on the voyage. 
As he sailed along, he collected a multitude of ships 
from the maritime cities, omitting all those engaged 
in piracy, and came at last to Cyprus. Learning 
there that the enemy lay at anchor off the headlands 
and were watching for his coming, he hauled all his 
vessels up on land, and wrote letters to the cities 
requesting winter quarters and provisions, as though 
he would await the fine season there. Then, when 
the wind served, he suddenly launched his ships and 
put out to sea, and by sailing in the day time with 
his sails reefed and low, but in the night time under 
full canvas, he came safely to Rhodes. The Rhodians 
furnished him with more ships, and he induced the 
people of Cos and Cnidus to forsake the royal cause 
and join him in an expedition against Samos. With- 
out any aid he also drove the royal forces out of 
Chios, 1 and set the Colophonians free from their 
tyrant, Epigonus, whom he arrested. 

It happened about this time that Mithridates 
abandoned Pergamum and shut himself up in Pitane. 
Since Fimbria held him in close siege there by land, 
he looked to make his escape by sea, and collected 
and summoned his fleets from every quarter for 
this purpose, renouncing all engagements in the 
field with a man so bold and victorious as Fimbria. 
This design Fimbria perceived, and being without 
any fleet of his own, sent to Lucullus, beseeching 
him to come with his, and assist in capturing the 

1 8fl B.C. 

479 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Kal 7ro\uict)TaTOV jSaa-iXewv, 009 yur) TO aeya teal 
Sid 7ro\\a)V dywvtov Ka< rrovcov ^LMKO/JLevov ad\oi> 
eK(j)vyoL 'PaijLtaiovs, WliO pi$q'rr)S et? Xa/Sa? ij/ewv 
Kal ycyai>o)S eWo9 dpKvcov, ov X7/</>$eWo9 ovoeva 
T^? SO^T;? olcrecrOat, 7r\eov r) TOV e/jiTTo&tov rfj (frvyfj 
6 crravra teal $ia8L$pda-KOVTOs 7ri\al36/.ivov' v& 



eavrov fxev e^ewa^vov T/)? 7^79, vif CKCIVOV 



TO 



T?}? 0a\drTijs elpyo/jievov d 
Karopday/Jia, Ta<? Se u\ 
l Trepl Xaipwveiav vvvovfuevas dpicrreia^ ev 



djro rpoTTOU TCOV \yo/Liei>cov, d\\d Travrl &r)\ov, 
Co?, et Qi/jL/SpLa rore Treiadel^ 6 Aou/coi;XXo9 ov 



MV Trepii'iyayev eKelcre ras vavs Kal crvve- 
<f)pa% rov \ifjieva rw o"ToX<w, Trepas av el^ev 6 



Kal 



7 rjcrav. aXX' elre ra 7T/309 *v\~\av SiKata Trpecr- 
ftevwv irpo Travrbs ISiov re Kal KOIVOV 
povTos, LT TOV <& i/j,B pidv fjiiapov ovTa Kal 
yeyevrj/uievov vay%o$ dvSpbs <frL\ov Kal 

Sid cf)L\ap%iav 7rpo/3a\\6/jii>os, etVe KaTa Oeia 
$r) Tiva Tvyr\v Trepicfreicrd/jLevos avTos TOV 
Sdrov Kal <f)v 
aXXa Mt^iSaTT/ /nev K7T\V(rai Trapecr^e Kal 

8 KaTayeXdcrai 
Trpwrov fiev e 

vavs eVi(/)am<Ta9 KaTevav/jLa^aev, avOis Se 77/009 
TeveBw vavko^ovvTa fjiei^ovt, Trapaa-Kevy 

1 avrbs TOV Reiske, Coraes, Bekker : avrov. 
480 



LUCULLUS, in. 5-8 

most hostile and warlike of kings, that the great 
prize which they had sought with so many toils 
and struggles might not escape the Romans, now 
that Mithridates was in their grip arid fast in the 
meshes of their net. If he should be captured, 
Fimbria said, no one would get more of the glory 
than the man who stood in the way of his flight 
and seized him as he was running off. " Driven 
from the land by me, and excluded from the sea 
by you, he will crown us both with success, and 
the much heralded exploits of Sulla at Orchomenus 
and Chaeroneia will cease to interest the Romans." 
And there was nothing absurd in the proposition. 
It is clear to everyone that if Lucullus, who was 
close at hand, had then listened to Fimbria, brought 
his ships thither, and closed up the harbour with 
his fleet, the war would have been at an end, and 
the world freed from infinite mischief. But, whether 
lie ranked the honourable treatment of Sulla above 
every consideration of private or public advantage, 
or whether he regarded Fimbria as a wretch whose 
ambition for command had recently led him to 

t/ 

murder a man who was his friend and superior 
officer, or whether it was by some mysterious 
dispensation of fortune that he chose to spare 
Mithridates, and so reserved him for his own 
antagonist, for whatever reason, he would not listen 
to the proposal, but suffered Mithridates to sail 
off and mock at Fimbria's forces, while he himself, 
to begin with, defeated the king's ships which 
showed themselves off Lectum in the Troad. And 
again, catching sight of Neoptolemus King in wait 
for him at Tenedos with a still larger armament, 



481 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eVe-TrXet irpo T&V ak\a>v, ' 
e7Tt/3eyS?/A:d>?, 779 evavdp^ei 
dvi]p vvov<? re 'Ptoyaatoi? /cal 6d\acr<ji(Dv dycovaiv 
9 e/jLireipoTaTOS. eTreXavvorros Be poOiw TOV Neo- 
TTToXe^QV KOL K6\vcravTO<; e/9 e/J./3o\r)V ayayeiv 494 
rbv Kv/3pviJT7)v, Scicra^ 6 Aa/jLayopa? TO /3a 
crtXt/c^? /cal TT)Z^ Tpa^vTr)Ta TOV 
OUA: eYoX/^cre &v pTreaelv di'TiTrptppos, 
e/c 7repia<y(D<yfjs ttTroaT/oe^a? Ke\evo"V eVl 
McraaOai' /cal TrieaOeicns evTavOa TY)<; 



, are 



r^ rot? 6a\aTTevovcrt, Trjs va)$ /uepeai 7rpo<T7T- 
10 aovaav. ev TOVTW &e TWV (f>i\a)v Trpoafyepofjievwv, 
eyKeXevcd/Jievos 6 AOVKOV\\OS eTTLGTpefyeiv ical 
TroXXa Spdaas a%ia \6yov TpeTTCTai TO 1)9 
al KCtTaSiooKei TOV NeoTrroXcyLioz/. 

IV. 'E/eet^ez; ^e SvXXa 7re/?l Xeppovrjcrov 
/JL\\OVTL Siafiaiveiv crv/j,/3a\wv TOV re tropov 
da(j)a\i) Trapel'xe Kai TTJV GTpaTiav 
CTret e aviOrftcwv yevojjLevwv 



TO\dvTois efyfucoae,, Trpocr- 

Ta")(6ev avTW ra re ^/o^/iara raura Trpd^ai /cal 
vofucr/uia Ko^rat, rrapajjivOiov TL Sofcei TJJS Si^XXa 
%aXe7TOT7;T09 yeveaOai ra?9 7r6\eo-iv, ov p.6vov 
KaOapov /cal Sifcaiov, aXXa ^al Trpaov et9 OWTW /3apv 
real arKvOpwTfov VTrrjpeTrj/jui 7rapacr%a>v eavTov. 
2 MtTuX^i/atoi/9 5' dvrifcpv} a<^e<7TWTa9 e'/5ouXero 



t Maptoz^ x e^ij/jiapTOV, &>9 

1 Mdptov with Sintenis* and Coraes : 
482 



LUCULLUS, in. 8 iv. 2 

he sailed out against him in advance of the rest, 
on board of a Rhodian galley which was commanded 
by Damagoras, a man well disposed to the Romans, 
and of the largest experience as a sea-fighter. 
Neoptolemus dashed out to meet him, and ordered 
his steersman to ram the enemy. Damagoras, how- 
ever, fearing the weight of the royal ship and her 
rugged bronze armour, did not venture to engage 
head on, but put swiftly about and ordered his 
men to back water, thus receiving his enemy astern, 
where his vessel was depressed. The blow was 
harmless, since it fell upon the submerged parts of 
the ship. At this point, his friends coming up, 
Lucullus gave orders to turn the ship about, 
and, after performing many praiseworthy feats, put 
the enemy to flight and gave close chase to 
Neoptolemus. 

IV. From thence he joined Sulla at the Cher- 
sonesus, where he was about to cross the strait 
into Asia ; l he rendered his passage safe, and 
assisted in transporting his troops. After peace had 
been made, Mithridates sailed away into the Euxine, 
and Sulla laid a contribution of twenty thousand 
talents upon Asia. Lucullus was commissioned to 
collect this money and re-coin it, and the cities 
of Asia felt it to be no slight assuagement of Sulla's 
severity when Lucullus showed himself not only 
honest and just, but even mild in the performance 
of a task so oppressive and disagreeable. The 
Mitylenaeans too, who had revolted outright, he 
wished to be reasonable, and to submit to a moderate 
penalty for having espoused the cause of Marius. 
But when he saw that they were possessed by an 

1 84 B.C. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vovvTa<t, eVtTrXeucra? e/cpdrrjare pd^r) real tcaTe- 
K\eiaev ets ra Tefyv), /cal Tro\iopiciav crvcyrrjadfjievo^ 
/j,ev rj/jiepas real <pavpu)s et? 'E\aiav, 
Se \e\r)66rw<s KOI Trepl Trjv ir6\iv 
3 v<pel<; eveSpav ^cnj-^a^ev. 7rel S' drd/crax; ical 
fjiera Opdcrovs o>? eprj/jiov dpTTCKro/jtevoi TO crrparo- 
TreBov ol M.iTV\rjvaioi irporj\0ov, 7ret(T7recra)V 
avrols e\.a/3e re TrayLtTroXXou? ^a>i/ra? teal TWV 



irevraKOcriuvs cnriKTeLvev, 



Be ^tXiaSa? $; /cal TTJV aXXr/y dvapL6fj,riTov 
^Xacraro \eiav. 

4 TWV Be Trepl rrjv 'IraXiav fca/c&v, a rore 
ZuXXa? KCU MO/CMO? afyOova KOI TravTO&cnra rot? 
dv@pct)7roi<; irapeixov, ov Trdiw /jLerea^e 6eia nvl 
rv^rj Trepl ra? ev 'Acrta Trpa^et? /9paSwa5. ov 
/urp eKcLTTov TI irapa !SuXXa T(OI> a\\wv (friXwv 
0~X l> > d\\a TrjV re ypa(j))jv, <w? eLprjrai, rwv 
efceivw Si? evvoiav dveOrjice, /cal 
eTrirpoTTov rov TrruSo? eypatyev u 

/cal So/eel rovro Trpwrov 
Staifiopa? OITIOV KOI 



ovo~i /cal 



V. 'OX^/ft) S' varepov 17 ^v\\av diroOavelv 
vTrdrevcre yuera Map/cot/ Korra Trept rr;^ eic^^v 
/cal eftSofjLTj/coo'Trjv ?rpo? rat? e/carov 6\u/jL7rid&a. 



s dvaKivwvrwi' TOV 



Map/to? avrov ov TreTravaOat, aXX' 
. bib tea* \a%cov rwv eTrap^iMv o 
Aovrcov\\os rrjv eVro? "A\7reo)v FaXaTi 

ov/c 



484 



LUCULLUS, iv. 2-v. i 

evil spirit, he sailed against them, conquered them 
in battle, and shut them up within their walls. 
After instituting a siege of their city, he sailed away 
in open day to Elaea, but returned by stealth, and 
lay quietly in ambush near the city. When the 
Mitylenaeans sallied forth in disorder and with 
the confident expectation of plundering his deserted 
camp, he fell upon them, took a great number of 
them alive, and slew five hundred of those who 
offered resistance. He also carried off six thousand 
slaves, besides countless other booty. 

But in the boundless and manifold evils which 
Sulla and Marius were bringing upon the people of 
Italy at that time, he had no share whatever, for, as 
some kindly fortune would have it, he was detained 
at his business in Asia. 1 However, Sulla accorded no 
less favour to Lucullus than to his other friends. 
His memoirs, as I have said, Sulla dedicated to 
Lucullus in token of affection, and in his will 
appointed him guardian of his son, thereby passing 
Pompey by. And this seems to have been the first 
ground for estrangement and jealousy between these 
two men ; both were young, and burning for 
distinction. 

V. Shortly after the death of Sulla, Lucullus was 
made consul along with Marcus Cotta, about the 
hundred and seventy-sixth Olympiad. 2 Many were 
now trying to stir up anew the Mithridatic war, 
which Marcus said had not come to an end, but 
merely to a pause. Therefore when the province of 
Cisalpine Gaul was allotted to Lucullus, he was 
displeased, since it offered no opportunity for great 
exploits. But what most of all embittered him was 

1 84-80 B.C. 2 74B.c. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



2 fjidKicrra S* avrov v$oKi/j,a>v TIoyLtTr^fco? ev '}/3rjpta 
rrapw^vvev, ft><? aXXo? ouSet? eVt'S'/^ 

rravaafrOai, rov 'IjS'rjpiKbv 
Or^aeffOai crrparrjybs errl Miflpiodrrjv. 
Sio /ecu xprj/jLara alrovvros avrov KOI 
el /jirj Tre/ATToiev, a0e<? 'l/3r)piav teal 

aTra^ot ra? Suz/a/^et?, a-vveirpa^ev o 
TrpodvfjLorara Tre^drjvat, ra ^p^/iara 
^> rj&Tivocrovv Trpo^ddew^ e/eelvov 

3 e7rave\9etv vTrarevovros avrov' irdvra yap av 
evr' e/ceivcp yevrjcrecrOcu rd TT}? TroXew? irapovri, 
jjLerd Tocravrr)? crrparta?. rat 7ap 6 /cparwv Tore 
r^? TToXtreta? TW Trpo? xdpw airavra. KOI \eyeiv 
KOI Trpdrreiv Ke^>7709 e^Opav nvd irpos Aou- 
KOV\\OV el%, fB$e\vTToiJLvov avrov rov ftiov 495 



epcorav teal vftpews real 



4 jjuecrrov ovra. rovrov /JLCV ovv avriKpvs 

AevKiov 8e Koivrov, d\\ov Srjjuiaywyov, errava- 
crrdvra rot? S^XXa rroKirevfJLacrL /cal rapdrreiv 
rd rrpdyfjuara rreipaiu^vov K rov 
ISia re TroXXa Trapa/jLvdov/jievos /cal 
vovOer&v aTrecrrrja-e rfjs rreipas /cat icarecrropecre 



vocrifj,aro<; 

VI. 'Ez/ TOUTW 5* o rrjv Kt\tKiav 
'O/craouto? rjyyeXOrj reOvrj/cu)^. crTrapywvrcov be 
7ro\\o)V TT/OO? rrjv errap~)(la>v /cal KeQrjyov a><? 
Suvarcorarov ovra BiaTTpd^aa'dat, Beparrevovrwv, 
avrrjs fjuev 6 A.ov/cov\\o<; KtXtri'a? ov rro\vv el^e 
\6yov, oio/j.evo<; S', el Xa/9ot ravrrjv, eyyvs ova?)^ 
KaTTTraSo/cta?, aXXoj; ovoeva rre^O^creaBai, TroXe- 

486 



LUCULLUS, v. i -vi. i 

the reputation which Pompey was winning in Spain. 
If the war in Spain should happen to come to an end, 
Pompey was more likely than anyone else to be at 
once chosen general against Mithridates. Therefore 
when Pompey wrote home requesting money, and 
declaring that if they did not send it, he would 
abandon Spain and Sertorius and bring his forces 
back to Italy, Lucullus moved heaven and earth to 
have the money sent, and to prevent Pompey from 
coming back, on any pretext whatsoever, while he 
was consul. He knew that all Rome would be in 
Pompey's hands if he were there with so large 
an army. For the man who at that time controlled 
the course of political affairs by virtue of doing and 
saying everything to court the favour of the people, 
Cethegus, hated Lucullus, who loathed his manner 
of life, full as it was of disgraceful amours and 
wanton trespasses. Against this man Lucullus 
waged open war. But Lucius Quintus, another 
popular leader, who opposed the institutions of Sulla 
and sought to confound the established order of 
things, he turned from his purpose by much private 
remonstrance and public admonition, and allayed his 
ambition, thus treating in as wise and wholesome a 
manner as was possible the beginnings of a great 
distemper. 

VI. At this time there came tidings of the death 
of Octavius, the governor of Cilicia. There were 
many eager applicants for the province, and they 
paid court to Cethegus as the man best able to 
further their designs. Of Cilicia itself Lucullus 
made little account, but in the belief that, if he 
should get this province, which was near Cappadocia, 
no one else would be sent to conduct the war against 

487 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Mi&ptSdrrf, iracrav ecrrpefye 
2 vTrep rov fir) irpozcrOai rrjv eTrap^iav erepcp. /cal 
re\evra)v epyov ov crefjivov ovS* eTraiverov, aXXa>? 
6" dvvcri/jiov 7T/90? TO TeXo? e/c TT}? avdy/crjs 
VTre/jieive irapa rrjv eavrov (^VCTLV. 

Tlpai/cia T? rjv OVO/JLO, 7wv e<^> wpa KCLI \afjLVpiq 
Bia/3o/]T(i)V ev TT) TroXet, TO- fjiev ci\\a Kpeirrwv 
ovSev aveSrjv eraipovcrr]^ <yvvaLKo<$, IK Se rov 
rot? VTwy%dvovcriv avrfj KOL SiaXeyo- 
irpos ra? VTrep TWV (f)i\(t>v aTrovSas teal 
7rpoo-\a{3ova-a rfj \onrfj ^dptTi TO 
(f)i\,6Taip6$ Tt? elvai KOI Spacmjptos 
fjueyia-rov. &)? Be /cal Kefiijyov dvOovvra 
Tore Kol (frepovra rrjv iro\iv v7rr)ydyTO 
KOI avvrjv epwvri-, iravraTraaiv els eKelvrjv 
r] T}? TroXew? BvvafJLt,?' ovBe yap 
TL S^/jiocria K.e0ijyou /^rj cnrovSd^ovTos 
ovBe TlpaiKias firj K\evova"r)<; irapd Kedrjyw. 
ravrrjii ovv vireKOwv Scopot? o Aou/couXXo? KOI 
(rjv Be TTOV KOL TW AOVKOV\\W 
opdaOai fjueyas yvvai/cl 0*0- 

ffapa fcal TT 'avrjyvpiKfj /ucr^o?), evdvs el%e TO^ 
KeOrjyov eTrctLverrjv /cal irpo/jLVwjJLevov avrw 

fr -x / > V O.' rf c, yr / > C\V >/ 

r^iXitaav. CTTCL o arra^ erv^e ravTT^, ovoev en 
\\paiKiav ovBe Kedrjyov eSei 7rapaKa.\eiv, dXXa 
o/aaXco? e/eeivq) fyepovres eve^eipiaav TOV 
TiKov TroXe/JLOV &><? vfi erepov yLtT/Sez^o? 
Biairo\e/jLr)0)ji>at Bwdfievov, mo/jiTrrjiov fjLV 
en 2epTO)ptft) 7rpoa7ro\fj.ovvTO<;, MeTeXXou & 
dTreipij/eoTOS 578?; Sia yijpas, ovs JJLQVOVS CLV 

488 



LUCULLUS, vi. 1-4 

Mithridates, he strained every nerve to keep the 
province from being assigned to another. And 
finally, contrary to his natural bent, he was driven by 
the necessities of the case to adopt a course which 
was neither dignified nor praiseworthy, it is true, but 
conducive to his end. 

There was a certain woman then in Rome, Praecia 
by name, whose fame for beauty and wit filled 
the city. In other respects she was no whit better 
than an ordinary courtesan, but she used her 
associates arid companions to further the political 
ambitions of her friends, and so added to her other 
charms the reputation of being a true comrade, and 
one who could bring things to pass. She thus 
acquired the greatest influence. And when Cethe- 
gus also, then at the zenith of his fame and in 
control of the city, joined her train and became her 
lover, political power passed entirely into her hands. 
No public measure passed unless Cethegus favoured 
it, and Cethegus did nothing except with Praecia's 
approval. This woman, then, Lucullus won over by 
gifts and flatteries, and it was doubtless a great boon 
for a woman so forward and ostentatious to be seen 
sharing the ambitions of Lucullus. Straightway he 
had Cethegus singing his praises and suing for 
Cilicia in his behalf. But as soon as he had obtained 
this province, there was no further need of his 
soliciting the aid of Praecia, or of Cethegus, for that 
matter, but all were unanimous and prompt in 
putting into his hands the Mithridatic war, assured 
that no one else could better bring it to a trium- 
phant close. Pompey was still engaged in his war 
with Sertorius, Metellus had now retired from active 
service by reason of his age, and these were the only 

489 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

errou]craro AOVKOV\\W irepl 
5 o-rparijyias d/JL(picr/3r)rovvra<;. ov [Jir)V a\\a 
Korra? 6 avvapvwv avrov TroXXa \nrapr)<ra<$ rrjv 
ard\rj /j,era vewv rrjv Tlpoirovri,Ba 
teal rrporro\fjirio-wv B^^Wta?. 
VII. AOVKOV\\O<; $6 rdy/Aa /j,ev avToOev e 
(TWTTa f yiJievov VTT avrov Sieftaivev et? 
'A.aiav' e/cel Be rrjv a\\rjv 7rapeXa/9e 

ird\ai r/ou^at? Bie^doporcov /cal 
, rwv Be Qipftpiavwv \e f yo/JLeva>v Kal 
Sea avvrjOeLav dvap^ia^ BvafjLera'^eipLffTWV <yeyo- 

2 VQTWV. OVTOL <ydp r\(jav ol <&\aKKov re /-tera 
Qifjiftpiov rbv VTTCLTOV Kal CTTparrjyov dvypriKOTes 
avrov re rov ^L^plav SuXXa. TrpoBeBw /cores, 
avQdSeis jjbev avdpwnoi teal Trapdvo/jLOi, ^a")(jm,oi 
Be Kal r\tffjiove<? ^er e/^Treipias 7ro\e/j,ov. ov 
JJL^V a\Xa /3pa%el %pov(p real rovrwv ro Opdcros 
6 AOVKOV\\O<? e^e/co-^re Kal TOU? aXXoi>5 eVe- 
arpetye, rare Trpcorov, a>? eoi/ce, 7reipa)/jL6vov<; 
ap^ovros d\r)6ivov Kal rjyefJLOvo^' aXXa)? 8' e^- 
{iaya)yovvro TT/SO? ijBovrjv e0L%6/jivoi a-rpareveaOai. 

3 Ta Be rwv iroXefuwv ourw? ^X e> Miflpt-Bdrr)*;, 

ol vroXXol rwv acxpicrrtov, KO/JLira^r)^ ev 
KOI <jo/3apo? eVi 'Pwytuuou? dvacrras Bia- 
Bvvd/j.ei, \a/JL7rpa Be Kal rravr^yvpiKfi rrjv 
elr' eKTreawv Karaye\d(rr(i)s Kal vovOeri)- 
6ei<>, ore ro Bevrepov TroXe/jieiv fJL\\ev, et? 
d\r)0t,vt]v Kal rrpay^ariKriv o-vvecrre\\e ra? Bvvd- 
TTapaGKev^v. dcfreXoov ydp ra rravrobarra 
ra? 7ro\vy\a)a(Tov<? drrei\.a<s rwv 
ftapftdpwv, OTrXcov re 1 Bia^pvacov Kal 

1 T with S : 5*'. 

490 



LUCULLUS, vi. 4-vn. 4 

men who could be regarded as rivals of Lucullus in 
any dispute about this command. Cotta, however, 
his colleague in the consulship, after fervent en- 
treaties to the Senate, was sent with some ships to 
guard the Propontis, and to protect Bithynia. 

VII. With a legion which he had raised himself in 
Italy, Lucullus crossed into Asia, 1 and there assumed 
command of the rest of the Roman forces. All these 
had long been spoiled by habits of luxury and greed, 
and the Fimbrians, as they were called, had become 
unmanageable, through long lack of discipline. 
These were the men who, in collusion with Fimbrius, 
had slain Flaccus, their consul and general, and had 
delivered Fimbrius himself over to Sulla. They 
were self-willed and lawless, but good fighters, hardy, 
and experienced in war. However, in a short time 
Lucullus pruned off their insolent boldness, and 
reformed the rest. Then for the first time, as it 
would seem, they made the acquaintance of a 
genuine commander and leader, whereas before this 
they had always been cajoled into doing their duty, 
like crowds at the hustings. 

On the enemy's side, matters stood as follows. 
Mithridates, boastful and pompous at the outset, like 
most of the Sophists, had first opposed the Romans 
with forces which were really unsubstantial, though 
brilliant and ostentatious to look upon. With these 
he had made a ridiculous fiasco and learned a 
salutary lesson. When therefore, he thought to go 
to war the second time, he organized his forces into 
a genuinely effective armament. He did away with 
Barbarous hordes from every clime, and all their 
discordant and threatening cries ; he provided no 

1 74 B.C. Cf. Cimon, i. 5. 

491 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

o>? \d(f)vpa rwv Kparovvrwv, OVK 
Tiva rwv K6KTr]fjL6va)v ovra, t<*7 IAGV 
rf\avvero 'Pay^aifca KOA Ovpeovs e/jiftpiOels 7rrj- 



rj 



r)6poi%ev ITTTTOU?, rrz^wv Se /JLVpidSas 

66? <fiu'\.ayya 'Pco 

5e Trpo? [jLvpinis e%aKi.o"%t\iov<$ avev rwv 
5 (f)6pa)V Te0pL7T7ra)i>' ravra ' TJV eKarov en Be 



ov 



7ra\\aKiBci)v teal 

' OTT\(*)V KOL fte\<tiv teal 

papTva-d/Aevos eve.(3a\ev et9 
7r6\ea)i> av9i<s dcTyu-e^tw? uTroSe^o/^e^a)^ ov 
ovov TOVTWV, a\\a teal rrjv ' Acriav o\t^v VTTO- 
^TTpoaOev voat]jndra)V el^ev, dfpoprjra 
VTTO 'Pay/jLa'itccdv ^avetarwv real r\a)- 
6 vwv ou? vcrrepoi' /jiev wcnrep ' A/OTruta? rr)v rpo^v 
apTTa^ovras avrwv o AOVKOV\\OS %rj\a<T, Tore 
<5e fji6Tpia)Tpov<? eTreiparo vovOerwv Troiew, /cat 
ra? aTTOcrracret? Kareirave ro)v Bijucov, 



VIII. *Qy Be Trepl ravra AOVKOV\\OS V 
\elro y^povov avrov /eaipov eliai vo^ii^wv o 
Korra? irapecncevd^ero fjid^ecrOai TT^OO? MiQpi- 
Bdrijv. Kal 7To\\atv d7rayye\\6vr(ov ij$r) Aov- 
KOV\\OV ev Qpvyia arrpa-TOTreSeveiv eVtoi/ra, 
IJLOVUV OVK eV rat? %6p(rli> eyziv rbv Opia^Qov 
olofJLevos, co? f^rj fj,ra\d/3rj AOVKOV\\O<; avrov, 
2 <rvfjifta'\.iv Gcnrevae. 7rX^7el? S' a/za Kal /card 

492 



LUCULLUS, vn. 4-vin. 2 

more armour inlaid with gold and set with precious 
stones, for he saw that these made rich booty for the 
victors, but gave no strength whatever to their 
wearers ; instead, he had swords forged in the Roman 
fashion, and heavy shields welded ; he collected 
horses that were well trained rather than richly 
caparisoned, and a hundred and twenty thousand 
footmen drilled in the Roman phalanx formation, 
and sixteen thousand horsemen, not counting the 
scythe-bearing, four-horse chariots, which were a 
hundred in number : and further, he put in readiness 
ships which were not tricked out with gilded 
canopies, or baths for concubines, and luxurious 
apartments for women, but which were rather loaded 
down with armour and missiles and munitions of war. 
Then be burst into Bithynia, and not only did the 
cities there receive him again with gladness, but all 
Asia suffered a relapse into its former distempered 
condition, afflicted, as it was, past bearing by Roman 
money-lenders and tax-gatherers. These were after- 
wards driven off by Lucullus, harpies that they 
were, snatching the people's food ; but then he 
merely tried, by admonishing them, to make them 
more moderate in their demands, and laboured to stop 
the uprisings of the towns, hardly one of which was 
in a quiet state. 

VIII. While Lucullus was thus occupied, Cotta, 
thinking that his own golden opportunity had come, 
was getting ready to give battle to Mithridates. 
And when tidings came from many sources that 
Lucullus was coming up, and was already encamped 
in Phrygia, thinking that a triumph was all but 
in his grasp, and desiring that Lucullus have no 
share in it, he hastened to engage the king. But 

493 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<yfjv Kal Kara Od\arrav e^Kovra fiev aTrwi 
avravBpa a-/cd(f)rj, 7rebi>? Be 

Be KaTaK\eia6e\s et? Xa\KrjB6va KOI 



3 ^Ilcav /lev ovv ol rbv A.OVKOV\\OV d 

Korra Trpocrci) ^wpelv irapop^wvTe^ ax; epr]p,ov 
aiprjcroi'TO. rrjv MtOpiSaTOV (Baaikelav, /ecu /za- 

\KTTO, T&V (TTpaTlCOTWV OUTO? $)V 6 \6jO<t, CV^aVCL- 

KTOVVTWV, el fjirj /JLOVOV CLVTOV d,7ro\el KOI rou? 
crvv avru) ^ov\evadfjLevo^ tca/CM<? 6 Korra?, a\Xa 
Aral crfyicriv efjLTroftwv ecrrat vitcav a/aa^et &vva- 
. KOVKOV\\OS Se TT/OO? fjiev TOVTOVS 



cr&aai 'PwfAalov 77 irdvra \afte'iv TCL TWV 
'Ap^eXaov 8e row Trept Roiwriav 
err parity ijcravros, elr aTrocrra^ro? Kal 
crvGrparevovros, Siafteftaiovfievov cxpOevra Aou- 
KOV\\OV ev TLovrq) irdvrwv OfJiov Kparrjcreiv, OVK 
$ei\6repos elvat, rwv KVV^MV, WCTTC TCL 



icevov<; avr&v 



5 %iv. Kal Taur* el'jrcnv Girl Midpi$drr)v Trpofjye 



, tTTTret? 



iovs. /caracrra9 S' et? eiro^riv TWV iro\e- 
Kal ttavfida-as TO TrX^Oos eftovXero fjuev 
r}^ Kal rpifBeiv rov %povov, Mapiov 
S', ov 'Eeprajpios el; 'Ifirjpias direcrrd\KeL 
Bdrrj fjiera Svvdfj(os (rrpari^yov, 
avro) Kal TrpOKoKov^evov Karearri fiev els 
a>9 Bia/jLayovp.ei>o$, rjBrj Be ocrov OVTTW 
6 fjLevwv, air ovBefjuas 67rt0ai/oO? ytteraySoXr)?, aXX' 



494 



LUCULLUS, viu. 2-6 

he was defeated by sea and land, lost sixty vessels, 
crews and all, and four thousand foot- soldiers, 
while he himself was shut up in Chalcedon and 
besieged there, looking for relief at the hands of 
Lucullus. 

Now there were some who urged Lucullus to 
ignore Cotta and march on into the kingdom of 
MithridateSj assured of capturing it in its defenceless 
condition. This was the reasoning of the soldiers 
especially, who were indignant that Cotta, by his 
evil counsels, should not only be the undoing of 
himself and his army, but also block their own way 
to a victory which they could have won without 
a battle. But Lucullus, in a harangue which he 
made them, said that he would rather save one 
Roman from the enemy than take all that enemy's 
possessions. And when Archelaiis, who had held 
command for Mithridates in Boeotia, and then had 
abandoned his cause, and was now in the Roman 
army, stoutly maintained that if Lucullus were once 
seen in Pontus, he would master everything at once, 
Lucullus declared that lie was at least as courageous 
as the hunter ; he would not give the wild beasts 
the slip and stalk their empty lairs. With these 
words, he led his army against Mithridates, having 
thirty thousand foot-soldiers, and twenty-five hundred 
horsemen. But when he had come within sight of 
the enemy and seen with amazement their multitude, 
he desired to refrain from battle and draw out 
the time. But Marius, whom Sertorius had sent 
to Mithridates from Spain with an army, came out 
to meet him, and challenged him to combat, and so 
he put his forces in array to fight the issue out. 
But presently, as they were on the point of joining 

495 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOV depos vTroppayevTO? l <$ 



Kara!pep6/jLVov, TO p,e 
Trjv Be %poav dpyvpw BiaTrvpw Trpoa-eoiKos, oxrre 
BeiaavTas d/jb(f)orpov<; TO <hd<rp,a ct,aKpt$rjvai,. 49 
7 TOVTO pev ovv fyaaiv ev tf>pvyia irepl ra? \eyo- 
/jLevas 'Orpya? a-v/AJSfjvai TO TrdQos. 

'O &e Aou/touXXo? ovoe/iuas elvai 
av9 p(*)7rivris TrapaaKevr)^ ovSe TT\OVTOV 
7rl TTO\VV 



TOO~avTa<$, ocras 

vai, TWV al')(/iia\(i)Ta)V eva' Kal irp&TOv dve- 
K.pLve y /xera TTOCTCOV Siatrwro crvaKtjvwv, eTreiTa 

8 TCQGOV V TTj CTK'J'jvfj KaTO\.\OL7T6 O~ITOV. CITTO- 

Kpiva/jLevov Be Tdv0pa>7rov TOV jxev e/ceXevcre /jLera- 
crTrjvai, SevTepov Be real TpiTov o/iotco? CLveKpn r V. 
etra avvOel^ TO T/}? TrapecrKevaa/Lievrj^ Tpo(j)r/<; 
7T\ij0os Trpo? TO TMV Tpefic/uLevwv, eyvco Tpiwv 
TI Tcro~dpwv rj/jiepcov eTTi\ei^rovTa crlTov TO 1*9 
TroXe/utov?. KOI TcoKv fjia\\ov et'^eTO ToO xpovpVj 
/cal (Tvvriyev et? TOV %dpaKa 7rafM7T\rj6^ al-rov, &>? 
iv d(f)86voi$ Sidycov avTos ecfteBpevoi TCILS eiceLi wv 



IX. 'EZ; TOVTf Be 



ev Ty Trep 

d^rj' T pia")^i\lwv yap avbpwv Kal BeKa vewv 
ecrTeprjvTO. /SouXo/ze^o? ovv \a0elv TOV Aou- 
KOV\\OV, evOvs OLTTO Bei7rvov vvrcTa 8v(T(f>avfj Kal 



voTepav fyrov eKivei* Kal vei. T?? 

avTiKpvs a^i fj/jiepa Trepl TO TM? \\Spao~Teias 0/905 

1 viroppayevros with S : a 
496 



LUCULLUS, vin. 6-ix. i 

battle, with no apparent change of weather, but 
all on a sudden, the sky burst asunder, and a huge, 
flame-like body was seen to fall between the two 
armies. In shape, it was most like a wine-jar, 
and in colour, like molten silver. Both sides were 
astonished at the sight, and separated. This marvel,, 
as they say, occurred in Phrygia, at a place called 
Otryae. 

But Lucullus, feeling sure that no human provision 
or wealth could maintain, for any length of time, 
and in the face of an enemy, so many thousands 
of men as Mithridates had, ordered one of the 
captives to be brought to him, and asked him first, how 
many men shared his mess, and then, how much food 
he had left in his tent. When the man had answered 
these questions, he ordered him to be removed, 
and questioned a second and a third in like manner. 
Then, comparing the amount of food provided with 
the number of men to be fed, he concluded that 
within three or four days the enemy's provisions 
would fail them. All the more, therefore, did he 
trust to time, and collected into his camp a great 
abundance of provisions, that so, himself in the 
midst of plenty, he might watch for his enemy's 
distress. 

IX. But in the meantime, Mithridates planned a 
blow at Cyzicus. which had suffered terribly in the 
battle near Chalcedon, having lost three thousand 
men and ten ships. Accordingly, wishing to evade the 
notice of Lucullus, he set out immediately after the 
evening meal, taking advantage of a dark and rainy 
night, and succeeded in planting his forces over 
against the city, on the slopes of the mountain range 



497 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TI-JV Bvvafjiiv. f O Be AoutfOfXXo? 
/cal &o>a? rjjdirrice uev ourc e/ATrecrcov acrvv- 
et? TOU? TToXe/uoL'?, fcaOi^ei Be TOV (rrparbv 
Ttjv %paK,iav XeyofAevqv KO^/JHTIV ev TOTTW tcara 

f p> v / \ / j ' 

oo(t)v apiara TreyvKOTi, KCU TMV ^wpiwv, ay 
wv KOL Si wv ava^Koiov r}V rot? y\.iOpi&a,TiKol<$ ra 
eTTLTrjoeta (froirav. Bib KOI. 7repC\,a(Ba)v ry Siavola 
rb fieXXov OVK a7T6Kpv\lraro roi'? crrpaTtcoTa?, riXX' 
afjia TO) Oe&Oai TO a-TpaTOTreSov /cal airo ra)i> 
epywv yeveaOat, (rvvayayaiv CLVTOVS 

TO 



3 K.V&KIIVOV*} Be MtOpiSaTrjs Be/ca fj&v e/cyrjs crrpa- 
TOTreSot? Trepi\a[B(i)Vj Tat? Be vavatv etc Oa\da-cn]^ 
TOV airo T^? rjTrelpou Bieipyovra TI^V TTO\IV evpnrop 



ra 



Tr/ao? TOV KuvBvvov evOap&ws Kal TTCLV 
evetca 'Pw/jLaitov eyrw/coVa? 
asyvoovvTas Be oirf) Aov/couXXo? eitj Kal TO) 
Trepl avTOV ireTrvcrOaL TapaTTO/jievovs. 
/caTa<f)av})S rjv TI GTpaTOTreBeia Kal aTTOTTTO?, a 
VTTO TWV Mi0piBaTiK(ov e 
yap auTOt? TOU? 'Pcoyuatou? ava) Tr 

<pacrav, 
Kal MijBcpv, Tiypdvov 

eTTiKOVpLav" ol 8' e^eTrXr^crcro/'To TOCTOV- 
TOV TroXejjLOV TrepLKe^v/jLevov /u^S', el TrapayevoiTO 



- 



5 Ov fj,rjv aXXa TTyocuTO? 

II> TOU AOVKOV\\OV 



498 



LUCULLUS, ix. 1-5 

of Adrasteia, by day-break. Lucullus got wind of 
his departure and pursued him, but was well satisfied 
not to fall upon the enemy while his own troops were 
in disorder from their march, and stationed his army 
near the village called Thracia, in a spot best suited 
to command the roads and regions from which, and 
over which, the army of Mithridates must get its 
necessary supplies. Seeing clearly, therefore, what 
the issue must be, he did not conceal it from his 
soldiers, but as soon as they had completed the 
labour of fortifying their camp, called them together, 
and boastfully told them that within a few days he 
would give them their victory, and that without any 
bloodshed. 

Mithridates was besieging Cyzicus both by land 
and sea, having encompassed it with ten camps on 
the land side, and having blockaded with his ships 
by sea the narrow strait which parts the city from 
the mainland. Although the citizens viewed their 
peril with a high courage, and were resolved to 
sustain every hardship for the sake of the Romans, 
still, they knew not where Lucullus was, and were 
disturbed because they heard nothing of him. And 
yet his camp was in plain sight, only they were 
deceived by their enemies. These pointed the 
Romans out to them, lying encamped on the heights, 
and saidt -" Do you see those forces ? It is an army 

\of Armenians and Medes which Tigranes has sent to 
assist Mithridates." They were therefore terrified 

^to see such hosts encompassing them, and had no 
hopes that any way of succour remained, even if 
Lucullus should come. 

However, in the first place, Demonax was sent 
in to them by Archelaiis, and told them that Lucullus 

499 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trapovcriav. ^OVTWV 5' aTfia TOVVTWV KOI 
TWV auTov TWV rrapovTwv 7ri Trapriyopia 
a/jieva \eyeiv, fjice TraiBdpiov al'^aXwTOV IK T 

7TO\fJLLCOV aTToBeBpaKOS. TfwQavO^kvWV S' avTWV, 

TTOV \eyoi TOV AOVKOV\\OV elvai, rcare-yeXa 
avrovs olo^&vov. to? 8' ecapa 
ecn']/j,r]V6 rfj ^ipi TOV ^dpa/ca TWV 'Pcofj-aitov, ol S' 
6 dveOdpcniaav. r^9 Se Aacr/cuXtr^So? \ifivr)<; 
dfcaTLOis eTrieitcoa? v/jL6ye@(7i, TO 
o AovKovX\.o<? dv\KV(ras Kal Siayaywv 
Trpo? Trjv 9d\aTTav oVou? e%(*)p6i 
ra? .ve(3t{3cL(T.v. e\a9ov Be 
KOL Trapei(T)*j\9ov els T^V rrokiv. 

X. "Eoi/ce Se KOI TO Oelov eTriOappvvai rou? 
K.vfytcr]vov<i, dya(T0ev avT&v T^V dvBpayaOiav, 
a\\oi<; re (TTJ/JLCLOI,^ evapyeai, KOI TJ}? TWV Oeyoe^ar- 
Ticov eo/)T>}? eveaTwcnris ol fJLev i]rropovv /Soo? /ze- 
\aiwr]<s 7T/90? Tr)v Ovcriav Kal GTaiTi 
TW /3co/jia) Trapeo-Trjcrav, rj $ lepa Kal 
OeCo vo/j,rjv jjiev el^ev, wcnrep rdXXa 

, ev Tr) irepaLa, /car* e/ceivrjv & 

dye\r)<? 



2 avTYjV. ovap 8' t] 0eo$ 'ApitrTayopa TW TOV 

ypajjLfj,ari,crTf) TrapauTacra, " Kat p^v eywye," 
euTrev, " YJKW TOV Kiftvxov av\t]Tr)V errl TOV 
YlovriKov (ra\7riyKT?]v errdyovaa. fypdaov ouv 
Oappelv rot? TToXtrat?." 0av/.La%<jvTwv Be Trjv 
$wvr)V TWV \\.v^iKrfvwv a/ji rj/uepa ad\ov el%ev 77 
dd\a<J(ra KCLTIOVTOS aKpiTOv Trvevf-iaTO^, ai re 
fjirf-^aval TOV /5a<7tXea)? TrapecrTwcrai rot? Te^ea-tv, 
epya @av/j,acrTa NiKwviBov rod @e<rcra\ov, poi 

500 



LUCULLUS, ix. 5 -x. a 

was arrived. They disbelieved him, and thought 
he had invented his story merely to mitigate tlieii 
anxieties, but then a boy came to them, who had 
escaped from his captivity with the enemy. On 
their asking him where he thought Lucullus was, he 
laughed at them, supposing them to be jesting. But 
when he saw that they were in earnest, he pointed 
out the Roman camp to them, and their courage was 
revived. Again, Lucullus drew out on shore the 
largest of the sizable craft which plied the lake 
Dascylitis, carried it across to the sea on a waggon., 
and embarked upon it as many soldiers as it would 
hold, who crossed by night unobserved, and got safely 
into the city. 

X. It would seem also that Heaven, in admiration 
of their bravery, emboldened the men of Cyzicus by 
many manifest signs, and especially by the following. 
The festival of Persephone was at hand, and the 
people, in lack of a black heifer for the sacrifice, 
fashioned one of dough, and brought it to the altar. 
Now the sacred heifer reared for the goddess was 
pasturing, like the other herds of the Cyzicenes, on 
the opposite side of the strait, but on that day she 
left her herd, swam over alone to the city, and 
presented herself for the sacrifice. And again, 
the goddess appeared in a dream to Aristagoras, the 
town-clerk, saying : " Lo, here am I, and I bring the 
Libyan fifer against the Pontic trumpeter. Bid the 
citizens therefore be of good cheer." While the 
Cyzicenes were lost in wonder at the saying, at day- 
break the sea began to toss under a boisterous wind, 
and the siege-engines of the king along the walls, 
the wonderful works of Niconides the Thessalian, by 

501 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 KOI Tardy ta irpwrov aire$ri\ovv TO fie\\ov elra 
etcpayels airio-TOS TO fjLeyeQos TO, T a\\a 

ftpa^el /j,opi<n, xal 

TOV %v\ivov Trvpyov e/caTov Trrjx&v u-v/ro? 6Wa 
Sia(Ti<Ta<; /caTe/3a\ev. icrTopeiTcu Se TWV ev ' 
7roXX,ot9 KaQ' VTTVOV o<j>0r)vai TTJV J A.6rjvav I 

&) peo/jLevrjv KOL vTrofyaivovadv TI TOV TreTC\ov 
os, \eyovcrav, a>9 apricot rj/eoi /SorjOrjcracra 
. KOI crTr)\r)v TLVCI SoyfjictTa ical ypdjj,- 
Trepl TOVTWV e^ovaav eSei/cvvov 'iXiet?. 
XI. MidpiBaTrjv Be, a%pi pev inro TWV eavTOv 
(eya/ao/z,ez'O9 rjyvoei TOV ev rco o~Tpa- 
eSo) \ifJLov, rjviwv Kvtyfcrjvol o'latyevyovTes Trjv 

TO iXoTLJLOV dVTOV 



ev acro-ei yevo/juevov TWV CLTTO- 
piwv, at? ol o~Tpa,TLWTai crvvefyovTO, KOI 
av6pw7ro<$>ayLWv, are 87) /j,r) Oearpucws ytt^S 

KTlfC&S A.OVKOV\\OV TToXe/AOU^TO?, d\\d, TOVTO 

TO \eyofjLevov, et? Trjv yacrTepa eva\\ofjievov teal 
OTTft)? v(j)aip}ja-ei Tr)V TpO(j>rjv diravTa 7rpay/j.aTevo- 
2 fjievov. Sib KOL (ppovpiov TI 7ro\iopxovvTO<; avTOv 
^p^tjaaQai <nrevowv o Mt^/JiSaTiy? 
v et? BiOvviav rou? [lev t7T7re?9 o-%eBbv 

JJLGTCL TWV VTTO^VyiWV, TWV Oe TT^WV TOU? 



.OVKOVO<$ Tl VVK~ 



TO? fjKev et? TO o~TpaT07reSov, Trpcol' Se 

OVTOS dva\af3iDV o~Treipas Sexa KOI rrjv ITTTTOV 



KCLl KaKOTTaooV, COCTT 



VTTO fcpvov? eVStSo^ra? aTro\elTreo~6aL TU>V 
502 



LUCULLUS, x. 3-xi. 2 

their creaking and cracking showed clearly what was 
about to happen ; then a south wind burst forth with 
incredible fury, shattered the other engines in a 
short space of time, and threw down with a great 
shock the wooden tower a hundred cubits high. It 
is related, too, that the goddess Athena appeared to 
many of the inhabitants of Ilium in their sleep, 
dripping with sweat, showing part of her peplus 
torn away, and saying that she was just come from 
assisting the Cyzicenes. And the people of Ilium 
used to show a stele which had on it certain decrees 
and inscriptions relating to this matter. 

XI. Mithridates, as long as his generals deceived 
him into ignorance of the famine in his army, was 
vexed that the Cyzicenes should successfully with- 
stand his siege. But his eager ambition quickly 
ebbed away when he perceived the straits in which 
his soldiers were involved, and their actual canni- 
balism. For Lucullus was not carrying on the war 
in any theatrical way, nor for mere display, but, as 
the saying is, was "kicking in the belly," and de- 
vising every means for cutting off food. Accordingly, 
while Lucullus was laying siege to some outpost or 
other, Mithridates eagerly took advantage of the 
opportunity, and sent away into Bithynia almost all 
his horsemen, together with the beasts of burden, 
and those of his foot-soldiers who were disabled. 
On learning of this, Lucullus returned to his camp 
while it was still night, and early in the morning, in 
spite of a storm, took ten cohorts of infantry and 
his calvary, and started in pursuit, although snow 
was falling and his hardships were extreme. Many 
of his soldiers were overcome with the cold and had 
to be left behind, but with the rest he overtook the 

VOL. IT. R 53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TICOTWV, rot? 8' aXXoi? Trepl Tov'PvvSarcov Trorajxbv 

3 KaraXaftwv rou? TroXf/uou? rocravrrfv rpOTT^v 
eTTOvrjcrev, ware ra? <yvvaltcas e/c TJ?<? 'ATroXXwWa? 

rcooepyoiJievas ddtapTrdfceiv ra (bopria KCLI <TKV- 

N / r/v y , / ^ - s 

Xcviv TOU? (povevofjievovs. TroXXwv o , cw? 

aTTodavovrwv eaXwaav LTTTTOL p.ev %a 
KOI 7r\fj0os avapiO fMTfrov VTTQ^wyicav, 
fjivpiot, 7revraKLcr^L\ioL' real TOVTOVS aycov 
Trape^rjei Trapa TO arpaTOTreSov rdov 7ro\6/j.Lwv. 

4 ^aXofo-rtou Se Oav/jid^co Tore irpwTOV axpOai 
r P(DfjiaiOL<f fcajuLrjXovs \eyovTOS, el /xr/re Trporepov 
TOU? yiteTa *LKr)7riwvo<$ viKijeavTas 'Ajmo^oz/ ajWo 
/LtiyVe TOU? eVa7^o? TT^O? 'Qp%o/Avq) /cal Trepl 
Xaipuweiav 'A/>^eXaw yLte/^a^/ieyof? eyvcofcevai 



5 'AXXa TO) 76 MiQpi&aTrj fyevyeiv fJLev 
rrjv ra^icfTriv, avOo\Ka<s Be AOVKOV\\O> 
Tpt/3a? OTTICTO) fjirf^avoyfjievo^ e<TTeXXe TOI^ vavap^ov 
1 ApiGTOVitcov eVl T?;^ 'EXXr7^i:^ OaXaaaav Kal 

OCTOV OVTTto fjLe\\OVTOS K7T\IV K TTyOoSoCT/a? 6 

Aou/couXXo? eKVpievae /juera ^pvaow /Jivpiwv, ou? 
uHpOepwv rt rov 'Pca/jiaiKov a-rparev- 
etc TOVTOV Mt^/otSaTT^? yuey e(f)vyV eVl 

ddXaacrav, ol Be crrparriyol Tre^ol rov arparov 

6 a 777770,70;'. eirnrecrcov Be AOVKOV\\O$ avrois 
Trepl rov Tpavircov rrora^Lov elXe TC Tra/xTroXXou? 
:al oia/AVpiovs arreKreive. \eyovrai 8' e roO 
rravros aKo\ov6wv re KOL fia^ifj^cov o^Xov fjivpi- 

ou TToXu S?) Twr' rpidtcovra \eiTrovaai 499 



XII. Aou/fOL'XXo? 8e irpwrov et? K.V&KOV 
Trape\0u>v aireX-avo'ev rjSovijs Kai 

54 



LUCULLUS, xi. 2-xu. i 

enemy at the river Rhyndacus and inflicted such a 
defeat upon them that the very women came forth 
from Apollonia and carried off their baggage and 
stripped their slain. Many fell in the battle, as it 
is natural to suppose. Six thousand horses and 
fifteen thousand men were captured, besides an un- 
told number of beasts of burden. All these followed 
in the train of Lucullus as he marched back past 
the camp of the enemy. Sallust says, to my amaze- 
ment, that camels were then seen by the Romans 
for the first time. He must have thought that the 
soldiers of Scipio who conquered Antiochus before 
this, and those who had lately fought Archelaiis at 
Orchomenus and Chaeroneia, were unacquainted 
with the camel. 

Mithridates was now resolved upon the speediest 
possible flight, but with a view to drawing Lucullus 
away, and holding him back from pursuit, he dis- 
patched his admiral, Aristonicus, to the Grecian sea. 
Aristonicus was just on the point of sailing when he 
was betraved into the hands of Lucullus, together 

> ~ 

with ten thousand pieces of gold which he was 
carrying for the corruption of some portion of the 
Roman army. Upon this, Mithridates fled to the 
sea, and his generals of infantry began to lead the 
army away. But Lucullus fell upon them at the 
river Granicus, captured a vast number of them, 
and slew twenty thousand. It is said that out of 
the whole horde of camp-followers and fighting men, 
not much less than three hundred thousand perished 
in the campaign. 

XII. Lucullus, in the first place, entered Cyzicus 
in triumph, and enjoyed the pleasant welcome which 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eireira vavriKov efyiprvero rov 'EX- 
\Y]<jirovrov GTmropevo/AGvos. et? Be TptodSa Kara- 
ecrKij/'oxre /JLGV ev rq> iGpy TJ}? 'Ac/jyooStTT;?, 
ls Be vvKrwp e'So/cet r^v Oeav opav 
e<j)(TT(t)crav avry Kal \eyoucrav 

Tt, Kvcoaa'eis, fj,6yd0v/jie \eov; veftpol Be 



rot 



Se KCLI TOL/? <j)i\ov<$ fca\(ras 
o^riv 6TL VVKTOS ovcrrjs. KOL Traprja-av 

airayyeXXovTes wfyQai nrepl rov 
\ifjiva rpicr/caiSeKa TrevTi'ipeis rwv (Baai- 
67rl kriiAvov TrXeoutra?. evOvs ovv ava^Oel^ 
jiev el\e Kal TOV a-Tparrjybv avtwv 
a7TKreivev, eirl Be TOV? a\\ovs eVXet 
3 irpwpeas. ol Be erv%dv op/JLovvres, Kal ra 7r\oia 
Trdvra 777309 rrjv yrjv crvveXKovres airo TWV 

eBiBocrai' 



TOt? 7T6pl TOV AoVKOV\\OV, OVT6 

rov wiov Bt.Bovros ovre ^laaaaQai vaval 



r? rwv 



4 rfj yfj Kal fteftrfKvLa*; acr^aXw?. ov fjurjv d\\a 

$ 7rpocr/3o\ijv riva r] vijcros el^ev arro^i- 
ra>v arpariwrwv TOL/? dptcrrou?, ol Karomv 
rot? TroXe/itoi? TOL><? /JLGV Bietydeipov 

avrwv, TOL>? 8' rjvdyKa^ov aTTOKorrrovra^ ra 

TrpvfjLvrjaia rwv vewv Kal fyevyovras GK TT}? 

d\\r)\oi<? T crvyKpoveiv ra TrXota KOI Tat? e/ 

Xat? Tat? Trepl rov AOUKOU\\OV 

5 TroXXot pel' ovv Bi(f)0dprjaav t ev Be Tot? d\ovcnv 

Kal Map^o? o irapa ^epraypiov crrparrjyos' 



506 



LUCULLUS, xii. 1-5 

was his due ; then he proceeded to the Hellespont, 
and began to equip a fleet. On visiting the Troad. 
he pitched his tent in the sacred precinct of Aphro- 
dite, and in the night, after he had fallen asleep, he 
thought he saw the goddess standing over him and 
saying : 

" Why dost thou sleep, great lion ? the fawns 
are near for thy taking." 

Rising up from sleep and calling his friends, he 
narrated to them his vision, while it was yet night. 
And lo, there came certain men from Liuin, with 
tidings that thirteen of the king's galleys had been 
seen off the harbour of the Achaeans, making for 
Lemnos Accordingly, Lucullus put to sea at once, 
captured these, slew their commander, Isodorus, and 
then sailed in pursuit of the other captains, whom 
these were seeking to join. They chanced to be 
lying at anchor close to shore, and drawing their 
vessels all up on land, they fought from their decks, 
and sorely galled the crews of Lucullus. These had 
no chance to sail round their enemies, nor to make 
onset upon them, since their own ships were afloat, 
while those of their enemies were planted upon 
the land and securely fixed. However, Lucullus at 
last succeeded in disembarking the best of his 
soldiers where the island afforded some sort of 
access. These fell upon the enemy from the rear, 
slew some of them, and forced the rest to cut 
their stern cables and fly from the shore, their 
vessels thus falling foul of one another, and receiving 
the impact of the ships of Lucullus. Many of the 
enemy perished, of course, and among the captives 
there was brought in Marius, the general sent from 

57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

jap Tep6(})0a\fjLOs, teal Traptfjye\TO rot? 
aTi(jL>Tais v0vs eiTiTrXeovcriv VTTO AOVKOV\\OV 
eva rcreiveiv Tep6(f)@a\/jLov, OTTO)? e^ovciBicrOels 
/cal KaOufipLaOeis airoOdvoL, 

XIII. Tevofievos $ diro TOVTWV rjTreijeTO 777309 
Trjv UVTOV MiOpiSdrov Siwfyv. rjXTTi^e jap Ti 
Trepl RiBvvlav evprjcreiv avrbv VTTO ^OKWVIOV 
(frpovpov/juevov, ov auro? evcTTfjcrofjievov rfj $>vjfj 

2 fiera vewv aTrecrraX/cet Trpos Ni/co/jLifieiav. aXXa 

fiV ev ^.a^oOpoLKr) /u-uou/Ae^o? /cal 
v Kadvcrreprjcre' Mt,@pi&drr)v Be dva- 
fjLera TOV crro\ov, crTrevBovra irplv e 
AOVKOV\\OV et? TOV Ylovrov etcrTrX 
veL ^eifiwv TroXu?, u<^' ov ra 
d(j)rjpTrdytj, ra 8' ejSv9icr6r) rwv dfca^MV, iraaa 
6* 77 TrapaXia TWV vavajiwv eKfapo/JLevwv VTTO 
TOV K\V&WVO<; 7rl TroXXa? ^/ze/ja? fy Tre/otVXeci)?. 

3 auro? Se, r^? oX/eaSo?, e'0' 779 evrXe^, yLtJ/re 777)09 

V7rapaKo/jiLcrTOV 8ia /juejeOos ev 
fcal KvpaTi TVCJ)\W Tra/otcrrayLt 6^779 
ais, 7T/309 Te TT)^ Qakacrcrav IjSr) ftapeias 
l vTrepdvrXov jevofjLv>]s, ///ere/z./3a9 e/9 Xy&Tpi- 
KOV fivoTrdpcova /cal TO aw^a TreipaTals ej^eipi- 
cra9 dve\7ri<TTtiys Kal 7rapa/S6Xw9 e/9 TTJV TlovTifcrjv 
4 






jap aVTT)<? 7T/3O9 TOV Tr6\fjLOV ttTTO 

Ta\avTQ)V eapTveo~0ai vavTi/cov, 
K(v\.v<re 7re/A>|ra9 jpafifjiaTa teal /jija\i)yopijo-as, 

508 



LUCULLUS, xii. 5-xni. 4 

Sertorius. He had but one eye, and the soldiers 
had received strict orders from Lucullus, as soon 
as they set sail, to kill no one-eyed man. Lucullus 
wished Marius to die under the most shameful 
insults. 

XIII. These things done, Lucullus hastened in 
pursuit of Mithridates himself. For he expected 
to find him still in Bithynia under the watch and 
ward of Voconius, whom he had dispatched with a 
fleet to Nicomedeia that he might intercept the 
king's flight. But Voconius was behindhand, owing 
to his initiation into, and celebration of, the 
mysteries in Samothrace, and Mithridates put to 
sea with his armament, eager to reach Pontus before 
Lucullus turned and set upon him. He was over- 
taken, however, by a great storm, which destroyed 
some of his vessels and disabled others. The whole 
coast for many days was covered with the wrecks 
dashed upon it by the billows. As for the king 
himself, the merchantman on which he was sailing 
was too large to be readily beached when the sea 
ran so high and the waves were so baffling, nor 
would it answer to its helm, and it was now too 
heavy and full of water to gain an offing ; accord- 
ingly, he abandoned it for a light brigantine belonging 
to some pirates, and, entrusting his person to their 
hands, contrary to expectation and after great 
hazard, got safely to Heracleia in Pontus. And 
so it happened that the boastful speech of Lucullus to 
the Senate brought no divine retribution down upon 
him. When, namely, that body was ready to vote 
three thousand talents to provide a fleet for this 
war, Lucullus blocked the measure by writing a 
letter, in which he made the haughty boast that 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvev SaTrdvrjs /cal rocravr^ Trapacr reeves 
rdis ra>v GV fjLfJid'xwv vavcrl MiOpi&drrjv e/c/SaXet 
TT}<? 6a\drrris. real rovro VTrrjp^ev avrw rov 
Oeov o-vvaywvio~aiJLevov. \eyerai yap 'AprefuBos 
%oX&> TIpiaTrivrjs 6 %i/j,tov efJLTrecrelv rol<; Tlovrt,- 
Kols crv\r)G aa LV aur^9 TO iepov KOL TO %6avov 
dvacrTrdcracn. 

XIV. Tlo\\wv Se AOVKOV\\(I) Trapaivovvrcov 
dva^d\\eaOai rov TroXe^iov, ov (j)povrL<ra<f eve- 
fla\6 3ta QiOvvlas teal FaXarta? e/9 rrjv fiaci,- 
\IKIJV, ev dpXV pw voer)<$ TWV dvaytfauajv, ware 
eireadai Tpicrpvpiovs e/cacrrov eVt TWV 
KOfJii^ovra CTITOV jjLeSi/j,vov, irpo'icov Be /cal 

dirdvrwv et9 roa-avrrjv r)\dev eviropiav, 50C 
ware TOV /JLCV fiovv eV aTpaTO7re8<p Spa^yj^, TO 
be avSpaTToBov rerTapwv WVLOV eivai, rrjv 8* 
d\\rfv \elav ev ovBevl Xoyw TOU9 nev dTro\eLtreLv t 
TOU9 B dva\i(TKeiv. &id0eai<$ yap TJV 
7T/309 ovBeva irdvrwv evTropovvrcov. 

2 'AXX' OCTOV <$>0elpai /cal KaKwaat, rqv 
iTTTraa-dfJLevoi /cal /caraBpa^6vr<; d^pi 
pas /cal T&V repl ep/jic0&ovTa TreSicov, rj 

rov A.ov/cov\\ov, on rrdcras Trpoadyerai Ta9 
7roXei9, Kara tcpdros Be ovSe/^iav yprjicev ov& 
Trapea^Kev avrols ct)(f)e\i]df]vai Siap-rrdcracriv, 

3 " 'AXXa Ka\ vvv" (j)aa-av, " 'A/jiKrov, TTO\IV 
fiova /cal rcKovaiav, ov fieya ov epyov, el 
evreivai ryv 7ro\iopKiav, Karaa^elv, a 

ayei Trepl rrjv Ti/3aprjva)v /cal 



LUCULLUS, XIIL 4-xiv. 3 

without any such costly array, but only with the 
ships of the allies, he would drive Mithridates from 
the sea. And this success he gained with the 
assistance of Heaven. For it is said that it was 
owing to the wrath of Artemis of Priapus that 
the tempest fell upon the men of Pontus, who 
had plundered her shrine and pulled down her 
image. 

XIV. Though many now advised Lucullus to 
suspend the war, he paid no heed to them, but 
threw his army into the king's country by way 
of Bithynia and Galatia. 1 At first he lacked the 
necessary supplies, so that thirty thousand Galatians 
followed in his train, each carrying a bushel of grain 
upon his shoulders ; but as he advanced and mastered 
everything, he found himself in the midst of such 
plenty that an ox sold in his camp for a drachma, 
and a man-slave for four, while other boot) 7 had no 
value at all. Some abandoned it, and some destroyed 
it. There was no sale for anything to anybody when 
all had such abundance. 

But when Lucullus merely wasted and ravaged 
the country with cavalry incursions, which penetrated 
to Themiscyra and the plains of the river Thermodon, 
his soldiers found fault with him because he brought 
all the cities over to him by peaceable measures ; 
he had not taken a single one by storm, they said, 
nor given them a chance to enrich themselves by 
plunder. " Nay," they said, " at this very moment 
we are leaving Amisus, a rich and prosperous city, 
which it would be no great matter to take, if 
its siege were pressed, and are following our general 
into the desert of the Tibareni and the Chaldaeans 

1 73 B.C. 

5" 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aXXa 



ravra /j,ev OVK av o AovrcovXXos 

TO&OVTOV aTTovoids Tou? cTTpaTtcora? irapaya- 

yeiv, oaov vo~repov e^e^vav, virepewpa /cat OVK 

4 <f> p/ovTt&v, efceivoLS S' avreXoyeiTO /md\\ov t o'l 
/3pa$VTf)ra rcar^yopovv avTOU StarplftovTos ev- 
ravOa Trepl /ceoyua? /cat TroXei? 01) TTO\\OV 
dia<$ TTO\VV xpovov, ewz^ro? 8' av^eaOat, 

rrjv. " AUTO yap," (f>rj, " TOVTO KOI /3ov\OfJiai 
/cal KaOrj/jiai Te^vd^wv, peyav av0i<$ yeviaOaL TOV 
avbpa /cal crvvayayelv avrov a^LQ^a^pv &vvafJLiv, 

5 iva fjiLvy KOI fj^rj (^vyrj TrpoGiovras J^a?. rj ov% 
opare TroXX?)^ /j,ev aura* /cal dreK/jLaprov eprj/jiiav 
oTTiaw Trapovaav; 771/9 Be 6 KauAracro? /cat oprj 
TroXXa /cal (3a6ea /cat fjivpiovs /3acrtXet<? (frvyofia- 
^oD^ra? dpKOVvra /caTarcpv-^rai, /cal Trepicr^eLV 
b\iywv 8' ifi^epwv o&o? et? ' Ap^eviav etc Ka/9et/)ft)i/, 
/cat U7T6/3 'Ap/iei/ta? /cddrjrai Tiypdvrjs, /3ao"tXeu? 
f3acri\e(i)i>, ex<vv Svva/uv, fj \\dpOovs re 7re/)t- 
/coTrret TT}? 'A<rta? /cat TroXet? 'EXX^i't^a? et? 
M^Staz/ dvafco/jiL%i /cal Sf/Jta? /cparet /cat IlaXat- 
crrivris /cat TOU? avro 2eXev/rou /SacrtXet? aTroKTiv- 
vvei, OvyaTepas 5* CLVTWV ciyet, /cal yvval/cas 

6 dvaairdarovs. euro? oi/ceto? tVrt 



/cat ya/A/Bpos. ov Trepio-^rerai Be avrov i/cerrjv 
aXXa TroXe/^^o-et TT/)O? rjjjias' /cat 



Tiypdvrjv, vraXat yLte^ atrta? Seo- 
fjbvov (/>' T^yu-a?, evTrpeTrecTTepav Be OVK av \a/36vra 
rr)? i^Trep dvBpos OIKGLOV /cat /5a<rtXea)5 dvaytca- 
crOevra vTrovpyelv avrq>. rt ow Set ' 

512 



LUCULLUS, xiv. 3-6 

to fight with Mithridates." But these grievances, 
not dreaming that they would bring the soldiers 
to such acts of madness as they afterwards performed, 
Lucullus overlooked and ignored. He was, however, 
more ready to defend himself against those who 
denounced his slowness in lingering there a long 
while, subduing worthless little villages and cities, 
and allowing Mithridates to recruit himself. 
" That," he said, " is the very thing I want, and I 
am sitting here to get it. I want the man to 
become powerful again, and to get together a force 
with which it is worth our while to fight, in order 
that he may stand his ground, and not fly when we 
approach. Do you not see that he has a vast 
and trackless desert behind him ? The Caucasus, 
too, is near, with its many hills and dells, which 
are sufficient to hide away in safety ten thousand 
kings who decline to fight. And it is only a few 
days' journey from Cabira into Armenia and over 
Armenia there sits enthroned Tigranes, King of 
Kings, with forces which enable him to cut the 
Parthians off from Asia, transplant Greek cities into 
Media, sway Syria and Palestine, put to death the 
successors of Seleucus, and carry off their wives and 
daughters into captivity. This king is a kinsman of 
Mithridates, his son-in-law. He will not be content 
to receive him as a suppliant, but will make war 
against us. If we strive, therefore, to eject Mithri- 
dates from his kingdom, we shall run the risk 
of drawing Tigranes down upon us. He has 
long wanted an excuse for coming against us, and 
could not get a better one than that of being 
compelled to aid a man who is his kinsman and 
a king. Why, then, should we bring this to pass, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



i KOI SiSd^ai MiOpiSdrrjv dyvoovvra, 
a)v ecrrtv avrw 777709 ij/jids TroXe^reov, KOI 
T} /3ov\6/jievov, aXX' dSo^ovvra ffvveXavveiv 49 
ra9 Tiypdvov %eipa<>, aXX' ov%i Sovras avrw 
Xpovov /c TWV oiKeiwv 7rapacrKvdaacr0ai teal 
avaOappvvai, KoA/^oi? KOLI Tiflapijvois KOI KaTT- 
7rd&ot;iv, &v TroXXa/tt? KeKpair^Ka^ev, fJid^ecrO at, 
fjid\\ov 77 M?;Sot9 KOI 
XV. 'E?rt TOIOVTWV 



7re/)t re rrjv 

TT; Tro\iopKia xpw/jievos, KOI fjuera %etfji(oi>a 
M.ovprji>av d7ro\.nro)v eVt rr}? TroXtop/aa? e(B 
enl MiOpiSdrrjv /caflij/juevov ev Ka^e/pot? 



avrw u^a/ieco? et? TeTpaKivnvpiovs 7T6- 
tTTTret? Se TerpaKia^iX-Lov^, ol? eddppet 

2 /zaTucrra. /cat StaySa? TOI^ AVKOV TTOTa/JLov els TO 

7rpovKa\etro TOU? 'PwyLtatoi;?. 
etywyov oi 'Pw/JLalor 
ou/c a^o^o? eaXw rerpw/jLevos Kai 
rov MiQpi$drr)v dv)fy0r) ra/cw? OTTO 

Trvdo/jievov Be rov fiaaiXews, el 
VTT avrov yevrfaeTai <^t\o?, ""Ai> 76 
'Pw/tatot? StaXXa/y^?' et 5e yu,^', TroXe/u 
TOVTOV fjuev flav/jLatras 6 M.i0piSdrrj<; OVK rjBi/ 

3 Tou 8e AOVKOV\\OV ra fjikv TreSta TW^ TTO^C/JLIGOV 5( 
iiTTroKpa'TOvvTtov 8e5iOTO?, rr/^ S' 6peivr}v OKVOVVTOS 
Trpo'ievai, fjiatcpav /cal v\a)Sr] KOL\ Sva-ftarov ovaav, 



rives Kara rvv ''EXX^z^e? el'? rt 



LUCULLUS, xiv. 6-xv. 3 

and teach Mithridates, when he does not know it, 
with what allies he must cany on war against us .' 
Why help to drive him, against his wish and as a last 
resource, into the arms of Tigranes, instead of giving 
him time to equip himself from his own resources and 
get fresh courage ? Then we shall fight with 
Colchians and Tibareni and Cappadocians, whom we 
have often overcome, r ather than with Medes and 
Armenians." 

XV. Influenced by such considerations as these, 
Lucullus lingered about Amisus, without pushing the 
siege vigorously. When winter was over, he left 
Murena in charge of the siege, and marched against 
Mithridates, 1 who had taken his stand at Cabira, and 
intended to await the Roman onset there. A force 
of forty thousand footmen had been collected by him, 
and four thousand horsemen ; on the latter he placed 
his chief reliance. Crossing the river Lycus and 
advancing into the plain, he offered the Romans 
battle. A cavalry fight ensued, and the Romans 
took to flight. Pomponius, a man of some note, 
having been wounded, was taken prisoner and led 
into the presence of Mithridates, suffering greatly 
from his wounds. When the king asked him if he 
would become his friend provided he spared his life, 
Pomponius answered : " Yes, indeed, if you come to 
terms with the Romans ; otherwise I must remain 
your enemy." Mithridates was struck with admir- 
ation for him, and did him no harm. 

Lucullus was now afraid of the plains, since the 
enemy was superior in cavalry, and yet hesitated to 
go forward into the hill country, which was remote, 
woody, and impassable. But it chanced that certain 

1 72 B.C. 

515 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



cnrrfkaiov KaTa(j)vy6vT<$, wv 6 

Te/uSfiOpO? V7T6(T-^erO TOV AoVKOV\\Ol> 

KCLTacndcreiv eVl TOTTW dcrtyaXei TO> 
KOL (ppovpiov eyovTi rot? Ka/SetpOL? e 

4 TncTTefera? S' 6 A.OVKOV\\OS a/j,a rfj vv/crl Trvpa 
Kavcras eKivei' Kal ra crreva irape\6u>v a 

TO 'XjMplov el^e, Kal /JLeO r]fJiepav V 

TWV 7ro\e/jLio)i> l&pvwv rov arparov ev 

o? fjLa^eaOai /3ov\o/uev<p Trpoaaywjrjv eBi&ocrav 

/cal TO /J,r) $ia<T6r\vai Trapel-^ov ^(rv^d^ovTi,. 

5 Tvctifjiiiv fjiev ovv ovSeTepos el^ev ev ye r&> 
rrapovTi SiaKivSvvevew e\a$ov Be Xeyerat TOW 
/3acri\LKr>)v SLOJKOVTWV VTTOTe/JLi' 

TOU? 'PwyLtatOU?, K 8e TOVTOV (TV {JLTTeGOVTaS 

vi^eaOai Tr\eiovwv e/carepoi? del 

reXo? S' eviKcov ol /3aai\iKOL' Kal Trjv <j)yyr)v CK 

rov xdpaKOS ol ^Pw/naloL KaOopwvTes i] 

/cal avveTpe^ov vrpo? TOV AOVKOV\\OV, ciyeiv 

Seo/jievoi Kal crvvdrj/jLa TT/JO? Trjv 

6 6 ce /SofXo/zei'o? avTovs fjiaOelv, fjKiicov ecrTiv Iv 
dywvi, 7ro\e/jLov Kal KLV&VVU) Trapovcria Kal oi^ri? 
7776/^0^09 efjifypovos, eKelvovs fjiev t]a-v^iav ayeiv 
eKt\evaev, ai^ro? Se KaTeftaivev et? TO Tre&iov Kal 
TOi? TT/ocoTOi? aTrai^Tr/cra? TWV fyevyovTw 

1 irpoaeTa^e Kal dvaaTpifyeiv /ACT' avrov. 

TU>V Be TOVTWV Kal ot \oi7rol /AerafiaXo/Aevoi Kal 
crvcrTavres 6\iyu> TTOVW TpeirovTai TOZ)? TroXeyatou? 
Kal KaTaoiaiKovaiv et? TO aTpaTOTreBov. errav- 
\6a)v Be AOVKOV\\OS aTi^iav TLVCI TO?? 
vevo^ia jjukvriv Trpocre/3a\, xeXevcras ev 

5,6 



LUCULLUS, xv. 3-7 

Greeks, who had taken refuge in a sort of cave, were 
captured, and the elder of them, Artemidorus, 
promised to serve Lucullus as a guide, and set him 
in a place which was safe for his camp, and which 
had a fortress overlooking Cabira. Lucullus put 
confidence in this promise, and as soon as it was 
night, lit his camp fires and set out. He passed 
safely through the narrow defiles and took possession 
of the desired place, and at daybreak was seen above 
the enemy, stationing his men in positions which 
gave him access to the enemy if he wished to fight, 
and safety from their assaults if he wished to keep 
quiet. 

Now neither commander had any intention of 
hazarding an engagement at once. But we are told 
that while some of the king's men were chasing a 
stag, the Romans cut them off and confronted them, 
whereupon a skirmish followed, with fresh accessions 
continually to either side. At last, the king's men 
were victorious. Then the Romans in their camp, 
beholding the flight of their comrades, were in 
distress, and ran in throngs to Lucullus, begging 
him to lead them, and demanding the signal for 
battle. But he, wishing them to learn how im- 
portant, in a dangerous struggle with the enemy, the 
visible presence of a prudent general is, bade them 
keep quiet. Then he went down into the plain by 
himself, and confronting the foremost of the fugitives, 
bade them stop, and turn back with him. They 
obeyed, and the rest also wheeled about and formed 
in battle array, and in a short time routed the enemy 
and drove them to their camp. When he came back, 
however, Lucullus inflicted the customary disgrace 
upon the fugitives. He bade them dig a twelve-. 

5*7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



a(t)(TTOi<; bpv^ai ScoSe/co, TTO^WV rdcfrpov, e<e<7Tco- 

fcal Oew/jievwv rwv ci\\rov (npariwrwv. 
XVI *\\v Se Ti? eV TCO MiOpibaTOv crrpaTOTreSa) 
&vvdcrTr)<; 'OX^a/eo? (yevos S' eiVtz' o/ 
ftapftdpwv rcov Trepl rrjv ^/[CLLWTLV 
oltcovvTwv), dvrjp ocra xeipbs epya teal roXya??? eV 



diravra, KOL 
ev rot? ie7tcrTot9, ert 



0pa7TVTt/c6$. OVTO? e^wv del irpos TLVO. 






2 epyov, diTOKTevelv AOVKOV\\OV. 



TO a(riea)<; KCLI 



6/3777? d(f)i7T7rd~ 
craro TT/OO? AOVKOV\\OV 6 8* acryiie^o? e&e^ 



77^ avrov TroXi*? ei/ TO) 



teal ra^v Tre^co/ze^o? 7;ar77-a^eTO T7;V re a 
avrov Kal TO XtTrape?, uxrre Tpcnritys KOI avve- 
Spiov Trore TTOLeLcrdat KOLVWVOV. 

3 'Evret 8' eboKGi Kaipbv e-^eiv o Aa^S^'/oto?, TOI^ 
/iei' ITTTTOV $;(t) rov %dpaicos eKe\va Trpoajajeli' 
TOU? TratSa?, avrbs $6 /jLecnj/ufipias ovcrr]^ KOI 



TWV CTTaTLWTWv eviGiovTwv Kcu 



KO)\vcroi>TO<; elae\9elv avSpa (rvvrjdij Kal \6yovs 



i / * '~A/3 Jp.^ >\< 

4 (bacTKOvra. Kav ei(Tif\.uev aoeco?, et ya?) o 

avrjprjKO)*? cnparrjyov^ VTTVOS AOVKGV\\OV kcrwcrev. 
yap Ka9ev$wv Kal Mez-'eS^yito?, 6 

irapa rat? Ovpais eo"TO)9 ot: 

KCLTO, Kaipbv rjiceLV Tov*Q\6aKov, apri \OVKOV\\OV 
TT/oo? dvaTrava-iv eic fiaicpa^ dypwjrvias Kal 

518 



LUCULLUS, xv. 7-xvi. 4 

foot ditch, working in ungirt blouses, while the rest 
of the soldiers stood by and watched them. 

XVI. In the camp of Mithridates there was a 
Dandarian prince named Olthacus (the Dandarians 
are a tribe of barbarians dwelling about Lake 
Maeotis), a man conspicuous as a soldier for qualities 
of strength and boldness, of a most excellent judg- 
ment, and withal affable in address and of insinuating 
manners. This man was always in emulous rivalry 
for the precedence with a fellow prince of his tribe, 
and so was led to undertake a great exploit for 
Mithridates, namely, the murder of Lucullus. The 
king approved of his design, and purposely inflicted 
upon him sundry marks of disgrace, whereupon, 
pretending to be enraged, he galloped off to Lucullus, 
who gladly welcomed him, since there was much 
talk of him in the camp. After a short probation, 
Lucullus was so pleased with his shrewdness and 
zeal, that he made him a table companion, and at 
last a member of his council. 

Now when the Dandarian thought his opportunity 
had come, he ordered his slaves to lead his horse 
outside the camp, while he himself, at mid day, when 
the soldiers were lying around enjoying their rest, 
went to the general's tent. He thought no one 
would deny entrance to a man who was an intimate 
of the general, and said he brought him certain 
messages of great importance. And he would have 
entered without let or hindrance, had not sleep, the 
destroyer of many generals, saved Lucullus. For it 
chanced that he was asleep, and Menedemus, one of 
his chamberlains, who stood at the tent-door, told 
Olthacus that he had come at an inopportune time, 
since Lucullus had just betaken himself to rest after 

SI9 



PLUTARCH'S LIV r ES 

5 rocrovrwv BeBwKoros eavrov. eirel S' OVK 
Ke\evovros, dXX* (f)rj real Kw\vovro<$ elcre\6v- 
creaOai rrepl rrpdynaros dvayKaLov real fj,6yd\ov 

t (Bov\o[Jievos, ijSjj 777)0? opyrjv 6 
eiTro^v fjLijBev dvayKaiorepov rov (TO)- 
\ovrcov\\ov dTretoaaro rov avdpwirov 502 

6 a/i^orepai? rat? ^epaiv. o Be Beiaas v- 
rov ^dpcLKos, teal \a/3a)V rov LTTTTOV Li7r^ 
et? TO MiOpiSdrov arparorrebov dirpaKro^. 
dpa Kal rot? 7rpdy/j,a(Tiv 6 Katpos warirep 

/cal rrjv aw^ovcrav Kal rrjv draipovaav 



XVII. 'E/c rovrov Swprarto? /j,ev eVt cirov 
erre^Orj (JLera Be/ca cnreipwv Kal Kara- 
l<; VTTO MevdvSpov, rwv MiOpi&drov arpa- 
rr)<ywv ei^o?, dvrearr) /cal <TVp,/3a\a)v cfrovov eVotr/cre 
TTO\VV Kal rpoTTrjv rwv 7ro\e/uLLa)v. avOis Se Treaty- 
Oevros ' 'ABpiavov fiera Buvdpecos, OTTW? CK Trepiov- 
aia^ 6%(ocriv 01 arpariwrai alrov, ou Trepieibe Mi- 
@pi$drr)<?, aXV aTrecrreiXe Mei^e/ia^o^ Kal 
7ro\\a)v [lev Imr&wv, 7ro\\a)v Be rre^w 

T / '-\' -x^^ 1 ^ 

2 ovroi rravres, co? \eyerai, TT^V bveiv 



oav VTTO rwv .c&MU&V:. Kal 



eKpvirre rrjv <rvp.<$>opav &>? ov rocraurrjv ovcrar, 
d\\d fJiLKpaVy 7rpoaKKpovKor(i)v arreipia rojv 
crrpa-niywv, 'ABpiavos Be Xayu.Tr/30? Traprj/Jiei^ero 
TO arparoireBov TroXXa? Kardywv d/nd^as airov 
Knl \a(>vpct>v yefjiovaas, ware BvaOv/^iav fiev 
avrw, rapajfyv Be Kal $>6jBov d/n>j^avov e^rrea-e'tv 
3 TO?? <7Tpcma>TCU?. eBeSoKro p,ev ovv /jbrjKeri, 
/jLeveiv eirel Be irpoe^eTTe^Trov ol /3aai\tKol ra 
crffrerepa %pifaara KaO^ t]av)(iav t TOU? 8' aXXof? 
520 



LUCULLUS, xvi. 5-xvn. 3 

his long watching and many hardships. OHhacus 
did not retire at the bidding of Menedemus, but 
declared that even in spite of him he would go in, 
since he wished to confer with the general on urgent 
business of great importance. Then Menedemus 
got angry, declared that nothing was more urgent 
than the preservation of Lucullus, and pushed the 
man away with both hands. Then Olthacus, in fear, 
left the camp, took horse, and rode off to the camp 
of Mithridates, without effecting his purpose. So 
true is it that in active life, as well as in sickness, it 
is the critical moment which gives the scales their 
saving or their fatal inclination. 

XVII. After this, Sornatius was sent with ten 
cohorts to get supplies of grain. Being pursued by 
Menander, one of the generals of Mithridates, he 
faced about, joined battle, and routed the enemy 
with great slaughter. And again, when Adrian was 
sent out with a force to procure an abundance of 
grain for the soldiers, Mithridates did not look on 
idly, but dispatched Menemachus and Myron, at the 
head of a large body of cavalry and footmen. All 
these, it is said, except two, were cut to pieces by 
the Romans. Mithridates tried to conceal the ex- 
tent of the disaster, pretending that it was a slight 
matter, and due to the inexperience of his generals. 
But when Adrian marched pompously past his camp, 
convoying many waggons laden with grain and booty, 
a great despair fell upon the king, and confusion and 
helpless fear upon his soldiers. They decided, there- 
fore, to remain where they were no longer. But 
when the king's servants tried to send away their 
own baggage first, and to hinder the rest from going, 
the soldiers at once got angry, pushed and forced 

521 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



KCO\VOV, JjBrj Kal Trpo? opyrjv 7rl 
a)0ov/j,voi Kal fiia^ofjievoi TOL /uv 
%ov, avrovs Be direatyaTTov. OTTOV KOI 
6 crrparriyos ovBev erepov e^wv rj TVJV 
Trepl avrov aTrcoXero Sia ravrrjv, 'E^yuato? 8e 6 
dvrriS KareTrarrjOri Trepl ra? TruXa?. 
4 AUTO? 8* o Mt^ptSaTT;?, oure OTraSou rtz^o? 
ovre ITTTTOKO/JLOV TrapaiAeivavTOS avrw, crvve^e- 
irecrev airo rov arpaTOTreSov rot? TroXXot? ava- 
//.e/UYyttez/o?, ovtf ITTTTOV T&V (SacriKiKwv 
cras, aXX' o^e TTOU KaTL^tov avrov ev TW 



rr? T/ooTr/? 

6 eu^oOo? f i7T7rov o)v aL'To? 



5 Trapecr^v. -tj^r) yap avrov ol f Pa)/i,atot 
eTTifteijjieifoi' KOI ra^et //.ev oi)/c aTreKlirovro rov 
\afieiv avrov, aXX' rf\6ov eyyitrra TOVTOV, (f)i\o- 
irkovTia & KOI fjiiKpn\oyia arpan^Ti/cr) TO 
TToXXot? aywcri Kal fieyaXois KLV&VVOLS 

K /jiaKpov dtjpafjLa 'Pw/aaLOf? a^e^Xero 
AOVKOV~\,\OV aTTeaTepriGe VLKwvra rwv 

6 rjv fjiev yap ev C^LKTM TT}? Stco^ew? o v7reK(j)ep(i)v 
TOV avBpa tTTTTO?, rj/jiiovov Be TU>V TO ^pvaiov 
KO/jLt,%6vT(i)v /jiera^v TOV /SacrtXea)? etr' UTTO TavTO- 

TTapeicrTrecrovTOS, eire TOV /SacrtXew? eVt- 



Kal cryXXeyo^Te? TO %pvcriov Kal 
7 Bia/na^OfievoL Trpos dXX?;Xou<; KaQucrTeprjcrav. Kal 
ov TOVTO fJLovov avTcov a7re\avo- TT}? TrXeoj/e^'a? 
, aXXa /cat TOV eVt TOJV aTropp/jrcov 



rov ya<rtO)? 'vTa KaXXtcrT/aaTOV o /u,6z/ ayeiv 



Ke\V(rev, oi 8' ayovTe? 
522 



LUCULLUS, xvn. 3-7 

their way to the exits of the camp, and there 
plundered the baggage and slew the men in charge 
of it. There it was that Dorylaiis, the general, with 
nothing else about him but his purple robe, lost his 
life for that, and Hermaeus, the priest, was trampled 
to death at the gates. 

Mithridates himself, with no attendant or groom 
to assist him, fled away from the camp in the midst 
of the throng, not even provided with one of 
the royal horses ; but at last the eunuch Ptolemaeus, 
who was mounted, spied him as he was borne along 
in the torrent of the rout, leaped down from his 
horse, and gave it to the king. Presently the 
Romans, who were forcing the pursuit, were hard 
upon him, and it was for no lack of speed that they 
did not take him. Indeed, they were very near 
doing so, but greed, and petty soldier's avarice, 
snatched from them the quarry which they had so 
long pursued in many struggles and great dangers, 
and robbed Lucullus of the victor's prize. For 
the horse which carried the king was just within 
reach of his pursuers, when one of the mules which 
carried the royal gold came between him and them, 
either of his own accord, or because the king 
purposely sent him into the path of pursuit. The 
soldiers fell to plundering and collecting the gold, 
fought with one another over it, and so were left 
behind in the chase. Nor was this the only fruit of 
their greed which Lucullus reaped. He had given 
orders that Callistratus, who was in charge of the 
king's private papers, should be brought alive to 
him, but his conductors, finding that he had five 
hundred pieces of gold in his girdle, slew him. 

5 2 3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vTrefaa-fjievov a7reKTivav. ov fjirjv aXXa 
TOuro/9 fiev eTreTpetye TOV %dparca 7rop0r)<rai. 

XVIII. Ta Be Kdfteipa \aj3uv real TWV a\\wv 
fypovplwv TO, 7r\6lcrra Orjcravpovs re fjieydXovs evpe 



Be crvyyevwv TOV ySacrtXe'o)? KaOeipyfJievwv, o*? 
reOvdvdi SOKOIKTIV ov Gwniplav, aXX* 
Kal Sevrepav Tivayevvrfcriv 77 Aovtcov\- 

2 \ov %a/H? irapea")(v. ed\(o 8e KOI dBeXcf)*} TOV 

Nucrtra crwTrjpiov a\<D<riv al S' airw- 
TOV KivBvvov Kal KaO^ ^av^iav ai 
Trepl QapvaKeLav a$e\<j>al Kal 

CLTTftiXoVTO, WlO pl&CLTOV TTefl^raVTO^ eV 503 

aura? CK rr)? (frvyrj? BaK^iBrjv evvov^ov. r\aav 
Be fjiTa 7ro\\a)V dBe\<j)al re Bvo TOV (3a<Ti\ews, 
'Pto^dvrj Kal Sraret/oa, irepl TeaaapaKOVTa 6Trj 
TrapdevevofievaL, Kal yaperal Bvo, yevos 'Iw/'tSe?, 
^epeviKri /AGP CK Xtof, MovijjLtj Be MtX7<rta. 

3 raurr;? 6 TrXetcrro? r\v Xoyo? eV Tois f/ Ei\\rjo-t,v, OTI 
TOV /3acri\ews TreipwvTOt avTrjv Kal /jivpiovs irev- 



ov yd/meow eyevovTO avvdrjKai Kal 

avTrj /3acri\icrcrav dvrjyopevcrev. avT-rj 
irapa TOV a\\nv ^povov avLapws el^e Kal 

Trjv TOV o-co/iaro? evjj,op(f)Lav, co? 
ev CLVT dvBpbs avTy, (frpovpav Be fiap/Sdpcov a 
/uLOV Kal OLKOV irpo^evYi^acrav, Troppw Be TTOV 
}? 'EXXaSo? aTTWKLcrp,evri rot9 eXTTKrOelaiv dya- 
Ool? ovap avvecrTi,, TWV 8' d\)j&iva)V 



524 



LUCULLUS, xvii. 7-xvin. 3 

However, Lucullus allowed such soldiers as these to 
plunder the enemy's camp. 

XVIII. In capturing Cabira and most of the other 
strongholds, he found great treasures, and many 
prisons, in which many Greeks and many kinsfolk of 
the king were confined. As they had long been 
given up for dead, it was not so much a rescue as 
it was a resurrection and a sort of second birth, 
for which they were indebted to the favour of 
Lucullus. Nyssa, a sister of Mithridates, was also 
captured ; and her capture was her salvation. But 
the sisters and wives of the king who were thought 
to be at farthest remove from danger and quietly 
hidden away in Pharnacia, perished pitifully, since 
Mithridates paused long enough in his flight to 
send Bacchides, a eunuch, to compass their death. 
Among many other women, there were two sisters 
of the king, Roxana and Statira, about forty years 
old and unmarried ; and two of his wives, of Ionian 
families, Berenice from Chios, and Monime, a 
Milesian. The latter was most talked of among the 
Greeks, to the effect that though the king tempted 
her virtue and sent her fifteen thousand pieces of 
gold, she resisted his advances, until he entered 
into a marriage contract with her, sent her a diadem, 
and greeted her with the title of Queen. But her 
marriage had been an unhappy one, and she bewailed 
that beauty which had procured her a master instead 
of a husband, and a guard of Barbarians instead of 
home and family, dwelling as she did far, far away 
from Greece, where the blessings for which she 
had hoped existed only in her dreams, while she 
was bereft of the real blessings to which she had 
been wonted. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



4 Kal Brj rov TSaK^iBov rrapayevofjievov Kal 
rrpocrrd^avros avrals drro6vi](jKeiv, a>? efcdarr) 
BoKoirj paarov elvat, /ecu d\V7rbrarov, rrepLcrrrd- 
<racra rfjs Ke^aXr}? TO BidBrj/jLa r& r pa^\w 

KOI dvi'iprrjaev eavrrjv. ra%v S' dirop- 
Kar^pa^ievov,^ efirj, " pd/cos, ov& 

7T/009 TOVTO fJLOl ^pJJCTl/jLOV O"r) ; ' KUKCLVO 

ajreppi^re irpocrirTvaacra, rw Be BaAr^t 

5 c(f)ayr)V Trapecr^ev. rj 8e Bepevi/crj KV\IKCL 

tcov XaySoucra, rr)S /jLrjrpbs avrrj Trapova-rjs fcal 
Seoyu-e^?, yLtereSco/ce. KOL avve^ZTriov pev d^o- 
Tepai, y'jp/cecre Se 77 rov (^ap/nd/cov Suva/ui*; et<? TO 
dcdevecnepov (TtojjLa, T^V Be Bepei'iKi^v ov% oaov 
eBet TTiovcravovic d7rrf\\a%ev, d\\d BvcOavarova-a 

6 rov Ba/c^iSoy cnrevBovros drrerrviyrj. \eyerai Be 
teal TWV dydjj,a)v dBeXffrwv ereeivwv rrjv fj.ev eVa- 
pwjjLevrjv TroXXa /cat \oiBopovcrav eicmelv TO 
<f)dp/jiaKov, rrjv Be 'Zrdreipav ovre Bvcrtyrj/jiov ri 
(f>0ey^afjiv^v our' dyevves, aXV eTrcuvoixrav rov 
dBe\<f)6v, on Trepl rov o-w/iaro? KivBvveixov OVK 

avr&v, d\\a Trpovvot^crev e\ev6ep 
drroOaveiv. ravra /nev ovv 
ovra Kal fyi\dv6 pwrrov r)via rov A.OV- 



XIX. 'EXacra? ^' d^pi TaXavpa)/', evOev r)fj,epa 
rerdprrj rrpbrepov e(j)0aKt Mi0piBdrr)s et? 'A/o- 
jieviav TT/OO? 'Yiypdvrjv rrefyevya)?, drrorperrerai. 
Karacrrpe^rd^JLevo^ Be XaXSatow? ffal Tifta 
Kal ri]v fjLiKpav 'ApjjLeviav TrapaXafiwv Kai 
pia Kal ?roX6i9 Trapacrrrjcrd/jLevos, "ATTTTIOV 
errefji^re Trpbs'Yiypdvrjv e^airwv MiftpiBdrrjv, 
2 S' r)K6 7T/309 'A/ucroj> en rro\LopKov^ivnv> 
526 






LUCULLUS, xvni. 4-xix. 2 

And now Bacchides came and ordered them all 
to die, in whatever manner each might deem easiest 
and most painless. Monime snatched the diadem 
from her head, fastened it round her neck, and hanged 
herself. But her halter quickly broke in two. " O 
cursed bauble," she cried, "couldst thou not serve 
me even in this office ? " Then she spat upon it, 
hurled it from her, and offered her throat to 
Bacchides. But Berenice, taking a cup of poison, 
shared it with her mother, who stood at her side and 
begged for some. Together they drank it off, and 
the force of the poison sufficed for the weaker body, 
but it did not carry off Berenice, who had not drunk 
enough. As she was long in dying, and Bacchides 
was in a hurry, she was strangled. It is said also 
that of the unmarried sisters, one drank off her 
poison with many abusive imprecations on her 
brother ; but that Statira did so without uttering a 
single reproachful or ungenerous word. She rather 
commended her brother because, when his own life 
was at hazard, he had not neglected them, but had 
taken measures to have them die in freedom and 
under no insults. Of course these things gave pain 
to Lucullus, who was naturally of a gentle and 
humane disposition. 

XIX. Lucullus pushed on in pursuit as far as 
Talaura, whence, four days before, Mithridates had 
succeeded in escaping to Tigranes, in Armenia ; 
then he turned aside. After subduing the Chaldaeans 
and the Tibureni, he occupied Lesser Armenia, 
reducing its fortresses and cities, and then sent 
Appius to Tigranes with a demand for Mithridates. 
He himself, however, came to Amisus, which was 
still holding out against the siege. Its success in 

5 2 7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TJV KaXXt'/m^o? o crrpaTrjyo^ e/jiTreipia 
7rapacrKvf/s /ecu SeivorrjTi Travovpyias, oa"i]v 



wv varepov eSo)K SiKrjv. rore S' VTTO AovKovXkov 

e^o? el^ev wpav 



aTrdyeiv KOI avaTraveiv TOU? 
ev eKeiv TraoaSaXo^TO? alcviBicos KOL 



TO? OV TToXu X6309 TOO 



etre 



ee paa-Tcovrjv (vyrs eauray 
3 yu-ei/o?. ouSei? 70/9 efipovri^e rwv e 
dXXa ft)? 77 <f)\o dva&pap,ov(Ta TroXX?; ra 
TTpieo"xev, ol p,ev (TTpaTitoTai, Trapecncev 
7T/309 dpTrayrfv, o Se Aou/coyXXo? oiKTeipwv a-TroX- 
\v/j,evrjv rrjv iro\Li> e^coOev efioijOei, Trpos TO TrOp 
l oftevvvvat Trape/caXet, ^rf^evo^ avry Trpocre- 



, aXX' e^atTOuyLteVcoi/ ra p^yLtara Aral 



oVXa Kpovovrwv, ew? 

a>? avrrjv ye TTJV TTO\IV e^aiptjcronevos TOV 
4 01 ^e TOvvavTiov eirpa^av. Travra yap e^epeu- 
VTTO \a/j,7rd8cov KCU fravra^ov (/)c5? t 

avTol ra TrXetcrr 

\ov, wcrre ro^ A.OVKOV\\OV elaekOovra /ze^' 7/ue- 
Aral SaKpv<ravTa TT/^O? TOU? ^>tXou? eiTrelv, ft>9 
17877 Si^XXay {latcapicras fj,d\icrTa rfj 



(rr)fj.epov Taipei rr/y rdvSpbs 
5 OTA crwcrai /3ov\^0el<? eSvv/jdrj ra? 



528 



LUCULLUS, xix. 2-5 

this was due to Callimachus, its commander, who, 
by his acquaintance with mechanical contrivances 
and his power to employ every resource which the 
siege of a city demands, had given the Romans the 
greatest annoyance. For this he afterwards paid 
the penalty. But at this time, he was simply out- 
generalled by Lucullus, who made a sudden attack 
at just that time of day when Callimachus was 
accustomed to draw his soldiers off from the ramparts 
and give them a rest. When the Romans had got 
possession of a small part of the wall, Callimachus 
abandoned the city, first setting fire to it with his 
own hands, either because he begrudged the visitors 
their booty, or because his own escape was thus 
facilitated. For no one paid any attention to those 
who were sailing away, but when the flames increased 
mightily and enveloped the walls, the soldiers made 
ready to plunder the houses. Lucullus, out of pity 
for the perishing city, tried to bring aid from out- 
side against the fire, and gave orders to extinguish 
the flames, but no one paid any heed to his 
commands. The soldiers all clamoured for the booty, 
and shouted, and clashed their shields and spears 
together, until he was forced to let them have their 
way, hoping that he could at least save the city itself 
from the flames. But the soldiers did just the opposite. 
Ransacking everything by torch-light and carrying 
lights about everywhere, they destroyed most of 
the houses themselves. When Lucullus entered the 
city at daybreak, he burst into tears, and said to his 
friends that he had often already deemed Sulla 
happy, and on that day more than ever he admired 
the man's good fortune, in that when he wished to 
save Athens, he had the power to do so. " But upon 

5 2 9 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8','* e(j)tj, " TOVTOV %rj\(aTrjv yevofievov els rrjv 
MO/UL/JLIOV So^av 6 Sai/Jitov Trepiea-r^ffev." 

Ov nj)v aXX' e/c TWV Trapoi'Twv dva\a/Ji{3dveii> 
CTreiparo rr)v 7r6\iv. KCU TO fjiev irvp op/Spot, /care- 
a-fieaav e/c TIVOS Oeias Tv%rjs irepl rrjv a\w<Jiv 
avrrjv crv/jiTrecrovTes, ra Se TrXetTra TWV a,7ro\w- 
\6rcov auro? ert Trapwv dvwKoSo/jLrjcre, real TOVS 

eSe^aro, KOI TWV a\\a)v 
TOU? /3ov\o/m,evovs, eiKoau KCLI 

6 eicaTov crraBiayv ^wpai' TrpoGopicras. rjv S' rj 
' P^O^vaiwv aTroi/co?, ev eVetVot? apa rot? 
ev ol? i^Kfjia^ev rj Bvva/^is CLVTWV KCLI /ca 
OaXacrcrav, oiKiaOeiaa. KCLI Sta TOVTO 7ro\\ol T 
rrjv 'ApiffTtw^o? Tvpavvi&a (BovXo^evw 

avrov KO.TU)KOVV teal /jLT6i)(ov r?}? 
, ol? arvyetfrj ra* ol/ceia /ca/ca 
a7ro\av(Tai TOJV a\\or piwv \ aXXa TOU? ye 
ra? CLVTWV 6 AOVKOU\\O<? a/uL(f)ieo-a<; A-aXw? teal 
SiaKOorias eKaarw Spa^/j.a(f eTTt^oi/? ajreareiKe. 

7 rore KOI Tvpavviaiv 6 ypaim/maTiicbs eaXa>* Moy- 
pr/Va<? S' avTov e^rjrijcraro real Xafiaw a i 7nj\ev@e- 
pwaev, ave\ev6ep(s rfj Scopea xprjcrd/j.ei'OS. ov 
yap rj^iov AOVKOV\\OS avSpa Sia TraiSeiav ecnrov- 
^acr^vov SovXov yeveadai Trporepov, etr' a 
depov. dfyaipecris yap rjv rr}? v7rap)(ov(Trj^ f) 
&or<ovcrr)s e\v6epias 8ocrt?. aXXa Mo 

OVK evravOa aovov w(f)0ij TTO\U TT}? TOV 
yov Ka\oKaya9ia<$ a 



53 



LUCULLUS, xix. 5-7 

me," he said, " who have been so eager to imitate 
his example, Heaven has devolved the reputation of 
Mummius." 

However, as far as circumstances allowed, he en- 
deavoured to restore the city. The fire, indeed, had 
been quenched by showers which fell providentially 
just as the city was captured, and most of what the 
soldiers had destroyed he rebuilt himself before his 
departure. He also received into the city those of 
the Amisenes who had fled, and settled there any 
other Greeks who so desired, and added to the city's 
domain a tract of a hundred and twenty stadia. The 
city was a colony of Athens, founded in that period 
when her power was at its height and she controlled 
the sea. And this was the reason why many who 
wished to escape the tyranny of Aristion l at Athens 
sailed to Amisus, settled there, and became citizens. 
In flying from evils at home, they got the benefit 
of greater evils abroad. But those of them who 
survived were well clothed by Lucullns, and sent 
back home, with a present of two hundred drachmas 
apiece. Tyrannic the grammarian was also taken 
prisoner at this time. Murena asked to have him as 
his own prize, and on getting him, formally gave him 
his liberty, therein making an illiberal use of the 
gift which he had received. For Lucullus did not 
think it meet that a man so esteemed for his learning 
should first become a slave, and then be set at 
liberty. To give him a nominal liberty was to rob 
him of the liberty to which he was born. But this 
was not the only case in which Murena was found to be 
far inferior to his commander in nobility of conduct. 

1 Tyrant of Athens when the city was besieged by Sulla, 
87 B.O. 

S3' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XX. AOVKOV\\O? Be TperreTaL rrpb? TO.? ev 
'Acrta TroXei?, OTTW?, T<WI> 7ro\euiKO)v epywv 
%OVTO? avrov, real Biter)? TLVO? aeTda 
9eo-ua)v, aw eVfc TTO\VV %povov evSefj TTJV errap^iav 
ovcrav apprjToi, teal aVtcrrot Bvcrru^iat, Karei^ov, 
VTTO TMV re\a)va)v KOI rwv SaveicrTtov irop6ovfjievr]v 
KCU avSpaTroBi^ofjLevriv, Trnrpdo'Keiv IBia ^ev vioi's 
Ovyarepas re TrapOei'Ovs, S^/tocrta 5' 
, ypa(f)ds, iepovs avSpiavras dvayfca- 
avrois Be reXo? fiev rjv TrpoaOerois 
Bov\eveiv, ra Be Trpo rovrou %a\e- 
, a"%oivi<T{j,ol KOI KijK\iBe<f teal 'LTTTTOL real 
vrraiOpoi, Kav/J,aros jjiev ev i]\iw, ^vj/ov$ 
8' el? 7rr)\ov v/3(,/3a%ouev(i)V r) Trdyov, a)crre TTJV 
BovXeiav creicra^OeLav Botcelv elvai teal elptjvrjv. 
3 roiavra /zez/ tca/cd AOVKOV\\O? evputv ev ral? 
Tro\.ecriv 0X170) %povw Trdvrwv aTT^'XXa^e rov? 



Tlpwrov uev yap efcaroa-rrjv eVe'Xeucre KOL arj 
7T\eov el? TOV? TOKOV? Xoytecr$ar Bevrepov Be 
TOV? aaicpoTepov? TOV dp^aiov TOKOV? dTrtKotye' 
TO Be TP'ITOV teal aeyicrTOv, era^e TWV TOV XP eay ~ 
<j)i\.Tov rrpoa-6B(i)v T^V TeTapTi^v aepiBa tcap- 
TrovcrOai TOV Baveio~r^v 6 Be TOKOV Ke(f)a\aifo 
4 o~vj'd-^ra? ecrTeprjTO TOV rravTo?' war* ev e\aTTOvi 
Ypovrp TTpaeTia? Bia\v@)}vai ra XP ea 7raVTa Ka ^ 
TCL? KTrjcrei? e^evOepa? aTroBoOrji'ai, Tol? Bea-TroTai?. 
r)v Be TOVTO KOIVOV Bdveiov e/c TWV Bicrnvpi(t)i> 
Ta\dvT(ov, ol? TYJV 'A&cav e^rfuirixrev 6 SuXXa<r 
real BnrXovv aTreBoOrj TOL? Baveiaaatv, VTT etctiva)v 



532 



LUCULLUS, xx. 1-4 

XX. Lucullus now turned his attention to the 
cities in Asia, 1 in order that, while he was at leisure 
from military enterprises, he might do something 
for the furtherance of justice and law. Through 
long lack of these, unspeakable and incredible misfor- 
tunes were rife in the province. Its people were plun- 
dered and reduced to slavery by the tax-gatherers 
and money-lenders. Families were forced to sell 
their comely sons and virgin daughters, and cities 
their votive offerings, pictures, and sacred statues. 
At last men had to surrender to their creditors and 
serve them as slaves, but what preceded this was far 
worse, tortures of rope, barrier, and horse ; standing 
under the open sky in the blazing sun of summer, 
and in winter, being thrust into mud or ice. Slavery 
seemed, by comparison, to be disburdenment and 
peace. Such were the evils which Lucullus found in 
the cities, and in a short time he freed the oppressed 
from all of them. 

In the first place, he ordered that the monthly 
rate of interest should be reckoned at one per cent., 
and no more ; in the second place, he cut off all 
interest that exceeded the principal ; third, and 
most important of all, he ordained that the lender 
should receive not more than the fourth part of his 
debtor's income, and any lender who added interest 
to principal was deprived of the whole. Thus, in 
less than four years' time, the debts were all paid, 
and the properties restored to their owners unen- 
cumbered. This public debt had its origin in the 
twenty thousand talents which Sulla had laid upon 
Asia as a contribution, and twice this amount had 
been paid back to the money-lenders. Yet now, by 

1 71-70 B.C. 

533 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r/Sr; rot? rotfot? et? Sa)$Ka /j,vpidSas 
5 TakdvTwv. GKelvoL /&V ovv o>? Seiva Treir 
ev 'Pwjir TOV AOVKOV\\OV KdTeftbwv, ffdl 



avicrraaav eV CLVTOV eviov<$ TWV 

Svvd/jievoi, icai vroXXou? uTro^p 

TWV TroKiTevop.evwv. o Se AovKovX\o<; ov 
IJLOVOV VTTO TWV eu TreTrovdorwv rjyaTrdro B^/JLCOV, 
a\\a ical rat? aXXat? eVap^tat? TroOeivos rjv, 

rou? 7776/^6^05 TOIOVTOV rv- 



XXI. "ATTTJVO? 8e K\to8to?, o TrefLfyOels TT/OO? 
Tiypdvrjv (rjv Se o KXaJS^o? dBeXtybs T/}? Tore 50! 
AOVKOV\\<P (TvvoiKOvar}^ Trpwrov /JLCV VTTO ra)i' 

obrjycov KVK\OV TIVCL KCU 
OVK dvayKalav /cal TroXvtj/nepov 6So 



avw ^coyoa? dyo/Avos, /j,r)vvcravTO$ aurca rrjv 
ei>0iav 6$ov direXevOepov ^vpov TO yevos, CK- 
TT}? yua/cpa? e/cetyr/? ^at ao(f)i(7TiKf)$, 
$pd(ras 7ro\\a TO?? /3ap/3dpoi$ dywyols, 
KOI Si* rj/Jiepcov o\iywv TOV l&v<j)pdTr)v Tcepdcras 



2 et? vTioeiav r)/ce TTJV evrl 



Tiypdvqv avTOv /teXefcr^el? Trepi/Jieveiv (aTrriv yap 

TWV V QoiVLKrj TTO\eWV 

/JLV WKl(ti(TaTO TWV 



TOV pfll'iOV wdCTTtoV, WV i5 Y)V 

teal Ztapfiirjvos 6 r?}? TopSuyvfj*; /3acn\6v<?, 
Be ffpvcf)a TWV SeSovXay/jievayv TrciXewv 
?rpo? CLVTOV vTrecr^eTo TJJV Aov- 
KOV\\OV j3oij&eidv, ev TW TrapovTi 



yap ov/c tt^acr^ero? 77 TWV 'Appevicov d 
534 



LUCULLUS, xx. 4-xxi. 3 

reckoning usurious interest, they had brought the 
total debt up to a hundred and twenty thousand 
talents. These men, accordingly, considered them- 
selves outraged, and raised a clamour against Lucullus 
at Rome. They also bribed some of the tribunes to 
proceed against him, being men of great influence, 
who had got many of the active politicians into their 
debt. Lucullus, however, was not only beloved by 
the peoples whom he had benefited, nay, other pro- 
vinces also longed to have him set over them, and 
felicitated those whose good fortune it was to have 
such a governor. 

XXI. Appius Clodius, who had been sent to Ti- 
granes (Clodius was a brother of her who was then 
the wife of Lucullus), was at first conducted by the 
royal guides through the upper country by a route 
needlessly circuitous and long. But when a freedman 
of his, who was a Syrian, told him of the direct 
route, he left the long one which was being trickily 
imposed upon him, bade his Barbarian guides a long 
farewell, and within a few days crossed the Euphrates 
and came to Antioch by Daphne. 1 Then, being 
ordered to await Tigranes there (the king was still 
engaged in subduing some cities of Phoenicia), he 
gained over many of the princes who paid but a 
hollow obedience to the Armenian. One of these 
was Zarbienus, king of Gordyene. He also promised 
many of the enslaved cities, when they sent to 
confer with him secretly, the assistance of Lucullus, 
although for the present he bade them keep 
quiet. 

Now the sway of the Armenians was intolerably 

1 The great Antioch on the river Orontes. Daphne was 
the name of a grove near the city consecrated to Apollo. 

VOL. n. S 535 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



rot? f 'EXX77<rtz/, dXXa ^a\emY /cal yuaXttrra rov 
/3acrtXea>9 avrov TO (frpovrjjua rpayi/cbv KOI vrrep- 
oy/cov ev TU<? fjieydXais evTv%idi$ eyeyovet,, 
rrdvrayv, ova ty]\ovcnv 01 TroXXol /cat 0avf.td%ovo~iv, 

OV fjiOVOV OVT(>V 7Tpl dVTOV, <l\\CL KOI St* dVTOV 

4 yeyovevat SOKOVVTCOV. ap^dfievos jap diro (JiiKpas 
KOI KarafypovoviJLevT)S eXTTtSo? e^i/?; TroXXa xare- 
teal rrjv Tldpdwv, co? aXXo? ouSet?, 
aTTelvuHTGV, '}L\\r)vwv Se T^?y Mecro- 
eVeTrX^cre, TroXXoi)? yttei' e/c KtXi/cm?, 
TroXXoi)? 5' e'/c KaTTTraSoA'ta? a^acrTracrroi;? fcaroi- 
e/civrjcre 8' e^ T)#WZ> ^at "Apafias TOU? 
CTayaycov ical irXrfaiov l&pvaas, OTTO)? 
6Keiv(i)v rat? efiTTOptai^. (3ci(Ti\els; Be 
TroXXot /zep rjaav ol OepaTrevovres avrov y Tea-crapes 
Se, ovs del Trepl avrov el-^ev w&Trep 
^ Bopv(popov<;, Irrrrorr) fiev e\av*vovri 
irapaOeovras ev yjLrwvla KOIS, Ka9r]/jievw Se /cal 
vTL rrepieorrwras 67r?;XXa7/ieVat9 St* 
rat? %epcriv, orrep eSoKei f.id\tara rwv 



elvai SouXeta?, oloz/ a?ro- 



rrjv e\ev6epiav /cal rb awfjia ra /cvpiro 
rrape^ovrwv rraOelv eroi/jLorepov 77 Troirjcrai. 
6 Taurt;i/ /jLevroi rr)V rpaymbiav ov% VTrorpeaas 
ovS' K7r\ajel<; O^ATTTTIOS, &)? erv^e \6yov rrpw- 
TOV, avrucpvs rjiceLV ecfrrj Midpi&dr'rjv dird^wv 
offreikofjievov rot? AOVKOV\\OV 0pidjA/3oL<; rj /car ay - 
yeXwv Ttypdi'Tj iroXe^ov, ware rov Tiypdvijv, 
tcaircep ev $ia%vcrei rov TrpocrcoTrov /cal yLtetS^a/zart 
rrerrKacrfJievw rreipayievov d/coveiv rwv \6ycov, fir) 
\a9elv TOU? rrapovras rj\\oui)^evov rfj rrapprjcria 
rov veavicrtcov, (frcovfjs a^eBov e\ev6epas d/covovra 

536 



LUCULLUS, xxi. 3-6 

grievous to the Greeks. Above all else, the spirit of 
the king himself had become pompous and haughty 
in the midst of his great prosperity. All the things 
which most men covet and admire, he not only had 
in his possession, but actually thought that they 
existed for his sake. For though he had started on 
his career with small and insignificant expectations, 
he had subdued many nations, humbled the Parthian 
power as no man before him had done, and filled 
Mesopotamia with Greeks whom he removed in 
great numbers from Cilicia and from Cappadocia, and 
settled anew. He also removed from their wonted 
haunts the nomadic Arabians, and brought them to 
an adjacent settlement, that he might employ them 
in trade and commerce. Many were the kings who 
waited upon him, and four, whom he always had 
about him like attendants or body-guards, would run 
on foot by their master's side when he rode out, clad 
in short blouses, and when he sat transacting busi- 
ness, would stand by with their arms crossed. This 
attitude was thought to be the plainest confession of 
servitude, as if they had sold their freedom and 
offered their persons to their master disposed for 
suffering rather than for service. 

Appius, however, was not frightened or astonished 
at all this pomp and show, but as soon as he obtained 
an audience, told the king plainly that he was come 
to take back Mithridates, as an ornament due to the 
triumph of Lucullus, or else to declare war against 
Tigranes. Although Tigranes made every effort to 
listen to this speech with a cheerful countenance 
and a forced smile, he could not hide from the 
bystanders his discomfiture at the bold words of the 
young man. It must have been five and twenty 

537 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sia rrevre teal elicocriv er&v rocravra yap cftacri- 
7 \evcre, /zaXXoi> Be vftpicrev. arreKpivaro fjiev ovv 
ry 'AvrTrto) /i?) rrporfcreaOai \lLOpLBaTrjv, Kal 
7ro\e/j,ov dp^ovras dfivveWai. Aov- 
opyi^o/jievos, OTL fla&iXea povov avrov, 
ov /BacriXewv ev rfj eTnaroXfj 7rpoarrjy6pv<rev, 
ovS* auro? dvri,ypd(j)a)v avro/epdropa TrpocTelirev. 
eTreyu-^e 8e Swpa T&>'A7r7U&) XafjiTrpd, Kal JJLTI \a(3ov- 
TO? a\\a 7r\LQ) 7rpocre@r)KV. etc rovrwv 6 " 
OVK zOekwv &OKIV ey^Bpa Tivl SiwOela'dat, 

/juiav a7re7re//,"v/re ra \oi7rd, Kal Bia 
ij\avve ?rpo? rov avroKpdropa. 
XXII. Tiypdvijs Se M.i0pi$drr]v irporepov /mev 
ov8e l^elv rj^iuxTGv ovSe irpocreiTreiv oiKelov avBpa 
/5acrtXeta? CKTreTrrcoKora rrjXiKavTrjs, aXX' dri/jia)^ 
real V7rpi]<j)di>c0s dcaraTO) TrepietSev avrov rpo- 
TTOV TIVCL <ppovpov/j,evov ev 'xwplois eA,<wSecrt 
vocrepois' Tore Be crvv TL^fj Kal fyCkofypoa 
2 yLteT67re/u,i|raTO avrov et? ra /SacrtAeta. Kal 

\6ywv yevo/Jievoyv drcopprjrwv ra? vrpo? aXXr/Xof? 506 
eOepdrrevov uTro^'a? eVl KaKw rwv <f)L\cov, 64? 



ra? atr/a? rperrovres. wv rjv 



'M.rjrpoSwpos 6 2tf?;-v/rto?, dvrjp elrrelv OVK 0,778?)? 
Kal TroXf/Lta^r;?, CLK^TI Se <^Xt'a<? rocravrr] ^pi-jud- 
jjievos, ware rrarrjp rrpocrayop6Vcr(}ai rov fia&i- 
3 Xeeo?. rovrov, a>? eoiKev, 6 Tiypdvrjs rrefjifyOevra 
rrpecrftevrrjv vrro rov MiOptBdrov TT/OO? avrov 

538 



LUCULLUS, xxi. 6-xxn. 3 

years since he had listened to a free speech. That 
was the length of his reign, or rather, of his wanton 
tyranny. However, he replied to Appius that he 
would not surrender Mithridates, and that if the 
Romans began war, he would defend himself. He 
was vexed with Lucullus for addressing him in his 
letter with the title of King only, and not King of 
Kings, and accordingly, in his reply, would not 
address Lucullus as Imperator. But he sent 
splendid gifts to Appius, and when he would not 
take them, added more besides. Appius finally 
accepted a single bowl from among them, not 
wishing his rejection of the king's offers to seem 
prompted by any personal enmity, but sent back the 
rest, and marched off with all speed to join the 
Imperator. 

XXII. Up to this time Tigranes had not deigned 
to see Mithridates, nor speak to him, though the 
man was allied to him by marriage, and had been 
expelled from such a great kingdom. Instead, he 
had kept him at the farthest remove possible, in 
disgrace and contumely, and had suffered him to be 
held a sort of prisoner in marshy and sickly regions. 
Now, however, he summoned him to his palace with 
marks of esteem and friendship. There, in secret 
conference, they strove to allay their mutual 
suspicions at the expense of their friends, by laying 
the blame upon them. One of these was Metrodorus 
of Scepsis, a man of agreeable speech and wide 
learning, who enjoyed the friendship of Mithridates 
in such a high degree that he was called the king's 
father. This man, as it seems, had once been sent 
as an ambassador from Mithridates to Tigranes, with 
a request for aid against the Romans. On this 

539 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Beo/jievov /3or)0iv eirl 'Paj/Aaiovs ripero' " z,v 6 
avros, <y MrjrpoBcope, Tt fJLot 7Tpl TovTcov Trapai- 
veis; ' Kafceivos etVe TT/OO? TO Ttypdvov avfjup 
LT MidpiBdryv (TGo^ecrOai fj,rj ftovXouevos, w? 
Trpecr/BevTrjS efyr) K\eveiv, a)? Be <7v/ji(3ov\o<> aira- 
yopeveiv. TauT* e^i'jveytcev 6 Ttypdvr)? T& Mt- 
OpiBdrr) /cal /careiTrev a)? ovBev epyaaofjievw rbv 

4 M^TpoSwpov dvi'j/cecrTOV. o B evuvs avrjprjTO' KCLI 

rbv Tiypdvijv cl^ev, ov rravre\w<; ovra 

rr)? o~vfji<j)opa<; alriov, 
rw TT/OO? avrbv e^Oei, rov ^Ai6pi\ 
Oevra. nakai yap uTrouXa)? 6i% rrpbs rbv civBpa, 
teal rovr e<f>u>pd9rj rwv aTropptjrcov avrov ypa/j,- 
fidrwv a\6vrwv, ev 0^9 771^ teal MrjrpoBcopov 
a7ro\cr0ai Biareray/mevov. eOatyev ovv 6 Tt- 

TO acoyua, /jLrjBe/uiids 7roXuTeXeta9 
e/9 vercpbv ov ^covra TrpovBcoKev. 

5 'ETeXe^T^o-e Se rrapa rq> Tiypdvrj /cal 'Ayu^i- 

o prjrcop, el Bet /cal rovrov /jLvrf/jirjv rivd 
Bia Trt? 'A^^a9. \eyerai yap 



avrbv i? SeXeiVeta^ T?)I^ eVt 



Ovyarepa, Tiypdvy Be Gwoucovcrav ev Bia/3o\f] 
yeve<T0ai ra^v, /cal rfjs TT/^O? TOU? f/ EXX^^a? 
eTTf/zt^ia? elpyo/JLevov dTTOKapreprjcrai' ra^rjvat 
Be Kal TOVTOV evrifjuos VTTO T?}? KXeoTraTpa? 

540 



LUCULLUS, xxn. 3-5 

occasion Tigranes asked him : " But what is your 
own advice to me. Metrodorus, in this matter ? " 
Whereupon Metrodorus, either with an eye to the 
interests of Tigranes, or because he did not wish 
Mithridates to be saved, said that as an ambassador 
he urged consent, but as an adviser he forbade it. 
Tigranes disclosed this to Mithridates, not supposing, 
when he told him, that he would punish Metrodorus 
past all healing. But Metrodorus was at once put 
out of the way. Then Tigranes repented of what 
he had done, although he was not entirely to blame 
for the death of Metrodorus. He merely gave an 
impulse, as it were, to the hatred which Mithridates 
already had for the man. For he had long been 
secretly hostile to him, as was seen from his private 
papers when they were captured, in which there 
were directions that Metrodorus, as well as others, 
be put to death. Accordingly, Tigranes gave the 
body of Metrodorus a splendid burial, sparing no ex- 
pense upon the man when dead, although he had 
betrayed him when alive. 

Amphicrates, the rhetorician, also lost his life at 
the court of Tigranes, if, for the sake of Athens, we 
may make some mention of him too. It is said that 
when he was exiled from his native city, he went to 
Seleucia on the Tigris, and that when the citizens 
asked him to give lectures there, he treated their 
invitation with contempt, arrogantly remarking that 
a stewpan could not hold a dolphin. Removing 
thence, he attached himself to Cleopatra, the 
daughter of Mithridates and wife of Tigranes, but 
speedily fell into disfavour, and, being excluded from 
intercourse with Greeks, starved himself to death. 
He also received honourable burial at the hands of 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rrepl %a(f)dv, e/cei rt ^wpiov ovrw /ca\ov- 
/jivov. 

XXITI. AOVKOV\\0<$ $6 rrjV 'AfTiaV TTOXX*}? fJLZV 

evvoiiias, vroXX?}? & elprjvys /j,7re7r\r]Ka)s ov&e 
TT/?O? rj&ovrjv teal %dpLV r}/jLe\r)a~ev, dXXo, 
teal Travrjyvpecriv eirtviKtots /cal aywcnv ad\rjra)v 
KOI fjLovofid%a)v iv 'E0e<rw KaOrjfjLevos &r)fj,a<ya)>yi 
ra? 7roXe9, al 8' dfjLi/36fjivai Aovtcov\\6id re 
rjyov 7ri Tifjif) rov dvftpos, real TT}? T^/I,^? ifiiova 
2 Tr)V dkrjOwrjv euvoiav aura) 7rapi%ov. eirel 8' 
"ATTTTiO? re r}Ke KOI TroXe/i^reo^ ?rpo? Tiypdwrjv 
e<f> diver o, Trapr^Oev avQis ei? rfo^rov, /cal TOU? 



\ov Be TOU? /azre^oi'Ta? avrr^v l3a<Ji\iKov<$ KtXi- 
Aca?, ot vroXXou? /zef ai'eXo^re? TCOI^ ^ivcoTrewv, rrjv 
3 Se 7roX/y e/jLTrpijcravTes Bia VVKTOS ecfrvyov. alaOo- 
' o Aou/couXXo? /cat rrapekOaiv et? r^i' rrb\iv 



avruv 



aTrercreive, rots S' aXXot? direBw/ce ra ol/cela KCU 
TT}? 7roXe&)? eirefjie\rj6ii yLtaXtcrra &a T^V roiavrrfv 
o*^nv. eB6/c6L TWO, Kara rou? VTTVOVS elrrelv rrapa- 
crrdvra' " UpoeXOe, AovKov\\6, {ii/cpov rjicei <yap 
4 AtToXu/co? evrv^elv croi /SofXo/te^o?." e^ai'aara^ 
Be rrjv fjuev o^riv OVK elye av/jifiaXeiv eh o ri (fiepoi, 
rrjv Se rro\iv etXe /car eKeivrfv rrjv rjfjiepav, /cal 
Toy? K7r\eovra<; rwv KI\LKU>V Sico/caiv opa rrapa 
rov alyiaXbv dvSpidvra Kelf-ievov, oi> e/ 



ol KtX^e? OVK e<r)(rav e/jLaea-aL' ro epyov 



fjv ^QtviSos rwv Ka\coi>. (fipd^ei ovv Ti?, a>? Au- 
ro\v/cou rov /cricravros rr t v ^LVCOTTTJV 6 dvSpia? 



LUCULLUS, xxn. 5-xxin. 4 

Cleopatra, and his body lies at Sapha, as a place in 
those parts is called. 

XXIII. Lucullus, after filling Asia full of law and 
order, and full of peace, did not neglect the things 
which minister to pleasure and win favour, but during 
his stay at Ephesus gratified the cities with pro- 
cessions and triumphal festivals and contests of 
athletes and gladiators. And the cities, in response, 
celebrated festivals which they called Lucullea, to 
do honour to the man, and bestowed upon him what 
is sweeter than honour, their genuine good-will. 
But when Appius came, and it was plain that war 
must be waged against Tigranes, he went back into 
Pontus, put himself at the head of his soldiers, and 
laid siege to Sinope, or rather, to the Cilicians who 
were occupying that city for the king. These slew 
many of the Sinopians, fired the city, and set out to 
fly by night. But Lucullus saw what was going on, 
made his way into the city, and slew eight thousand 
of the Cilicians who were still there. Then he 
restored to the citizens their private property, and 
ministered to the needs of the city, more especially 
on account of the following vision. He thought in 
his sleep that a form stood by his side and said : 
" Go forward a little, Lucullus ; for Autolycus is 
come, and wishes to meet you." On rising from 
sleep, he was unable to conjecture what the vision 
meant ; but he took the city on that day, and as he 
pursued the Cilicians who were sailing away, he saw 
a statue lying on the beach, which the Cilicians had 
not succeeded in getting on board with them. It 
was the work of Sthenis, and one of his master- 
pieces. Well then, some one told Lucullus that it 
was the statue of Autolycus, the founder of Sinope. 

543 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Aeyerat 8' o AirroXf KOS yevecrdai rwv eVl 

e/c erraXta? 'H/oa/eXet (rvcrrparev- 
7rat9* eiceWev S' airoirXewv d/na 
Kal OX07/&) T^V fiev vavv diroXecrai, 
Try? Xeppovtfcrov Kara TO Ka\ov- 

507 



TWZ> erapcov TT/JO? T?Z> 
6 TOU? Su/oou9 r^v Tro\iv ^vpoi jap avrrjv 

CLTTO 'S.vpov yeyovores rou 'ATroXXw^o?, co? \eyerai, 



TaOr* CLKOVWV o xVou/couXXo? a 

Trapaive(jea)S' irapfjvei Se Sia ra)V v 
e/ceivos /x^8ef oi/rco? d^LOTTtcrrov r}<yeia6ai 
e/Saiov, a>? o Ti az^ d7ro<rr]p,av6f) Sia TU>V 



oe Mi^ptSaTTfi/ re Aral Tiypdvrjv 
et? Kvicaoviav KOI KikLKiav ocrov OVTTCO Btaftifid- 



iav, (0 :v/j,a% TOV ' 'Appeviov, el 

i c P&)yLtato9, OLK^CL^OVTI fjiev OVK e 






roi9 e/ceivov ra Trap' avrov (TwfJTTTev, CITTO- 
\eor0ai S' eacra9 /c:at (jWTirvai vvv eirl 



\7Ticriv ap^erai TroXe/tou TO 49 avacrrYjvai pr 
8vva/J,evoi<? avj/caTa/3d\\(ov eavrov. 

XXIV. 'E7TiS?; e /cat Ma^a/9>79 o 
7rat9 ex wv T v BOO*TTO/)OI/ 67re/ii|ri av 
d-rro xpvarwv ^iKiwv, Seo/Jievos 'Payfiaitov dva- 
<ypa$)r)vat, ^1X09 rat crv/ji^a^os, ij$r) olo 
rov Trporepov 7ro\eaov Trepas e^eu' ^ 

544 



ra 



LUCULLUS, xxm. 5~xxiv. i 

Now Autolycus is said to have been one of those 
who made an expedition with Heracles from Thessaly 
against the Amazons, a son of Deimachus. On his 
voyage of return, in company with Demoleon and 
Phlogius, he lost his ship, which was wrecked at the 
place called Pedalium, in the Chersonesus ; but he 
himself escaped, with his arms and his companions, 
and coming to Sinope, took the city away from the 
Syrians. These Syrians who were in possession of 
the city were descended, as it is said, from Syrus, 
the son of Apollo, and Sinope, the daughter of 
Asopis. 

On hearing this, Lucullus called to mind the 
advice of Sulla, in his Memoirs, which was to think 
nothing so trustworthy and sure as that which is 
signified by dreams. 

Being informed now that Mithridates and Tigranes 
were on the point of entering Lycaonia and Cilicia, 
with the purpose of invading Asia before war was 
actually declared, he was amazed that the Armenian, 
if he cherished the design of attacking the Romans, 
had not made use of Mithridates for this war when 
he was at the zenith of his power, nor joined forces 
with him when he was strong, but had allowed him 
to be crushed and ruined, and now began a war 
which offered only faint hopes of success, prostrating 
himself to the level of those who were unable to 
stand erect. 

XXIV. But when Machares also, the son of 
Mithridates, who held the Bosporus, sent Lucullus 
a crown valued at a thousand pieces of gold, beg- 
ging to be included in the list of Rome's friends 
and allies, Lucullus decided at once that the first 
war was finished. He therefore left Sornatius there 

545 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avrov <j)v\atca TWV HOVTLKWV drrekiTre 

2 aTpaTLO)TO)V et;aKia"%i.\La)v, avros Be fivpiovs fiev 
dycov teal Bio"%i\iov$ 7rebu9, tTTTret? Be 
eXarrot"?, eirl TOV BevTepov e^capei iroKe^ov, Q 
TLVI SoKtov 7ra/3a/5oXo) KOI cwrripiov OVK 
\ojtcr/JLOV fj,fta\LV avTov et? eOvrj 

fivpidSas tTTTrewv TroXXa? KOI 

fiadecn [lev Trora/i-ot?, del Be Karavupofjevois opecrt, 

3 7repie%o[jievriv, wcrre TOU? /mev (rrparicora^ ouS' 
aXXeo? 6Wa? eura/crou? CLKOVTCLS eTreaOai /cal 

ev Be 'Pa>yU,/7 Kara/3odv KOI Sia- 
rou? Brj/jiaywyov^, GO? iroXe/jLov e/c 
7TO\/jiov BiMKei, Aou/couXXo? ovBev rr}? 
Seo/jLevrjs, aXX' UTre/3 rou 
KaraOeo-Oai rd o?rXa yu-?;S 

4 /leva? aTTo rwv KOIVWV KIV&VVWV. ovrot pev ovv 
e^eipydcravro ^povw rrjv avTWV vTrodecriv Aou- 
Aroi'XXo? S^ cru^TOi/co? oSeucra? eVt 

/cal Kariovra TTO\VV /cal 6o\epov VTTO 
evpwv, r)a"%aX\ev, w? Biarpiflfjs avru> Kal Trpay- 
/tareta? eao/jLevt^ crvvdyovTi iropO^ela Kal Trrj- 
"%&Las. dp^duevov 8' a<^>' ecrvre/oa? 
TO pevjjia Kal fjieiov^evov Sid TJ} 
ap rj/jiepa KolKov irapea^ev ofyOrjvai TOV 
ol S' eTTL^^pioi vri<rla<s ev TO> Tropy /jLiKpd? 8ia<f>a- 
Qeacrdfjievoi Kal Tevayu&VTa TOV povv eV 
, TTpoaeKiivovv TOV AOVKOV\\OV, &>? o\iydKi<; 



TOVTOV av^^e^r}KOTO^ irpoTepov, etceiveo & exov- 
<rta)? %ipotf0r) Kal irpaov auTov evSiSovTos TOV 



Ka Trape^ovTO^ irpyfjiova Ka 
Trjv Sidj3ao-iv. 

546 



LUCULLUS, xxiv. 1-5 

as guardian of Pontus, with six thousand soldiers, 
while he himself, with twelve thousand footmen and 
less than three thousand horse, set out for the second 
war. 1 He seemed to be making a reckless attack, 
and one which admitted of no saving calculation, 
upon warlike nations, countless thousands of horse- 
men, and a boundless region surrounded by deep rivers 
and mountains covered with perpetual snow. His 
soldiers, therefore, who were none too well disciplined 
in any case, followed him reluctantly and rebelliously, 
while the popular tribunes at Rome raised an outcry 
against him, and accused him of seeking one war 
after another, although the city had no need of 
them, that he might be in perpetual command and 
never lay down his arms or cease enriching himself 
from the public dangers. And, in time, these men 
accomplished their purpose. But Lucullus advanced 
by forced marches to the Euphrates. Here he found 
the stream swollen and turbid from the winter storms, 
and was vexed to think of the delay and trouble 
which it would cost him to collect boats and build 
rafts. But at evening the stream began to subside, 
went on diminishing through the night, and at day- 
break the river was running between lofty banks. 
The natives, observing that sundry small islands in 
the channel had become visible, and that the current 
near them was quiet, made obeisance to Lucullus, 
saying that this had seldom happened before, and 
that the river had voluntarily made itself tame and 
gentle for Lucullus, and offered him an easy and 
speedy passage. 

1 69 B.O. 

547 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 






6 pr)(r[jLVO<; ovv rq> /caipw ie{ijae rrjv 



(TTpa-ridv Kal yiverai (rrf^elov avTW xprjcrrbv a/ua 
TTJ $ia(Bdcrei. /3oe? lepal vepovrai Ylepaias 'A/ore- 
/uSo?, rjv fjid\i(jTa dewv ol Trepav ILv^pdrov j3dp- 
ftapoi ri/uwcri,' ^paivrat Se ra? /Soucrl 
QVG'LCLV JULOVOV, aXXco? Se r n\d'C > ovrai Kara 

6TOi, ^apdy/jbara fyepovcrai T>}? deou 
, Kal \ajBelv e^ avrwv, orav SerjdaHTiv, 
ov irdvv pabiov (TTIV ovBe /jLixpas TT pay pare las. 

7 rovrcov fjiia, TOV arparov SiaftdvTOS rov Evffipd- 

, e^dovcra TT/?O? TWO, Trerpav iepav r^? deou 
v eV O.UTT}? eart], Kal KaTa/3a\ov(ra rrjv 
Kcf)d\r)v, axTTrep at Beer/Ay KaTaretvo^evai, Ouaai 
rep AovKovXXa) 7rapecr)(ev avnjv. eduae Be 

8 T) EiV^pdry ravpov Sia/3arrjpaL. KaKeivrjv 

avrou rifv fifjiepav vjvXi&aTO, rfj 8' vcrrepaia KOI 508 
rat? e'(e?}5 Trpoijye Sia TT}? S&x^r/z/r;?, ov&ev 
TOI)? dv0pa)7rov<$ Trpoa"%wpovvTa<s avrw Kal 
ou? TTJV crrpariav da/jievovs, d\\a 
ra)v crrpaTicoTcov fypovpiov rt SOKOVV G 



\ov TO (ppovpiov fjfjilv eKKOTrreov eVri," Set^a? TOP 
Tavpov dirwdev ovra, " Tavra 5' aTro/reirat rot? 
t," arvvreLvas Be rrjv iropeiav Kal TOV Tiyptv 
a? eve(3a\ev et? Trjv 'Appeviav. 
XXV. Tiypdvrj S*, a)? 6 7T/3Q3T09 dyyei\as 



Trjv K<f>a\rfv, ovBels aXXosr e^pa^ev, aXX* 
Ka0f)(TTo TrepiKaiofjLevos tfBrj rep 
548 



LUCULLUS, xxiv. 6-xxv. i 

Accordingly, he took advantage of his opportunity 
and put his troops across, and a favourable sign 
accompanied his crossing. Heifers pasture there 
which are sacred to Persia Artemis, a goddess whom 
the Barbarians on the further side of the Euphrates 
hold in the highest honour. These heifers are used 
only for sacrifice, and at other times are left to 
roam about the country at large, with brands upon 
them in the shape of the torch of the goddess. Nor 
is it a slight or easy matter to catch any of them 
when they are wanted. One of these heifers, after 
the army had crossed the Euphrates, came to a 
certain rock which is deemed sacred to the goddess, 
and stood upon it, and lowering its head without 
any compulsion from the usual rope, offered itself 
to Lucullus for sacrifice. He also sacrificed a bull 
to the Euphrates, in acknowledgment of his safe 
passage. Then, after encamping there during that 
day, on the next and the succeeding days he advanced 
through Sophene. He wrought no harm to the 
inhabitants, who came to meet him and received 
his army gladly. Nay, when his soldiers wanted 
to take a certain fortress which was thought to 
contain much wealth, "Yonder lies the fortress 
which we must rather bring low," said he, pointing 
to the Taurus in the distance ; " these nearer things 
are reserved for the victors." Then he went on 
by forced marches, crossed the Tigris, and entered 
Armenia. 

XXV. Since the first messenger who told Tigranes 
that Lucullus was coming had his head cut off for 
his pains, no one else would tell him anything, and so 
he sat in ignorance while the fires of war were 
already blazing around him, giving ear only to those 

549 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trvpi, \6yov<? d/covo)V 7rpo9 ^apiv, 009 /jieyav ovra 

AOVKOV\\OV arparrjjoVt el TT^O? 'E^ecrco Tiypdvrjv 

vTroarairj teal /nrj (frevywv evOvs e 'Acrta? 

2 T<z9 rotraura? /jivpidBas lBa)V. ourw? ovre 

TO? Travis^ ecm 7ro\vv cLKparov eve'yKelv OVT 
Biavolas Trjs rv^ovcrr)<; ev 6VTU^]/j,acrt 

Ko-rf)vai TWV \o^i(T[JLWV. Trpwro? 8' avru) 



TO 



Trapprjaias. eire/m^dr) yap evGvs eVt TOV 
AOVKOV\\OV avv iTTTreva-t rpia-^iXioL^, 7rebt? B 
, /ceXevaOels TOV fj,ev CTT parriyov ayeiv 
f rou? & d\\ov<; KaraTrarrjcrai. 

3 AOVKOV\\M $e T% GTpaTids rj uev rj&r) Kare- 
l^evyvvev, 17 Be eri Trpocryei. TWV Be crKOirwv aura) 
fypaedvrwv 7re\avvovra TOV (Bdpftapov, e 
J(wp\<$ ovTa<$ Kal OUK ev Ta^ei TrpoaTreacav 

/cal auro? aev KaOLcrTaTO Trjv 
Be Trpecr/SevTrjv e7re/j,tye 
e%aKoo~iovs> OTrXtra9 Be /cal tyiXovs ov 

4 TToXXro 7r\eiova$, AceXeucra? 771)9 7rpocre\06vTa 
rot? TroXefttoi? /neveiv, ea>9 av Trv6r)Tai rou9 yuer' 
ai)Tov KaTecrTpaTOTreBevKOTas. eySoi/Xero yaez^ 
ow// o ^e^rtXto9 TavTa Troielv, e/3ida0r} B* IITTO TOV 
WiOpofiap^dvov Opacrews eTreXavvovTos et9 %et/?a9 
e\0eiv. /cal yevojjievrjs yu,a^r;9 o 

%dvrjs eTreaev dywvi^o/ij.evos, ol S' aXXot 
CLTfc^kovTO 7T\r)i> okiywv aTravTes. 

5 'E/e TOVTOV Tiypdvrjs p,ev K\i7ra)V Tiypavo- 
KepTa, /jLeyd~\,r]v iro\iv e/CTKTjjievrjv UTT' avTOV, 

550 



LUCULLUS, XXY. 1-5 

who flattered him and said that Lucullus would 
be a great general if he ventured to withstand 
Tigranes at Ephesus, and did not fly incontinently 
from Asia at the mere sight of so many myriads 
of men. Which only proves that it is not every man 
who can bear much unmixed wine, nor is it any 
ordinary understanding that does not lose its 
reckoning in the midst of great prosperity. The 
first of his friends who ventured to tell him the 
truth was Mithrobarzanes, and he, too, got no very 
excellent reward for his boldness of speech. He 
was sent at once against Lucullus with three 
thousand horsemen and a large force of infantry, 
under orders to bring the general alive, but to 
trample his men under foot. 

Now, part of the army of Lucullus was already 
preparing to go into camp, and the rest was still 
coming up, when his scouts told him that the 
Barbarian was advancing to the attack. Fearing 
lest the enemy attack his men when they were 
separated and in disorder, and so throw them into 
confusion, he himself fell to arranging the encamp- 
ment, and Sextilius, the legate, was sent at the head 
of sixteen hundred horsemen and about as many 
light and heavy infantry, with orders to get near 
the enemy and wait there until he learned that the 
main body was safely encamped. Well then, this 
was what Sextilius wished to do, but he was forced 
into an engagement by Mithrobarzanes, who boldly 
charged upon him. A battle ensued, in which 
Mithrobarzanes fell fighting, and the rest of his forces 
took to flight and were cut to pieces, all except a few. 

Upon this, Tigranes abandoned Tigranocerta, that 
great city which he had built, withdrew to the 

55* 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

777)09 rov Tavpov ave^wpfjcre KOI ra? 

ewravOa crvvfjye, Aov/cov'hXos Be 
^povov ov Bioov? Movpijvav 
eVo^Xr?croznra KOI TrepiKo 

Trpo? TOV Tiypdvijv, ^e^riXiov Be 
'Apdftcov X ^P a /^GjdXrjv aveiptovra 
6 Trpocnovcrav- ofjiov Be ^e^rl\LO<; /^ev 

ir\ei- 



avXwva, /cat, crrevoTropov GT 

fcaipov Trapaa")(ovTO 
KOI (frevyei JJLGV auro? TcypdvTjs Trpoe^evo^ rrjv 
aTToa/cev^v airaaav, airoOv^dKovan Be 7ro\\ol teal 
TrKeioves akiGKOvrai raw ' KPJJLGVIWV. 

XXVI. OvTO) Be TOVTWV TTpo^wpovvrwv apas o 

AOU/COUXXO? 7TOpeV6TO 7T/909 T \ypCLVOK6pTa, KOL 

TrepicTTpaTOTreBevcras eTroXioptcei rr)i> 7ro\tv. rjcrav 
8' eV avrfj 7ro\\ol JJLEV f/ E\A,?7i/e? T&V dvacrrdTCdv 
K K.I\IKLCI<;, TroXX.ol Be fBdpjBapoi ro?9 "}L\\r)(Tiv 
ojjiOia 7re7rov00T<;, 'ABiaj3>]vol KOI 'Aaa-vpioi /col 
TopBvrjvol teal KaTTTra&o/ce?, wv KaracrKa-^ra^ ra? 
TrarpiBas, avrov^ Be /coyutcra9 e/cel KaTOiKelv 

2 rjvdyKaaev. r)v Be KOI xprjfjLdrcov r) ?roX,i9 yLtecrr?; 
teal dva.Orjfjid'Twv, Travros IBiwrov KCU Bvvdcrrov 

avjjL<f)i\oTi/jLov/jLevov 7T/D09 av^rjatv /cal 
T'^9 7roXew9. Bib fcal (rvvrovays eiro- 
\iopicei 6 AOVKOV\\O<? avnjv, OVK dve^eaOai TOV 
TL<ypdvr]V olofjievos, a\\a /cal Trapa yi/w/i^i/ VTT 
opryfj? KaTa(3i]O'6(j6ai Bia^a^ov/jievov, opdws 016- 

3 /xe^09. TroXXa Be MtOpiBdrtj^ aTnyyopevirev djye- 



Tre/jLTTcov /cal ypd/n/nara /nrj (rvvaTneiv 



yopv 
5S 2 



LUCULLUS, xxv. 5 -xxvi. 3 

Taurus, and there began collecting his forces from 
every quarter. Lucullus, however, gave him no time 
for preparation, but sent out Murena to harass and 
cut off the forces gathering to join Tigranes, and 
Sextilius again to hold in check a large body of 
Arabs which was drawing near the king. At one 
and the same time Sextilius fell upon the Arabs as 
they were going into camp, and slew most of them ; 
and Murena, following hard upon Tisrranes, seized 
his opportunity and attacked the king as he was 
passing through a roug! 1 and narrow defile with his 
army in long column. Tigranes himself fled, 
abandoning all his baggage, many of the Armenians 
were slain, and more were captured. 

XXVI. Thus successful in his campaign, Lucullus 
struck camp and proceeded to Tigranocerta, which 
city he invested and began to besiege. There were 
in the city many Greeks who had been transplanted, 
like others, from Cilicia, and many Barbarians who 
had suffered the same fate as the Greeks, Adiabeni, 
Assyrians, Gordyeni, and Cappadocians, whose native 
cities Tigranes had demolished, and brought their 
inhabitants to dwell there under compulsion. The 
city was also full of wealth and votive offerings, since 
every private person and every prince vied with the 
king in contributing to its increase and adornment. 
Therefore Lucullus pressed the siege of the city with 
vigour, in the belief that Tigranes would not endure 
it, but contrary to his better judgment and in anger 
would descend into the plains to offer battle ; and 
his belief was justified. Mithridates, indeed, both 
by messengers and letters, strongly urged the king 
uot to join battle, but to cut off the enemy's supplies 

553 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TroXXa Be TaiX?79 TIKWV Trap* avrov KOI crvcrrpa- 50J 
revcov eBeiro rov /SacrtXea)? fyvXdrreaOai Kal 
(frevyeiv a>9 aj^a^ov Trpay/jia ra 'Pwaaiwv 6VXa. 

4 Kal rd ye Trpwra 7Tyoaa>9 i]Kove rovrwv. errel Be 
Travcrrpanq pev avr) (rvi>rj\6ov Kpp,ei-ioi teal 
TopSvrjvoi, Travarparia Se M/;Sov9 Kal ' A.$ta/3rj- 
vov<$ ayovre? ol fta(Ti\el<$ irapr^crav, fjicov Se vroXXot 
/JLV OLTTO rr}? eV J$a/3v\5)i>i QaXdcrcrrjs "Apa,8es, 
TroXXol Se a?ro T?}? KacrTT/a? 'AX^ai/oi Arat "I/S^e? 
'AX/Sat'ot? irpocroiKOvvres, OVK 6\iyoi Be rwv Trepl 
rov 'Apd^rjv vefMo^evwv dftacriXevroi ^apiTi Kal 
Bctipois 7ricr0VTes aTr^vrrjcrav, e\7riSd)v Se Kal 
dpdcrovs Kal ftapftapiK&v aTreiXwv /jiecrra fiev rjv 
ra (TVfjLiroo-ia rov (3acn\ew<$, /zecrra 8e ra (rvfjb- 
fBov\ia, rrapeKiv^vvevcre JJLCV o Ta^tXry? airoOavelv 
vTrevavriovpevos rf) JVOO/JLTJ TT}? /ta^?, e&oKei Be 
Kal MtdpiSdrrjs <f)6ova)v cnrorpeTreiv /^eydXou 

5 Karopdoo/Jiaro*;. o6ev ovS* ave/netvev avrov 6 
Tiypdur]*;, fjirj fjberda-%01 r^9 SO^T;?, aXX* e^co/jet 
iravrl r<p err par q> <r<poSpa Bva^opwv, to? \eyerai, 
Trpos Tou? (f)i\ov<s, or i TT/JO? AOVKOV\\OV avrw fjio- 
vov, ov 7T/30? diravra^ o dyobv ecroiro TOV? f P<w- 
(Jiaiwv Grparrjyovs ev ravrw yevo/j-evovs. 

Kal ov Travrdiracnv TJV ro Opdvosavrov 
ov& a\oyov, Wvr] rocravra Kal /SacrtXet? 
Kal (j>d\,ayyas OTrXtraji/ Kal jjivpid&as Ircrckwv arro- 

6 /SXeTrot'TO?. ro^ora? ^.ez^ 7/3 Kal crtyevo'ovijras Btcr- 
/jLVpiov? rjyev, iTnrel^ Be TrevraKicriJLvpLovs KOI irev- 
raK(,cr%i\[ov<;, &v eTrraKia-^iXioi Kal pvpioi Kard- 
(fcpaKroi rjaav, w? Ao^/couXXo? eypatye TT/QO? rrjv 
crvyK\ijrov, OTr\ir&v Be, rwv /JLCV i9 cnrelpas, rwv 

554 



LUCULLUS, xxvi. 3-6 

with his cavalry ; Taxiles also, who came from 
Mithridates and joined the forces of Tigranes, 
earnestly begged the king to remain on the defensive 
and avoid the invincible arms of the Romans. And 
at first Tigranes gave considerate hearing to this 
advice. But when the Armenians and Gordyeni 
joined him with all their hosts, and the kings of the 
Medes and Adiabeni came up with all their hosts, and 
many Arabs arrived from the sea of Babylonia, and 
many Albanians from the Caspian sea, together with 
Iberians who were neighbours to the Albanians ; 
and when not a few of the peoples about the river 
Araxes, who are not subject to kings, had been 
induced by favours and gifts to come and join him ; 
and when the banquets of the king, and his councils 
as well, were full of hopes and boldness and barbaric 
threats, then Taxiles ran the risk of being put to 
death when he opposed the plan of fighting, and 
Mithridates was thought to be diverting the king 
from a great success out of mere envy. Wherefore 
Tigranes would not even wait for him, lest he share 
in the glory, but advanced with all his army, 
bitterly lamenting to his friends, as it is said, that he 
was going to contend with Lucullus alone, and not 
with all the Roman generals put together. 

And his boldness was not altogether that of a 
mad man, nor without good reason, when he saw 
so many nations and kings in his following, with 
phalanxes of heavy infantry and myriads of horsemen. 
For he was in command of twenty thousand bowmen 
and slingers, and fifty-five thousand horsemen, of 
whom seventeen thousand were clad in mail, as 
Lucullus said in his letter to the Senate ; also of 
one hundred and fifty thousand heavy infantry, 

555 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

* els (frdkayyas o~vvTeTay/j,evcov, irevTe/caiBe/ca 
, oBoTTOiovs Be /ecu yefapcoTas /cal /ca- 

TTOTafJLWV Kal V\OTOfjLOVS KOl TWV a\\COV 

ov VTrrjpeTas T pier /JLV pious KOI 7revTaKt,cr-%i\iovs, 
01 Tols /JLa%ofj,evois eTriTeTay^evoi /caroiriv o 
ap,a fcal pw/Jirjv Trapefyov. 

XXVII. '11? 8' v7Tp/3a\(i)v TOV Tavpov a 
Kare<pdi>r) teal /careiSe rrpbs rot? Tiypavorceprois 
v TO crpdrev/jLa rwv 'PwfjLaiwv, 6 
ev Tfi TToXet /3dp/3apos o'/uXo? o\o\vyrj 
teal KpoTw rrjv o^nv eSe^aro, KOL TOLS 'Pw/u-atot? 
a?ro TWV ret^wy aTTi\.ovvres ebeiKwaav rovs 
2 'Apfjieviovs' AOVKOV\\W Be GKOTTOVVTI irepl r^? 
ol /lev ayeiv 7rl Tiypdvijv edo-avra rr,v 

crvi>e/3ov\evov, ol 8e /xrj 
TToXe/JLious TOO~OVTOVS /^S' dvcivai 
TTO\iopKiav. o 6' el'Trwp e/carepovs f^ev OVK 
d/Lt<<fioTpovs Be Ka\a)s Trapaiveiv &iel\6 rrjv arpa- 
ndv. /cal Movpijvav /lev e^a/ci(T^iX[ovs e^ovra 
Tre^ou? eVl rrjs 7ro\iop/ci,as drreXLnrev, avrbs Be 
Teaa-vapas /cal eiKovi crrreipas dvaXaftwv, ev 
at? ov 7T\eioves rjaav /uLvpiwv OTrXtrcoy, /cal rovs 
aTravras /cal cr^evBovijras /cal 



v v t 

3 Kcu irapa TOV Trora/aov ev irebiw /neya\a) 

Karaa-rparoTreBevcras Travrdiracn /u/epo? e<pdvrj 
TiypdvTj, /cal rols /co\a/cevov(Tiv avrbv Biarpifttjv 
Trapel^ev. ol /juev yap ecr/cwTrrov, ol S* virep 
TWV \a<$>vpwv ev TraiBia Bij3d\\ovro K\i)pov 
TWV Be a-Tparrjywv real /3acri\ewv e/cacrro? yrelro 
Trpoaioov avrov JJLOVOV yevecrdai TO epyov, e KG LVOV 

556 



LUCULLUS, xxvi. 6-xxvn. 3 

some of whom were drawn up in cohorts, and some 
in phalanxes ; also of road-makers, bridge-builders, 
clearers of rivers, foresters, and ministers to the other 
needs of an army, to the number of thirty-five 
thousand. These latter, being drawn up in array 
behind the fighting men, increased the apparent 
strength of the arrny. 

XXVII. When Tigranes had crossed the Taurus, 
deployed with all his forces, and looked down upon 
the Roman army investing Tigranocerta, the throng 
of Barbarians in the city greeted his appearance with 
shouts and din, and standing on the walls, threaten- 
ingly pointed out the Armenians to the Romans. 
When Lucullus held a council of war, some of his 
officers advised him to give up the siege and lead 
his army against Tigranes ; others urged him not to 
leave so many enemies in his rear, and not to remit 
the siege. Whereupon, remarking that each counsel 
by itself was bad, but both together were good, 
he divided his army. Murena, with six thousand 
footmen, he left behind in charge of the siege ; 
while he himself, with twenty-four cohorts, com- 
prising no more than ten thousand heavy infantry, 
and all the horsemen, slingers, and archers, to the 
number of about a thousand, set out against the 
enemy. 

When he had encamped along the river in a great 
plain, he appeared utterly insignificant to Tigranes, 
and supplied the king's flatterers with ground for 
amusement. Some mocked at the Romans, and 
others, in pleasantry, cast lots for their spoil, while 
each of the generals and kings came forward 
and begged that the task of conquering them 
might be entrusted to himself alone, and that the 

557 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Be KaOe^eaOat, Oearijv. /SouXo/zez/o? Be n KCL\ 
avrbs 6 Tiypdviys Capias elvat, Kal 

eZ-Tre TO dpvXovfiievov " Et fjt,ev 005 
TroXXol Trdpeicnv el &' o>? crrpaTiwrai, oXi/yot." 
Kal rore pep ourft)? elpwvevojjievoi KOI Tr 
$iTe\ecrav. a^a S* ^epa Aou/couXXo? 

rrfv Bvva/miv e^rjye. fcal TT/QO? eo> [iev 51 
TOV TrorafjLov rb ftapftapiKov crTpaTevp^a' TOV 
Be pev/J,aTo$ aTTO(JTpo<$>'i)v 

, f) p.d\icrTa Trepdcn^ov r)V, 
Syva/Jtiv Kal crTrev^wv eSo^ev dir 

5 rft) Tiypdvy. Kal KaXecras TOV Ta^iXrjv 
ye\a)Ti " Tou? a/xa^ou?," e<^>r 

ou% o/oa? cfrevyovTas ; *' /cat o 

av" elTrev, " a) /3acri\ev, yevevOai TI TW a~S) 
SaifJiovL TWV 7rapa\oy(ov, aXX,* OVT ecrdiJTa Xa/t- 
Trpdv ol aVSpe? \a^dvovaiv oboiTropovvTes ovTe 
eKKGKaOapfjievois %p&VTai Kal Kpdveai 
, wcnrep vvv ra (TKVTIVCI TOJV OTT\WV 



ecrTiv 77 \a/uL7rpoTr)(f avTij Kal {3a$i6vTa)i> ij 

6 7T/30? TOL/? TToXe/.UOL'?." TttUTa \eyOVTOS Tl TOV 

KaT(i<f)avr}S rjv TT/JWTO? aero? e 
TOV AOVKOV\\OV Kal TO^LV al 

f? \af.i/3dvova-ai TT/OO? TTJV 
yLtoXt? wcTTrep CK /&?]<$ TWOS dvafyepwv o 



rj Tpl<? e^eKpayev " < T/xa? ot 



TO 

KaQlaraffOai, ySacrtXea)? /xe^ avTOV TO /J,6(rov 
, TGJV &e KepaTCov TO fiev dpiaTepov TO> 
A.oiaj3r}V(p, TO Be Beiov ra> M.rjB(a 



LUCULLUS, xxvn. 3-6 

king would sit by as a spectator. Then Tigranes, 
not wishing to be left behind entirely in this play 
of wit and scoffing, uttered that famous saying : 
"If they are come as ambassadors, they are too 
many ; if as soldiers, too few." And so for the while 
they continued their sarcasms and jests. But at 
daybreak Lucullus led out his forces under arms. 
Now, the Barbarian army lay to the east of the river. 
But as the stream takes a turn to the west at the 
point where it was easiest to ford, and as Lucullus 
led his troops to the attack in that direction first, 
and with speed, he seemed to Tigranes to be 
retreating. So he called Taxiles and said, with a 
laugh, " Don't you see that the invincible Roman 
hoplites are taking to flight?'' "O King," said 
Taxiles, " I could wish that some marvellous thing 

' O 

might fall to your good fortune ; but when these 
men are merely on a march, they do not put on 
shining raiment, nor have they their shields polished 
and their helmets uncovered, as now that they 
have stripped the leathern coverings from their 
armour. Nay, this splendour means that they are 
going to fight, and are now advancing upon their 
enemies." While Taxiles was yet speaking, the 
first eagle came in sight, as Lucullus wheeled towards 
the river, and the cohorts were seen forming in 
maniples with a view to crossing. Then at last, 
as though coming out of a drunken stupor, Tigranes 
cried out two or three times, " Are the men coming 
against us ? " And so, with much tumult and con- 
fusion, his multitude formed in battle array, the king 
himself occupying the centre, and assigning the left 
wing to the king of the Adiabeni, the right to 
the king of the Medes. In front of this wing also 

559 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e'(' ou Kal TWV KaracfrpaKTcov ev Trpordyfiart, TO 

7T\l(TTOV TjV. 

7 AovKovXkw S ^u-eXXoim Siaftatveiv TOV Trora- 



ra)V jye/iiovtov iraprjvovv 
rr)v rjfj,pav fiiav ovaav TWV 

Ka\ovaiv ev etceivrj <yap rfj i^jLepq rj 
Kat7rt&}^o9 aTrcoXero arparia 

o 8' cnreKpivaTQ rr)i> 
"'70) 7/?/' 6^77, " teal Tavrrjv ev 
iroLi](T(i) 'PwyLiatoi? rrjv t;//,e/oav." fjv Se irpo 



XXYIII. Tavra 8* CLTTCOV Kal Qappelv 
rov re Trorafibv 8te/5atz/e Kal TT^WTO? eVt TOL/? 
7roX,6/LfctoL'5 rjyeiTO, OwpaKa /J.EV e^wi' aibrjpovv 
<j)o\iS(i>TOV aTroo-TiX/Sovra, KpocnTcoTrjV Se efye- 
, TO Se ^i(j6o? avTo9ev viro^aivcov yv/.w6v, co? 

Seov 1 eKi 



avvaipeiv 2 r^v ^Laro^evcrifjiov %u>pav rco 



ITTTTOV, >7 

livr)v VTTO \6(f)(i) Tivl Ti]V avco 

Tr\aT6iav eovTi, irocraaiv Be 



ov 

paKas fJ>ev lirirel^ Kal FaXara?, 01)5 el^ev, 
\evcrev K vrXay/ou 7rpO(T(j)pofj,evovs -TrapaKpove- 
3 <7$at rat? fJLa^aipai^ TOVS KOVTOVS. fjLia yap d\Kri 
KaTa(f)pdKT(ov KOVTOS' aXXo S' ov$ev ovO' 
rot? 7roXe/ito? ^prjcrOai SvvavTai Bid 



Coraes, Sintenis and Bekker, after Reiske ; 
., including S. 

2 (rwaipelv Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske ; 
(S) and ffvi>atpr}<ret MSS. : <rvvatpr)<T<ai>, a suggestion of 
Reiske's. 

560 



LUCULLUS, xxvn. 6-xxvm. 3 

the greater part of the mail-clad horsemen were 
drawn up. 

As Lucullus was about to cross the river, some of 
his officers advised him to beware of the day, which 
was one of the unlucky days the Romans call 
them " black days." For on that day Caepio and 
his army perished in a battle with the Cimbri. 1 
But Lucullus answered with the memorable words : 
" Verily, I will make this day, too, a lucky one for 
the Romans." Now the day was the sixth of 
October. 

XXVIII. Saying this, and bidding his men be of 
good courage, he crossed the river, and led the way 
in person against the enemy. He wore a steel 
breastplate of glittering scales, and a tasselled cloak, 
and at once let his sword flash forth from its scabbard, 
indicating that they must forthwith come to close 
quarters with men who fought with long range 
missiles, and eliminate, by the rapidity of their 
onset, the space in which archery would be effective. 
But when he saw that the mail-clad horsemen, on 
whom the greatest reliance was placed, were 
stationed at the foot of a considerable hill which 
was crowned by a broad and level space, and that 
the approach to this was a matter of only four 
stadia, and neither rough nor steep, he ordered his 
Thracian and Gallic horsemen to attack the enemy 
in the flank, and to parry their long spears with their 
own short swords. (Now the sole resource of the 
mail-clad horsemen is their long spear, and they 

* B.C. 105. Cf. Camilhis, xix. 7. 

561 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

real (TK\fjp6rr)ra TT}<? arcevfjs, aXX* ey/cara)- 
ois eoLKacriv. atro? Be Bvo a7r6Lpa<; 
dva\a/3a)V rj/uiXkaro Trpo? rbv \6fyov, eppco^ei'ca^ 
eTTOf-ievcov rcov orrpariarwv Bia TO /cd/ceivov ev TO?? 
07rX,oi? opav Trpwrov fca/coTraOovvra Tre^bv KOI 



yevofjievos 8* avw real crra? ev 
rov %wplov /JLeya " 

Ka/uL6v" e(f)rj, " vevitcrffca/jLev, w 
4 teal TOVTO etTTO)^ eTrrjye TO?? 






iceXevcras firjSev eri ^pijaOaL rot? vcrcrols, a\V e/e 
8ia\a/36vra iraiG.iv 



r KOI fjirfpov^, a ^QVd yvfiya ra)v Kara- 
ecTTiV. ov fJirjv e'cSe^ae n Tavrrjs TT}? 
ov yap eSe^a^ro rou? 'Pw/xatof?, 



/cal (frevyovres aia^icrra Trdvrwv 
evewcrav eafrou? T6 teal TO 1)9 WTTTOU? /Sapeis 6Wa? 
ra TWI/ Tre^coy OTrXa TTyOt^ ap^aaOal 



e/cetvov? /jLa^rj^, ware fjbrre rpav/j-aro^ 



^ afyaros o<f)OevTOs rjTTacrQat. Ta? Tocrai/ra? 
o Se TToXy? (f)6vo<$ rjSr] (frevyomcw 
eyivero, /JLO\\OV Be (Bov\oiJievu>v (frevyeiv ov yap 51 
eSvvavTO TTVKvonjri /cal (BdOei rwv rd^ewv IH^ 
avrwv fj,7roBi6/iLevoi. Tiypdvrjs B* e^eXacra? ev 
&PXV ^ r ^ b\iywv e<pevye' /cal rbv vtbv bpwv 
KOivwvovvra rfjs avrrjs TU^? Trepiea-Trdoraro TO 



BidBrjua TT)? /ce(^aX^? fcd/ceivw Ba/cpvcras 

<j(t)%eiv eavrov, OTTO)? Bvvarai, /caff erepas 

6 Ke\evaa<?. 6 Be veavias ava^aaaQai /j,ev OVK 

T6\jJt,r)ae, r&v Be TraiBajv rw iricnordrw <f>v\dr- 

562 



LUCULLUS, xxvui. 3-6 

have none other whatsoever, either in defending 
themselves or attacking their enemies, owing to the 
weight and rigidity of their armour ; in this they are, 
as it were, immured.) Then he himself, with two 
cohorts, hastened eagerly towards the hill, his soldiers 
following with all their might, because they saw him 
ahead of them iri armour, enduring all the fatigue of 
a foot-soldier, and pressing his way along. Arrived 
at the top, and standing in the most conspicuous 
spot, he cried with a loud voice, "The day is ours, 
the day is ours, my fellow soldiers ! " With these 
words, he led his men against the mail-clad horse- 
men, ordering them not to hurl their javelins yet, 
but taking each his own man, to smite the enemy's 
legs and thighs, which are the only parts of these 
mail-clad horsemen left exposed. However, there 
was no need of this mode of fighting, for the enemy 
did not await the Romans, but, with loud cries and 
in most disgraceful flight, they hurled themselves 
and their horses, with all their weight, upon the 
ranks of their own infantry, before it had so much as 
begun to fight, and so all those tens of thousands 
were defeated without the infliction of a wound or 
the sight of blood. But the great slaughter began 
at once when they fled, or rather tried to fly, for 
they were prevented from really doing so by the 
closeness and depth of their own ranks. Tigranes 
rode away at the very outset with a few attendants, 
and took to flight. Seeing his son also in the same 
plight, he took off the diadem from his head and, in 
tears, gave it to him, bidding him save himself as 
best he could by another route. The young man, 
however, did not venture to assume the diadem, but 
gave it to his most trusted slave for safe keeping. 

563 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TLV eBayvev. ouTo? aXou? Kara TV%VV 



TMV 

\wrov /cal TO BidBrj/jLa yevecrflai TOV Tiypdvov. 
\eyeTat Be TWV [iev 7re^a>v VTTCO Be/ca 
, rcov 8' iTTTrecov 6\iyovs 
e/carov 



7TVT. 



7 auT?;9 r?9 fji^rj^ i^ro^o? c)i(TO(o^ ev r 

Ile/ol 0ea)V ypa<pfj fjbvr)o'@i$ ov (prjcnv aXX.'rjv 
TOICLVTTJV TOV r)\iov. ^Tpdftwv B\ 



rou? r Pa>/uat'ou? alo")(yvecr6ai fcal 
Karaje\dv eavrcov CTT' dvBpaTroBa TOLavra Berj- 
67r\a>v. A/outo? 5' eiprjKev, a>? ovBejrore 



aTToBeovres roaovra) 



or^eBov yap ovB' el/cocrrov, 
e\arrov eyevovro fjLepos ol viKwvres TWV 
8 pkvwv. 'Pto/uLaLaiv 6' ol Ben oraroi arpar'rjyol KOI 
TrXelcrra ?roXe/>toi? WyCttX^/core? eTrrjVOW /zaXtcrra 

TOV A.OVKOV\\OV TO BvO /3a(Tl\l$ TOU? 7Tl(j)aV6a-- 

rarou? KOI {.leyiaTovs Bua~l rot? evavTitoTaTOi*;, 
ra%et KOI fipaSvTrjn, KaTaaTpaTrjyrjcrai,. MtQ- 
piBdrr]V fjiev yap dK^d^ovra %povw KOL Tpi(Bf) 
KaravaXwae, Tiypdvrjv Be rw airevcrai cr 
ev 0X170^9 T)V TrooTTOTe r^yefjLOi'Wv TTJ 

B* 



XXTX. Ato /cal Mt^ / otSar7;9 ov crvveTeivev evrt 
v, TT) (TWi]9ei TOV Aovxov\\ov ev\a/3eiq 
ical Trapaycoyy Tro\efjLri(Teiv olofievos, d\\a KaO 



TTOWTOV jjiev o\/7ot9 TMV 'Apuevicov evTv^tov 
S 6 4 



LUCULLUS, xxvm. 6-xxix. i 

This slave happened to be captured, and was brought 
to Lucullus, and thus even the diadem of Tigranes 
became a part of the booty. It is said that more 
than a hundred thousand of the enemy's infantry 
perished, while of the cavalry only a few, all told, 
made their escape. Of the Romans, on the other 
hand, only a hundred were wounded, and only five 
killed. 

Antiochus the philosopher makes mention of this 
battle in his treatise " Concerning Gods," and says 
that the sun never looked down on such another. 
And Strabo, another philosopher, in his " Historical 
Commentaries," says that the Romans themselves 
were ashamed, and laughed one another to scorn for 
requiring arms against such slaves. Livy also has 
remarked that the Romans were never in such in- 
ferior numbers when they faced an enemy ; for the 
victors were hardly even a twentieth part of the 
vanquished, but less than this. The Roman generals 
who were most capable and most experienced in war, 
praised Lucullus especially for this, that he out- 
generalled two kings who were most distinguished 
and powerful by two most opposite tactics, speed and 
slowness. For he used up Mithridates, at the height 
of his power, by long delays ; but crushed Tigranes 
by the speed of his operations, being one of the few 
generals of" all time to use delay for greater achieve- 
ment, and boldness for greater safety. 

XXIX. This was the reason why Mithridates made 

/ 

no haste to be at the battle. He thought Lucullus 
would carry on the war with his wonted caution and 
indirectness, and so marched slowly to join Tigranes. 
At first he met a few Armenians hurrying back over 
the road in panic fear, and conjectured what had 

565 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



6$ov evTTOirj/AevoiS Kal 7repi(j)6l3oi<; d 

TO 7ra#o9, elr* 37677 irKeiovwv yvfivfov real 

/jLevcov cnravTwvTwv TrvOopevos rnv ffTTav 

2 TQV Tiypdvrjv. evpcov Be iravrwv eprjjAQV KOL 
TdTreivov OVK av9v(Bpiaev t a\\a /tara/3a? feat 
(Tw8aKpv(ra<; ra KQIVO, Tradr) OepaTreiav re rrjv 
kiro^kvr\v avTO) /3a(n\iKr)v e'8a),ve Kal Kareddppvve 

7T/305 TO fie\\QV. OVTOi /JLV OVV 

(Tuvr/yov. 

Be rfj TToXet TOt9 TiypavofcepTois 
wv 7T/3O? TOU? ftapftdpovs GTacnacrdvTwv 
teal TO) AovKOv\\fo rrjv TTO\LV ev&iSovTwv Trpofffia- 

3 \(t)V el\' Kal TOU9 fiev iv rrj iroXei Qrjcravpous 
7rape\d/j,/3ai>e, TTJV Se TTO\LV StapTrdcrai TrapeSajtce 
Tot? (TT/DcmcoTa;?, fiera TOW a\\cov j^prujLarcov 
QKTaKia")(i\ia rdXavra vo/jLicriJiaTos e^ovcrav. yu>- 
yol? Be TOVTWV OKraicoo-La^ Bpax/mas tear* av&pa 

4 Sievi[JiV airo TMV \a<pvpcov. irvvQavQ^zvo'S Be 
TToXXo?)? ev rfj TroXet Karei\rj(f)0at, rwv irepl rbv 
Aiovvaov re^vtrMv, 01)9 o Tiypdvrjs TTavra^oOev 
rjOpoifcei, /jieX\,a)v airo^QiKvvvai TO /career /cevacr/jLe- 
vov VTT avrov Oearpov, e^ptjaaro TOUTO^V TT/OO? 
TOU9 dywvas real Ta? 6ea<$ TCOV cTriviKiwv. TOL/? 8' 



9 avrwv 



6 els <j)6Bia, /cal TWV /3ap/3dpwv o / ctot&)9 TOU9 
r/vajKacrfjievou^ KaToiicelv, cocrre (Tweftri /mas 
7ro/Ve<9 BiaXvdeio-ijs 7ro\Xa9 dvotKi^eo-Oat nrakiv 
TOi/9 avrwv olicijTOpas, v(f) J wv ^9 
o Aourou\Xo9 Kal Krio-rrj^ ^yaTrdro. 
5 Tlpov^wpei, Be /cal TaXXa Kar a^lav ravSpl 51 
rwv a?ro BiKaiocrvvtjs Kal <$L\ai>0 pwirias i 

566 



LUCULLUS, xxix. 1-5 

happened ; then presently, when he had learned 
of the defeat from more unarmed and wounded 
fugitives whom he met, he sought to find Tigranes. 
And though he found him destitute of all things 
and humiliated, he did not return his insolent 
behaviour, but got down from his horse and wept 
with him over their common sufferings. Then he 
gave him his own royal equipage, and tried to fill 
him with courage for the future. And so these kings 
began again to assemble fresh forces. 

But in the city of Tigranocerta, the Greeks had 
risen up against the Barbarians and were ready to 
hand the city over to Lucullus ; so he assaulted and 
took it. The royal treasures in the city he took into 
his own charge, but the city itself he turned over 
to his soldiers for plunder, and it contained eight 
thousand talents in money, together with the usual 
valuables. Besides this, he gave to each man eight 
hundred drachmas from the general spoils. On 
learning that many dramatic artists had been captured 
in the city, whom Tigranes had collected there from 
all quarters for the formal dedication of the theatre 
which he had built, Lucullus employed them for 
the contests and spectacles with which he celebrated 
his victories. The Greeks he sent to their native 
cities, giving them also the means wherewith to 
make the journey, and likewise the Barbarians who 
had been compelled to settle there. Thus it ca*ie 
to pass that the dissolution of one city was the 
restoration of many others, by reason of their 
recovering their own inhabitants, and they all loved 
Lucullus as their benefactor and founder. 

And whatever else he did also prospered, in a 
way worthy of the man, who was ambitious of the 

VOL. II. T 567 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjiaXXov rj TCOV eVt rot? 

etceivwv [lev jap ovrc 6\iyov rj 
real Tr\el(JTOV 77 TV^IJ /xeret^e, ravra B* 
rj/jiepov tyv^s /cal TreTraiSevfjievrjs eVtSet^t?, 
o AOVKOV\\OS rare %<w/ot9 OTT\<DV e^eipovro 
{3ap/3dpov<>. KOI yap 'Apd/3a>v /3aa-i\is 
r\Kov 7T/305 CLVTOV ey%ipi%ovT<; ra <r(f)eTpa, /cal TO 
6 ^Gyffcrjvwv eOvos Trpoa'e^Mpei' TO Be ropBvr/vwv 
ovroy 8t,eQr)Kv, wcrTe (BovkecrOai ra? TroXe^? e/c\c- 
TTOVTCLS aKO\ov6elv K6iva> /juera TTCIL&COV /cat 



yelp o TU>V TopSvJivwp /BacTiXev^, Mcnrep eiprjTai, 
Si 'ATTTTIOU Kpv(j>a AovtcovXXay Biei\e/CTO rrepl 
TTJV Tiypdvov TVpavvuBa jBapwofjievo^' 
S* aTrea-^dyr), /cal Trat^e? avTOv KOI yvvij 
<jwaiTu>\ovTO Trplv rj 'Paj/zatof? et? 
1 efJifBaKelv. TOVTCOV ov/c rujLvrmovricrev o 

a\\a Trape\9a)v et? TTJV ropBvrjvwv ra^>a? TrpovOeTO 
TOV Zapftnjvov, teal rrvpav ecrdfjTi, real %pvcru) 
KCU rot? diro Tiypdvov /co(T/j,rfcra<; 
atT09 rrapcSov vtyrjtye, /cal %oa? eTrtfveyfce 
/ULCTCL $i\wv fcal oltceLcov TOV a^Spo?, eralpov 
eavTOv /cal 'PcafiaLcov crv/ji/j,a')(ov 
8 eVeXeucre Be fcal [wrj/Aeiov arco ^pr 
avTw yevecrOar TrayLtTroXXa yap evpeOirj, /cal 
Kal dpyvpos ev rot? TOV Z<ap/3ir}vov 
criTOV 8' aireKeiVTO /jivpidBes Tpiafcocriai 

OX7T6 Kal TOV<$ CTTpOLTlCOTaS ft)^6eXiCT^af Kal TOV 

AOVKOV\\OV 0av/jLd%eo~0ai, OTI Bpa^rjv fjiiav e/c 



568 



LUCULLUS, xxix. 5-8 

praise that is consequent upon righteousness and 
humanity, rather than of that which follows military 
successes. For the latter, the army also was in no 
slight degree, and fortune in the highest degree, 
responsible ; but the former were the manifestations 
of a gentle and disciplined spirit, and in the exercise 
of these qualities Lucullus now, without appeal to 
arms, subdued the Barbarians. The kings of the 
Arabs came to him, with proffers of their possessions, 
and the Sopheni joined his cause. The Gordyeni 
were so affected by his kindness that they were 
ready to abandon their cities and follow him with 
their wives and children, in voluntary service. The 
reason for this was as follows. Zarbienus, the king 
of the Gordyeni, as has been said, 1 secretly stipulated 
with Lucullus, through Appius, for an alliance, being 
oppressed by the tyranny of Tigranes. He was 
informed against, however, and put to death, and 
his wife and children perished with him, before the 
Romans entered Armenia. Lucullus was not un- 
mindful of all this, but on entering the country of 
the Gordyeni, appointed funeral rites in honour of 
Zarbienus, and after adorning a pyre with royal 
raiment and gold and with the spoils taken from 
Tigranes, set fire to it with his own hand, and joined 
the friends and kindred of the man in pouring 
ilbations upon it, calling him a comrade of his and 
an ally of the Romans. He also ordered that a monu- 
ment be erected to his memory at great cost ; for 
many treasures were found in the palace of Zarbienus, 
including gold and silver, and three million bushels 
of grain were stored up there, so that the soldiers 
were plentifully supplied, and Lucullus was admired 

1 ni. 2L 

569 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOV SijfAoa-iov ra/jiieiov jjt,r) \a/3wv avTov t' avrou 
SLUIKCL TOV TTO\/.LOV. 

XXX. 'QvravOa teal Trapa TOV \\dp9wv /3ao~i- 
Xeco? r)tce Trpecrfteia Trap avTov a? (frtXiav rrpo- 
tcaXov/jievov /cal o-v/JL/JLa^iav. rjv S' dapevw raOra 
TO) AovKOv\\<p' teal Trd\iv avTeTrefji-^e Trap' eav- 
TOV Trpecrfteiav TT/^O? TOV Hdp6ov, o'l KaTe^dopaffav 
CIVTOV eTrajJL^OTepi^ovTa TTJ yvoo/Ar) KOA, fiiaOov 
aiTovvTa /cpixfia TOV cyvfjifjia^aau T> Tiypdvy 
2 TI^V MeaoTTOTa/LLiav. co? ovv TavO* o AOVKOV\\OS 



/mev eyvw KOI 



cov i'i/a^eco? KOL 



Trape\6eLv coairep dvTayayi'ta-Tas aT 
cn, oe r^? TldpO 
eV avrovs, KO\.OV 

TTO\/ULOV T/)6t? (f)^rj<f 

j3ao~i\6i<> Ka,T(i7ra\aLO'ai teal Bia Tf>iu>v TWV VTTO 
TOV r)\iov /ne~/i(TTQ)v r}y/jLOVta)V a//TT7/ro? teal 



3 "F-jTre/jityev ovv ei? TLovTov rot? Trepl 
TjyefJLOcriv emaTei\a^ ayeiv TTJV etcel 
Trpo? avTov, co? e/c TT}? TopSurjvrjs dvafirjcro/jtevos. 

ol Be teal Trporepov yaXeTrot? Ypcf)u,evoi teal 
z /)/ ^ / A r r > ^ 

bvcrTreiuecri rot? crT/3aTi&)Tat? Tore TravTG\w<$ 

avTWV Trjv dtco\ao-iav, ovSevl TpoTrw 
vs ovB* dvdy/cijs evpo^evou 7rpocrayayeo-6ai 
xal (3owvTa<$, G)<? ovB' avToOi 
fjLVovo-LV, a\X* ol^rjcrovTai TOV TIovTov eprj/mov 
aTroXnroi/Te?. raura TT/QO? Aov/cov\\oi' diray- 
<ye\0evTa teal TOL/? e/eel Trpoo-Sieffrdeipe GTpaTui)- 
ra?, JjSij /jiV VTTO TT\OVTOV teal Tpvfyr)? fiapeis 
yeyovoras Trpbs T^V arrpaTelav teal o~xo\f)<; Seo- 
JJLGVOVS, co9 Be T^V Kiva)v eTTvBovTO Tcappr\<Tiav, 

570 



LUCULLUS, xxix. 8-xxx. 4 

for not taking a single drachma from the public 
treasury, but making the war pay for itself. 

XXX. Here he received an embassy from the 
king of the Parthians also, inviting him into friendly 
alliance. This was agreeable to Lucullus, and in 
his turn he sent ambassadors to the Parthian, but 
they discovered that he was playing a double game, 
and secretly asking for Mesopotamia as reward 
for an alliance with Tigranes. Accordingly, when 
Lucullus was apprised of this, he determined to 
ignore Tigranes and Mithridates as exhausted 
antagonists, and to make trial of the Parthian power 
by marching against them, thinking it a glorious 
thing, in a single impetuous onset of war, to 
throw, like an athlete, three kings in succession, 
and to make his way, unvanquished and victorious, 
through three of the greatest empires under the 
sun. 

Accordingly he sent orders to Sornatius and his 
fellow commanders in Pontus to bring the army 
there to him, as he intended to proceed eastward 
from Gordyene. These officers had already found 
their soldiers unmanageable and disobedient, but 
now they discovered that they were utterly beyond 
control, being unable to move them by any manner 
of persuasion or compulsion. Nay, they roundly 
swore that they would not even stay where they 
were, but would go off and leave Pontus undefended. 
When news of this was brought to Lucullus, it 
demoralised his soldiers there also. Their wealth 
and luxurious life had already made them averse to 
military service and desirous of leisure, and when 
they heard of the bold words of their comrades 
in Pontus, they called them brave men, and said 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov? a7re/cd\ovv Kal fiifji^reov avTov? 
(pa<rav elvai' TroXXa yap avTois dia 



teal dvarrava-ew? 



XXXI. TOLOVTWV &e /cal TrovrjpoTepwv cri, \oywv 
b \OVKOV\\OS rrjv e?rt lldpOovs crrpa- 
a(f>rJK6v, av@i<s S' eVl TOV Tiypdvrjv eftdSi^e 
6epovs dv/jid^ovTos. teal rbv Tavpov v7Tp/3a\a)V 
rjOvjurjcre ^Xwpcof raw Treblwv eK<fcavevTWV rocrov- 
TOV at wpai Bta rrji> "^rv^por^ra TOV depos 
2 VGTepitovo'iv. ov /urjv d\\a Karafids Kal SI? 
rj Tyot? dvaTO\.fJLr)(TavTa<; eV* avrbv rovs 'ApyLte^toy? 
a8ew? eTrbpOet, ra? /ceo/bias, teal TOV 
TW Tiypdvrj alTOV e^aipwv rjv 
auro? (f)o/3eLTO rot? TroXeyato^? 7TepieaTr]crev CLTCO- 
piav. eTrel Be TrpoKaXov/jLevos el? fid^v avTov? 
TOV %dpa/ca teal TropOwv ev o 



TT)V 'XtilpaV OVK KLVl 



dvao-Ta? efidSi&v eV 'Apra^ara TO Tiypdvov 
ftav ikeiov , OTTOV Kal ira2Se? avTw VIJTUOI Kal 



ya/j,Tal yvvaiKe? rjcrav, OVK av olb^evo? 



Trporfcrecrdai TOV Tiypdvrjv. 
AeyeTat 8' 'Avvi{3av TOV KapfflS 
teaTaTToXe/jLiiOevTO? vrrb 'Pwfjiaiwv, /j,TavTa 
Trpb? ^ApTa^av TOV 'Ap/jieviov d\\a)V re 7ro\\wv 
Kal $io'd(7Ka\ov avTco yeveaOai 'Xprja'i- 
Kal TTJ? x&pa? KaTafjiaOovTa TOTTOV ev(f)V6- 
arraTov Kal ryStcrroz/ dpyovvTa Kal Trapopco/Jievov 
7i oXea)? ev avru> 7rpou7ro f ypdtyacr@ai., Kal 



572 



LUCULLUS, xxx. 4 -xxxi. 3 

their example must be followed in Gordyen6, for 
their many achievements entitled them to respite 
from toil and freedom from danger. 

XXXI. Such speeches, and even worse than these, 
coming to the ears of Lucullus, he gave up his 
expedition against the Parthians, and marched once 
more against Tigranes, 1 it being now the height of 
summer. And yet, after crossing the Taurus, he 
was discouraged to find the plains still covered with 
unripe grain, so much later are the seasons there, 
owing to the coolness of the atmosphere. However, 
he descended from the mountains, routed the Ar- 
menians who twice or thrice ventured to attack him, 
and then plundered their villages without fear, and, 
by taking away the grain which had been stored up 
for Tigranes, reduced his enemy to the straits which 
he had been fearing for himself. Then he challenged 

o o 

them to battle by encompassing their camp with 
a moat, and by ravaging their territory before their 
eyes ; but this did not move them, so often had they 
been defeated. He therefore broke camp and 
marched against Artaxata, the royal residence of 
Tigranes, where were his wives and young children, 
thinking that Tigranes would not give these up 
without fighting. 

It is said that Hannibal the Carthaginian, after 
Antiochus had been conquered by the Romans, left 
him and went to Artaxas the Armenian, to whom he 
gave many excellent suggestions and instructions. 
For instance, observing that a section of the country 
which had the greatest natural advantages and 
attractions was lying idle and neglected, lie drew 
up a plan for a city there, and then brought Artaxas 

1 68 B.O. 

573 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOV Aprd^av 7rayayovTa Set^ai, /eal 7rapopjj,f)(rai, 
4 737309 TOV ol/CLcrfiov. TjaOevTO? Be TOV /3acrXea)9 
Aral SerjdevTOS, OTTW? auro? 7ria-Tarrjcrr) TOV epyov, 
fieya TI KOI Trdy/caXov ^prjfia TroXew? draa-Trjvai, 
Kal yevofievrjv CTTCOVV/JLOV TOV (3aari\6a)<? /jirjTpOTroXiv 



T?? 

TOV AOVKOV\\OV (3a$l%ovTO<$ OVK 



TCTapTrj TrapecrTpaTOTri&evcre rot? 'Pa>- 
, eV fjL(7(p Xaficov TOV 'Apcraviav TTOTCLJAOV, 
ov e% dvdyKYjs $ia/3a,Tov rjv rot? 'Pw/^atoi? T^V eV 

5 'A/ora^arcoi/ Tropevo^evoL^. Ovaas Be ro?9 6eol<$ 
AOVKOV\\OS, co? ev j(epcr\v ovarrjs TT}? v 

TOV (TTpaTov ev ScoBe/ca o-Treipais 
, rat? S' aXXat? eVtTTa7/^e^at? TT/JO? 

TWV TToXe/JLiwv. TroXXol ryap rjcrav 
/cal X-o^aSe? dvTi7rapaTTay/jiei>oi,, irpo 
S' CLVTWV iTTTTOTO^OTai MapSot /cat \oy%o<f>6poi 
"I/??;pe?, ol? yLtaX/.crra TWI^ %evwv 6 Tiypdvi]s 

6 eTricTTevev co? /Aa^/icoTaTOt?. ou /x^z> GTrpd^Ot] 
TL Xa/juirpov air avTwv, fiixpa Se rot? iTnrevcri 
TWV ^wfjiaiwv SiaTrXrjKTicrdfAevoi TOU? Tr 
eTTLOVTas ov% vTre/jueivav, aXX' e^arepcocre 
(f>vyf)<; a"%icr66VTes 7recr7racraz'TO 

Trpos TrjV oiwf-LV. a/jia &e TW TOL/TOU? 

TWV irepl TOV Tiypdvrjv e^iTTTracra/LLevajv IBwv 

\dfjiTT POTATO, /eal TO Tr\ri6o<$ 6 AovArofXXo? ebeiae. 

7 al TOU9 tez^ /TTTret? a?ro 



7T/3COT05 S' aUTO? aVT(7Trj TOt? ' TpOTTaTrjVOlS KCLT 

avTOV overt /ACTO, TWV dpia-Tcav, /eal Trplv et? 



e\6elv (fro/Sijcras eVpe^aro. rpiwv 8' oyLtoO Trapa- 
574 



LUCULLUS, xxxi 3-7 

to the place and showed him its possibilities, and 
urged him to undertake the building. The king 
was delighted, and begged Hannibal to superintend 
the work himself, whereupon a very great and 
beautiful city arose there, which was named after 
the king, and proclaimed the capital of Armenia. 

When Lucullus marched against this city, Tigranes 
could not suffer it quietly, but put himself at the 
head of his forces, and on the fourth day encamped 
over against the Romans, keeping the river Arsania 
between himself and them, which they must of 
necessity cross on their way to Artaxata. There- 
upon Lucullus sacrificed to the gods, in full assurance 
that the victory was already his, and then crossed 
the river with twelve cohorts in the van, and the 
rest disposed so as to prevent the enemy from 
closing in upon his flanks. For large bodies of 
horsemen and picked soldiers confronted him, and 
these were covered by Mardian mounted archers 
and Iberian lancers, on whom Tigranes relied beyond 
any other mercenaries, deeming them the most war- 
like. However, they did not shine in action, but 
after a slight skirmish with the Roman cavalry, gave 
way before the advancing infantry, scattered to right 
and left in flight, and drew after them the cavalry in 
pursuit. On the dispersion of these troops, Tigranes 
rode out at the head of his cavalry, and when 
Lucullus saw their splendour and their numbers he 
was afraid. He therefore recalled his cavalry from 
their pursuit of the flying enemy, and taking the 
lead of his troops in person, set upon the Atropateni, 
who were stationed opposite him with the magnates 
of the king's following, and before coming to close 
quarters, sent them off in panic flight. Of three 

575 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



fiaaiXewv aLcr^Lara So.vet (frvyelv 6 
rr)?, ov&e rrjv Kpavyr/v rwv c Po>- 
8 [J,aLQ)v dvaa%6fjievos. fyevo/j,evr]s Be rrjs Sico^ecos 
fjMKpas teal SL 6'X>/9 VVKTOS, ov fjLovov Kreivovres 
avrovs, d\Xa KOI faypovvTes Kal %pyj/jtaTa KOI 
\elav ayovres Kal (frepovres airelirov ol 
l 8e 6 Aioui'o? ev /JLCV rf) Trporepa 

, ev Se ravrrj yvapifjLWTepovs Trecrelv /cal 
\rj(f)dr)vai TWV TroXe/jiiwv. 

XXXII. 'E/c TOVTOV AOVKOV\\O$ /JLCV eV^yae^o? 
real T60appr}KO)$ avw Trpodyetv Stevoeiro /cal Kara- 
arpe^ecrOai rrjv (Bdpfiapov a)pa & Icni/JiepLa^ 
$>6ivo r iru>pivris OVK av sXirlaawri ^eifjiwves eVe- 
Trecrov fiapeis, ra fjiev 7r\elcrra KaTavlfyovres, 
ev Be rat? aldpiaw Trd^vrjv 7ri<pepovT$ /cal 
Trdyov, v(f> ov %a\eirol fjiev V)<JCLV ol Trorajnol 
roi? tTTTTOt? irivta-Oai StoL -v|rf^/5oT?;ro? vTrep/SoXrjv, 
^a\7ral 3' avTMV ai Siafidaei? eicpri'yvvp.evov 
rov KpvcrrdXXov Kal Sia/coTrro^ro? ra vevpa ra)i> 
2 'ITTTTCOV rfj Tpa%vTr)TL. rr}? Se ^copas 77 7ro\\rj 



ovcra Kal crrevoTropos Kal eXa>8^9 del 



aurou?, %iovo<$ avamiinra^vQV^ ev 
o&oLTTopiaL? Kal KaKws ev TOTTOLS vorepols 5 



ov vroa9 ovi> 



rw A.ovKov~\X(p perd rrjv p.d^rfv i]vav~ 
TIOVVTO, Trpwrov Seofievoi, Kal rou? %LXidp%ov<; 
, ejreira Oopv/Bwoearepov crvvicnd- 
Kal Kara aKijvd<; VVKTOS 
OTrep elvat, boxel truyLt/SoX-oi^ dTrocrraTiKws 
3 <TT/?arta9. KaLroi TroAAa Trpooreknrdpei AOVKOV\- 
Xo? d^icov avrovs fJUKpoOvfjiiav e/u-/3aXeo"^at ra?9 

576 



LUCULLUS, xxxi. 7 xxxn. 3 

kings who together confronted the Romans, Mithri- 
dates of Pontus seems to have fled most disgrace- 
fully, for he could not endure even their shouting. 
The pursuit was long and lasted through the whole 
night, and the Romans were worn out, not only with 
killing their enemies, but also with taking prisoners 
and getting all sorts of booty. Livy says that in the 
former battle a greater number of the enemy, but 
in this more men of high station were slain and 
taken prisoners. 

XXXII. Elated and emboldened by this victory, 
Lucullus purposed to advance further into the interior 
and subdue the Barbarian realm utterly. But, con- 
trary to what might have been expected at the time 
of the autumnal equinox, severe winter weather was 
encountered, which generally covered the ground 
with snow, and even when the sky was clear pro- 
duced hoar frost and ice, owing to which the horses 
could not well drink of the rivers, so excessive was 
the cold, nor could they easily cross them, since the 
ice broke, and cut the horses' sinews with its jagged 
edges. Most of the country was thickly shaded, 
full of narrow defiles, and marshy, so that it kept 
the soldiers continually wet ; they %\ ere covered with 
snow while they marched, and spent the nights 
uncomfortably in damp places. Accordingly, they 
had not followed Lucullus for many days after the 
battle when they began to object. At first they sent 
their tribunes to him with entreaties to desist, then 
they held more tumultuous assemblies, and shouted 
in their tents at night, which seems to have been 
characteristic of a mutinous army. And yet Lu- 
cullus plied them with entreaties, calling upon them 
to possess their souls in patience until they had 

577 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



ov rrjv ev 



e^OLarov, rov ' Avviftav \eywv, 
epyov dvarpetywo'iv. w? B' OVK eTreiOev, aTrrjyev 
aurou? OTTtcra) real /car* aXXa? V7rep{3o\d<; $ie\0a>v 
rov Tavpov et? r^y \eyofAevrjv MirySow/c/)^ fcare- 
ftaive, ^a)pav irdfjifyopov fjbal d\eeivr)v Kal TroXiv 
ev avrfj /j,yd\r]v Kal TroX.vdvO pwirov %ovcrav, 
r)v ol IJLCV (Sdpfiapot, NicriftLV, ol S' ''EXX^i/e? 
4 ' * Kwrioyziav ^/LvyBovtfcrjv 7rpo<7"rj<y6pevov. Tavrrjv 
el%ev d^icofjiari, fiev d8e\(f)bs Tiypdvov Tovpas, 
ejjiTreipiq Be Kal SeworrjTi /uL^^aviKfj KaAAtyLta^o? 
o Kal Trepl 'Afjiicrbv irXelcrra Trpajfjiara Aov- 



Kal Traaav ISeav TroXiopKias eTrayayaiv 0X170) 

5 xpovw Kara Kpdros \a{jL/3dvei Trjv Trb\iv. Kal 

Tovpa fjuev eawrov ey^eipiaavrL <j)i\avdpco7rco<; 



fJLe<yd\wv xprj/jLarcov dvaKaXvtyeiv ov 
, aXX' eKe\V<rei> ev Tre'Sat? KO^L^ecrOai 
&LKTJV vfie^ovra rov rrvpbs, co rrjv 'A/jiia"rjvwv 

rrb\iv ae/Xero ()i\oriJLLav avrov 



xa ^/)7ycrTOT^To? eiretLV TT/JO? TOW? 









XXXIII. Me?i rovSe <ai rt? av 



rrjv rv^v errofjievriv crvo-rparrjyeiv. evrevOev 
S' wcTTrep TTvev/jiaros eViX/Troz/TO? 



rrdvra Kal rravrdiraa-iv miKpovcov perrjv 



Kal fJLaKpoOvjJLiav ^yfi6vo<s dyadov, 
$6%av Be Kal %dpiv ov&e/jiiav al rrpd^eis eo-^ov, 
d\\d Kal rrjv rrpovirdp^ovcrav 771)9 r)\6e Bvcr- 
TrpayoH' Kal Siatyepo/jievo 1 ? fidrrjv drrofta\6iv. 
2 rwv S' alricov avrbs ov^l rrjv eXa^iarrjv el? 
rovro rrapea")(eVi OVK wv 

578 



LUCULLUS, xxxn. 3-xxxin. 2 

taken and destroyed the Armenian Cartilage, the 
work of their most hated foe, meaning Hannibal. 
But since he could not persuade them, he led them 
back, and crossing the Taurus by another pass, de- 
scended into the country called Mygdonia, which is 
fertile and open to the sun, and contains a large and 
populous city, called Nisibis by the Barbarians, 
Antioch in Mygdonia by the Greeks. The nominal 
defender of this city, by virtue of his rank, was 
Gouras, a brother of Tigranes ; but its actual de- 
fender, by virtue of his experience and skill as an 
engineer, was Callimachus, the man who gave 
Lucullus most trouble at Amisus also. But Lucullus 
established his camp before it, laid siege to it in 
every way, and in a short time took the city by 
storm. To Gouras, who surrendered himself into 
his hands, he gave kind treatment ; but to Calli- 
machus, who promised to reveal secret stores of great 
treasure, he would not hearken. Instead, he ordered 
him to be brought in chains, that he might be 
punished for destroying Amisus by fire, and thereby 
robbing Lucullus of the object of his ambition, 
which was to show kindness to the Greeks. 

XXXIII. Up to this point, one might say that 
fortune had followed Lucullus and fought on his 
side ; but from now on, as though a favouring breeze 
had failed him, he had to force every issue, and met 
with obstacles everywhere. He still displayed the 
bravery and patience of a good leader, but his 
undertakings brought him no new fame or favour; 
indeed, so ill-starred and devious was his course, that 
he came near losing that which he had already won. 
And he himself was not least to blame for this. He 
was not disposed to court the favour of the common 

579 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crrpariatriKOv, KOI irav TO TT/JO? rjbovrjv rov 
dp^ofjLfvov yivojjievov dp%fjs dri^iav KOI KardXvuiv 
f)yov/j,e]>o<f TO Be /jLeyLcrrov, ov$e rot? Svvarois fcal 
<tocrTO9 elvai rre(f>VKU>s, a\\a rcdv- 

Kara<ppOVO)V KOI fjLT^Sevb^ d^LOVS 7T/909 dUTOV 

3 fjyovjjievos. ravra yap vTrdp^ai AOVKOV\\W Katca 
\eyovcTLv ev TTCLCTL rot9 aXXoi? dyaflols' KOL yap 

/cal /caXo? teal SetJ/o? eiTreiv KOI <f)povifJLO<; 
ev dyopa KOI (TrparoTreSa) Soxei yevecrOat,. 
fjiev ovv <^?7cri ^aXeTrw? ^>Lare9i]vai 
crrparKtiras Trpbs avrbv evOvs ev dp^rj rov 
7T/9O? Ku^t/c^t) Kol 7rd\iv irpos 'A/xtcra), 
vas e^r}? ev ^dpa/ci Siayayeiv dvaytca- 

4 oOevras. rjvlwv 8' aurou? /cal ot \OITTOI 



r TToeyuta ie^eifjiaov -r Trapa rot9 

&6 7TO\tV 



Aou/cofXXo?. OI/TW Se 

/ '' ' \ 

aurot? ra? /JLeyicrras eveowtcav airo TV;? rw/t^? ot 

reis, (f>06vw rov AOVKOV\\OV 
UTTO <j6tXa/o^ta? at (f)i\o7r\ov- 
e\KovTOS rov iroKe^ov KCU /movovov /care- 
ev ravrw KtXi/ctap, 'Acrtay, RiQvviav, 
Ha(f)\ayoviav, TaXarlav, Tlovrov, 'Apfieviav, ra 

t &e :at T Tiypdvov /SacrtXe^a 

" >P. ^ >O > " ' 

, wcnrep e/covcrai rovs pa<rtXet9, oi/ 
5 icararro\iJir)(Tai rre^Oevro^. rovro yap eirreiv 
(fyacriv eva rwv crrpartjywv Aev/ciov Kolvrov, v 
ov fJid\Lcrra rreicrOevres 
BiaB6^ov<; ry AOVKOI>\\M 

aavro Se teal rwv vr^ avray (rrparevo^evaiv TTO\- 515 
XoL/9 d<f)eia6ai 
580 



LUCULLUS, xxxin. 2-5 

soldier, and thought that everything that was done 
to please one's command only dishonoured and under- 
mined one's authority. Worst of all, not even with 
men of power and of equal rank with himself could 
he readily co-operate ; he despised them all, and 
thought them of no account as compared with him- 
self. These bad qualities Lucullus is said to have 
had, but no more than these. He was tall and 
handsome, a powerful speaker, and equally able in 
the forum and the field. 

Well, then, Sallust says that his soldiers were ill- 
disposed towards him at the very beginning of the 
war, before Cyzicus, and again before Amisus, because 
they were compelled to spend two successive winters 
in camp. The winters that followed also vexed 
them. They spent them either in the enemy's 
country, or among the allies, encamped under the 
open sky. Not once did Lucullus take his army 
into a city that was Greek and friendly. In their 
disaffection, they received the greatest support from 
the popular leaders at Rome. These envied Lucullus 
and denounced him for protracting the war through 
love of power and love of wealth. They said he all 
but had in his own sole power Cilicia, Asia, Bithynia, 
Paphlagonia, Galatia, Pontus, Armenia, and the 
regions extending to the Phasis, and that now he 
had actually plundered the palaces of Tigranes, as if 
he had been sent, not to subdue the kings, but to strip 
them. These were the words, they say, of Lucius 
Quintus, one of the praetors, to whom most of all the 
people listened when they passed a vote to send men 
who should succeed Lucullus in the command of his 
province. They voted also that many of the soldiers 
under him should be released from military service. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXIV. Tourot? Be Ttj\ifcovTOi<f OVQ-L Trpocryi- 
veTat, TO fJLakiara A.ovKov\\q) Bieipyacr/iievov ra? 
TIoTrX^o? KXa>S/o?, dvrjp v^piarrj^ /cal 
o\Lja)pia<; aTracr?;? KOI 0pacrvTr)TOS. TJV Be 
AOVKOV\\OV yvvaLKOS d8e\(f)6$, TJV real Sia- 
<f>0Lpeiv ea")(v aiTiav aKoKaaroraTriv ovcrav. 
2 Tore Se TO) A.OVKOU\\O) a-uarpaTevcov ov% ocr?79 
CLVTOV rj^iov Tifjufjs ervy^avev rj^iov Be TT^OCUTO? 
elvai, teal 7ro\\)v dTroXeiTropevos Sia TOV rpojrov 
viroiKovpei rr)V <&i/jL/3piav?)i> crrpaTiav KCU Trapa)- 
Kara TOV AOVKOV\\OV, \6yovs pi](TTOvs et? 



OVK aKOwras ou aei? TOV 

OVTOL <yap rjcrav, oft? teal irporepov 

TOV VTTCLTOV 



avTov e\e<j9ai a-TpaTrpyov. Sib teal TOV 
rjBeco^ eSe%oi>TO teal (^>i\ocrrpaTict)T^v 
Trpocrrjyopevov, dyava/CTeiv irpocriTotovfLevov virep 
avTOiv, el Trepan ovBev ecrrat 7ro\e t awv 
teal TTovtov, d\\a iravTl pev eOvei 
Trdcav Be yrjv 7r\ai'(t)/jievot KaTaTptyovcn TOV {3iov 
ovBev a^iov etc Ti)\LK.avrri<; fapo/Lievoi 
a\\a ra? AOVKOV\\OV TrapaTre/ATrov 
teal tcajj,tj\ovs eKTrwfJidTWV j(pvuwv teal Bia\i0(t)v 
4 <ye/j,ov(7as, ol Be TIo/^Trrjtov aTpariwrai Bf)/j.o<$ 
oVre? IjBrj TTOV /^era yvvaite&v teal T&KVWV tcd0t]VTai 
yijv ev&aifjiova Kal TroXa? e^oz're?, ov MiOpiBdTrjv 
teal Tiypdvrjv et? ra? doiKrjrovs jJL/3a\6vTes eprj- 
/A'.'a?, ovBe rr/9 *Acrta? ra /3aori\ta KaTappityavTes, 
d\\a (frwydcrw dvQptoirois Iv 'Ifiijpia teal Bpaire- 

582 



LUCULLUS, xxxiv. 1-4 

XXX IV. To these factors in the case, so un- 
favourable in themselves, there was added another, 
which most of all vitiated the undertakings of 
Lucullus. This was Publius Clodius, a man of wanton 
violence, and full of all arrogance and boldness. He 
was a brother of the wife of Lucullus, a woman of 
the most dissolute ways, whom he was actually 
accused of debauching. At this time he was in 
service with Lucullus, and did not get all the honour 
which he thought his due. He thought a foremost 
place his due, and when many were preferred before 
him because of his evil character, he worked secretly 
upon the soldiers who had been commanded by 
Fimbria, and tried to incite them against Lucullus, 
disseminating among them speeches well adapted to 
men who were neither unwilling nor unaccustomed 
to have their favour courted. These were the men 
whom Fimbria had once persuaded to kill the consul 
Flaccus, and choose himself for their general. They 
therefore gladly listened to Clodius also, and called 
him the soldier's friend. For he pretended to be 
incensed in their behalf, if there was to be no end of 
their countless wars and toils, but they were rather 
to wear out their lives in fighting with every nation 
and wandering over every land, receiving no suitable 
reward for such service, but convoying the waggons 
and camels of Lucullus laden with golden beakers 
set with precious stones, while the soldiers of 
Pompey, citizens now, were snugly ensconced with 
wives and children in the possession of fertile lands 
and prosperous cities, not for having driven Mithri- 
dates and Tigranes into uninhabitable deserts, nor 
for having demolished the royal palaces of Asia, but 
for having fought with wretched exiles in Spain and 

583 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ev \Td\ia TroA.e/XT/craz'Te?. " TL ovv, GL Bel 
iravcraaQai (rrparevofjievovs, ov^l TOLOV- 

Tft> <TTparr?7&) KOL crcouara Ta \oi7ra KOL ^/ruya? 

.'/ r *t /^ * * ' 

<pv\a(T(TO/JLV, ft) KaKX-icrro^ eivai oofcei KOCT^O^ o 

rcov crrpaTevofjLevwv TrXouro? ; ' 

5 Toiaurai? alricus TO AOVKOV\\OV o-rpdrev/jia 
SiatfiOapev oi5r' eVi Tiypdvrjv r)ico\ov6ricrev OUT' 
eVl Midpi^dr'rjv avOts e% 'Ap^z^ta? et? IToi/Toz-' 
{i{3a\6vTa Kol rrjv apy/rjv avaka^Qdvovra, irpo- 
Be rev yei^wva iroiovfjLtvoi Trepl rrjv 
rjv Bierpifiov, oaov OVTTCO HO/JLTT^LOV rj 
d\\ov TWV reJLOv&v Aovfcov\\co 






XXXV. 'E-Trel $6 Mi6pi$drr)s tfyyeXro <&d(Bi,ov 
eVl ^aypi'dnov /cal Tpidpiov fi 



elirovro 



8* a)? eroifjiov apTrdcrai TO vircrjfia, Trplv ei 

771/9 6 

dXr). \eyovTai <yap 

cLTro9avelv, ev ol? efcaTovTap^oi, 
eKCL~ov TrevTriKovTd, ^i\iap^oL & elKocn /cal 
Tecrcrapes' TO Be crTpaTorreSov el\e M.L& pi&aTrjs. 

2 ejreXdcDV Be AOVKOV\\O$ oXiyais v<jrepov r;/ze/oai? 

TpidpLOV fJLV V7TO TO)V (TTpaTlWTWV ^TOV^VQV 

7T/00? opyrjv et;erc\6\fse. M.i0piSdTOV Be /XT) 6e\ovTOs 
d\\a Tiypdi'Tjv Trepi^ &VOVTOS ijBr) 
Ta yttera TroXXr)? Bvvdfjiecos, eyvw 7rpli> 
avve\9elv 7rd\.iv aTtavTri<jai Kal Bta- 

3 yfiyvirraaOai TT/OO? TO^ Tiypdvrjv. Tropevo^evw 8' 

" 6Sov ol 
ra? ra^et?, co? 



534 



LUCULLUS, xxxiv. 5~xxxv. 3 

runaway slaves in Italy. " Why, then," he would 
cry, " if our campaigns are never to come to an end, 
do we not reserve what is left of our bodies, and our 
lives, for a general in whose eyes the wealth of his 
soldiers is his fairest honour? " 

For such reasons as these the army of Lucullus 
was demoralised, and refused to follow him either 
against Tigranes, or against Mithridates, who had 
come back into Pontus from Armenia, and was 
trying to restore his power there. They made the 
winter their excuse for lingering in Gordyene, 
expecting every moment that Pompey, or some 
other commander, would be sent out to succeed 
Lucullus. 

XXXV. But when tidings came that Mithridates 
had defeated Fabius, 1 and was on the march against 
Sornatius and Triarius, they were struck with shame 
and followed Lucullus. But Triarius, who was 
ambitious to snatch the victory, which he thought 
assured, before Lucullus, who was near, should come 
up, was defeated in a great battle. It is said that 
over seven thousand Romans fell, among whom were 
a hundred and fifty centurions, and twenty-four 
tribunes ; and their camp was captured by Mithridates. 
But Lucullus, coming up a few days afterward, hid 
Triarius from the search of his infuriated soldiers. 
Then, since Mithridates was unwilling to give fight, 
but lay waiting for Tigranes, who was coming down 
with a large force, he determined to anticipate the 
junction of their armies, and march back to meet 
Tigranes in battle. But while he was on the way 
thither, the Fimbrian soldiers mutinied and left their 
ranks, declaring that they were discharged from 

1 67 B.O. 

585 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crpareias teal fiy/ceri, ro> Aovrcov\\(p 
ap-^eiv, erepois aTroo'eSeiy/jievcov rwv 
ovBev ovv eariv o n rwv Trap* d^lav o AOVKOV\\O$ 
vTre/jieivev, dvri/3o\a)v KaO* eva KOL Kara 
Trepiitov raTretz/o? KCU SeSa/cpv/jievos, ecnt, 
4 8* <bv teal ^etyoo? 1 aTTTo/jievos. ol S' 



tceva 



teal novov fjLd<T0cu rot? TroXe/it'ot? eice\evov, 



<' wv fiovo? rjiricrraTO TrXovreiv. ov fiyp d 

rwv a\\cov <rrpariwrwv Seo/jbevwv eKJBia 

ol Qifjiftpiavol crvveOevTo Trapa^elvai TO Oepof 516 

eav Se ya^Set9 eV r^> %p6v(j> rovry /early 



dvdy/cr}? rov AOIHCOV\\OV, rj irpoecrdai 
5 rot? /3ap{3dpois rrjv %u>pav a7ro\.i(j)devTa. avvel- 



ovv avrovs OVK6TI 



irpodywv TT/JO? /j,d%7jv, aXV et 
dya7rcoi>, KOI irepiopwv iropOovfJievrjv VTTO rov 
Tiypdvov rr]v KaTTTraSo/ciav teal irdkiv v 
MidptSdTrjv, ov a^ro? eVecrTaX/cei rf) 
ypdcfrwv /caTaTT6'7ro\e/jLr)a-0ar Kal ol 7T/oe(T/3et9 
Trapr/aav avry Trpo? rrjv SidOecriv rwv ev 
6 Trpayjutdrcov, <9 $?) /3e/3aicos %oju,evcov. teal 
Trapovres ecbpabv ouS' avrou /cvpiov, aXXa Tr 
vovfjievov Kal TrpOTrriKaKi^op.evov VTTO rwv o-rparico- 

TtoV, Oi9 y TOQ-OVTO 7TpirjV TrjS 6/9 TOV 

daeXyetas, wcrre rov Ocpovs X?;yo^ro9 

1 Kal xfip6s S : 
586 



LUCULLUS, xxxv. 3-6 

service by decree of the people, and that Lucullus 
no longer had the right to command them, since the 
provinces had been assigned to others. Accordingly, 
there was no expedient, however much beneath his 
dignity, to which Lucullus did not force himself to 
resort, entreating the soldiers man by man, going 
about from tent to tent in humility and tears, and 
actually taking some of the men by the hand in sup- 
plication. But they rejected his advances, and threw 
their empty purses down before him, bidding him 
fight the enemy alone, since he alone knew how to 
get rich from them. However, at the request of the 
other soldiers, the Fimbrians were constrained to 
agree to remain during the summer; but if, in the 
meantime, no enemy should come down to fight 
them, they were to be dismissed. Lucullus was 
obliged to content himself with these terms, or else 
to be deserted and give up the country to the 
Barbarians. He therefore simply held his soldiers 
together, without forcing them any more, or leading 
them out to battle. Their remaining with him was 
all he could expect, and he looked on helplessly 
while Tigranes ravaged Cappadocia and Mithridates 
resumed his insolent ways, a monarch whom he had 
reported by letter to the Senate as completely sub- 
dued. Besides, the commissioners were now with 
him, who had been sent out to regulate the affairs of 
Pontus, on the supposition that it was a secure Roman 
possession. And lo, when they came, they saw that 
Lucullus was not even his own master, but was 
mocked and insulted by his soldiers. These went so 
far in their outrageous treatment of their general, 
that, at the close of the summer, they donned their 



587 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra O7r\a teal cnracrdfjievoi ras fjia\aipa<; Trpoe/ca- 
\ovvro TOU? /jirjBajLiov TTCLpovras, ttXX' a 
77877 TToXe/uoi"?. a\a\dj;avTS Be KOI 
trai/re? aTre^Mprjcrav etc rov ^dpa/cos, 
pdfievoi TreirXrjpwcrOai rov %povov, ov a 
rc5 Aov/covXXw Trapa/Jicveiv. 

Tou? S* aXXof? Ka\,i $ia ypa/nfj.drayv 
to?' 778*7 -yap aTroSeSef/CTO roO Trpo? M$ piSdrrjv 
Ka\ Tiypdvrjv iro\eiJiOV (TTparrfyos "^apiTi TOV 
Sijjjiov KOL KO\.a/cia ra>v SrjfAaycoycov, eVet rfj 
/3ov\f) fcal rot? apicrTOi<s aBi>/ca Trdcr^i 
Aou/couXXo? ov 7ro\fj,ov &ia$6%ov<;, d\\a 
/3ov \a/ji{3dva)v, ovSe TT}? err parrjy /a? 

a\\a TWV Trd0\wv T^? GT parrjy ias 



i /ca Trapa^wpev erepois. 
XXXVI. "Ert Be /jLa\\ov e^dvr) TO 



rot? eKe Trapovai ve/AecrrjTov. ovre yap Ti/j,r)s 6 



A.ovtcov\\o$ ovre rijLoyias rtov ev 



ovB* eia riva TLofiTrrjlo^ fiao'ifeiv TT/OO? 
avTov ov$ Trpocre^eiv ot? eVet^o? eypafa KOI 
Bieve/jie jJLeTa rwv Be/ca Trpeaftewv, aXX' KCO\VV 
eKTi6el<$ Biaypd/jL/jLara /ecu (/>o/3epo5 Trapcov CLTTO 
2 /xe/^ovo? Bvvd/jiea)?. O/JLW? Be e'Bo^e rot? </>t'Xo4? 
avvayayeiv avrovs' teal crvvrj\9ov ev KW/JL?) TLVI 
rf)<; FaXarta? fcal TrpocreLTrov 
z/&>5 KOI avv^crOrjcrav Ctrl rot? 
e/carepw, irpeafivrepos [lev (bv 6 

' rjv TO HO^TTIJIOV /j^el^ov airo 7r\ei6vwv 
teal Bvelv 0pidjjb/3a)V. pdfiftoi 8' 



LUCULLUS, xxxv. 6-xxxvi. 2 

armour, drew their swords, and challenged to battle 
an enemy who was nowhere near, but had already 
withdrawn. Then they shouted their war cries, 
brandished their weapons in the air, and departed 
from the camp, calling men to witness that the time 
had expired during which they had agreed to remain 
with Lucullus. 

The rest of the soldiers Pompey summoned by 
letter, for he had already been appointed to conduct 
the war against Mithridates and Tigranes, 1 because 
he won the favour of the people and flattered their 
leaders. But the Senate and the nobility considered 
Lucullus a wronged man. He had been superseded, 
they said, not in a war, but in a triumph, and had 
been forced to relinquish and turn over to others, 
not his campaign, but the prizes of victory in his 
campaign. 

XXXVI. But to those who were on the spot, what 
happened there seemed still greater matter for wrath 
and indignation. For Lucullus was not allowed to 
bestow rewards or punishments for what had been 
done in the war, nor would Pompey even suffer any 
one to visit him, or to pay any heed to the edicts 
and regulations which he made in concert with the 
ten commissioners, but prevented it by issuing 
counter-edicts, arid by the terror which his presence 
with a larger force inspired. Nevertheless, their 
friends decided to bring the two men together, and 

o o y 

so they met in a certain village of Galatia. They 
greeted one another amicably, and each congratulated 
the other on his victories. Lucullus was the elder 
man, but Pompey's prestige was the greater, because 
he had conducted more campaigns, and celebrated 

1 66 B.C. 

589 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



Trporjyovvro 

3 Kal rov ye TlofjLTrrjtov fiiafcpav o&bv SL& rorrwv 
dvvSpcov Kal avxfjuipwv oSevcravTos ra? Bd(pi>a<; 
rjpas Trepifcei/jievas rat? pdjSSois ISovres ol 
rov AOVKOV\\OV paj3So(j)6poi, $>i\o<$povoviJievoi, 
ro?9 eiceivov fuereScoKav ere rcov IBicov, Trpocr- 
cj)drov<; Kal 6a~\.epa<s e^o^re?. Kal TO ^ivo^evov 
et? olwvov eridevTO xprjcrrbv ol Tlo/j,7rijiov (f)i\of 
TO) jap ozm r?V GKCLVOV crTpaTr)<yiav at TOVTOV 
eKoa^crav. e/e Be TWV \6ya)v TT/^O? ovSev 



ert 



I/TTO ro 



AOVKOV\\OV yevo/JLevas &iaTaj;eis rjKvpwcrev o 



avrw LIOVS eaKOcrovs a7TLire avv- 






e TOVTOV? 

5 7ro/jLevov$. ovrw Tt9 fjv a^>ur/9 rj Si/crrf^r/9 o 
AOVKOV\\OS 7rpo9 TO irdvrwv ev ^ye^ovia jrpwrov 
/cal ueyiCTTOV' 009, el rovro fiera TMV 



avra), rr(\iKoinwv ovrwv Kal TOO'OVTWV, 
ias, eVf/teXeta9, crweaetos, SiKaiocrvvi]?, 
OVK av el^ev rj 'Pwuaiwv rjye/AOvia rbv RvfppaTrjv 
6 TT}? 'Acrta9 opov, d\\a ra ea^ara Kal TTJV "TpKa- 517 
viav 0d\arrav, rcov ^ev d\\wv eOvwv Tiypdvrj 
TrporjTTij/jsevwv, TTJS Se \\dp6wv Svvdjjieais ov^ ocrrj 
Kara Kpdacrov e^efyavrf TOGavTrfs Kal Kara Aov- 
KOV\\OV overt]? ovo' 6/zota)9 crvveGTworris, aXX' iiir 



Be uoi SoKel AOVKOV\\O<; &v ax^eX^a-e oV 
avrov rrjv TrarpiSa /SXai/rai ueit^ova Si' erepcov. 

59<> 



LUCULLUS, xxxvi. 2-6 

two triumphs. Fasces wreathed with laurel were 
carried before both commanders in token of their 
victories, and since Pompey had made a long march 
through waterless and arid regions, the laurel which 
wreathed his fasces was withered. When the lictors 
of Lucullus noticed this, they considerately gave 
Pompey's lictors some of their own laurel, which was 
fresh and green. This circumstance was interpreted 
as a good omen by the friends of Pompey ; for, in 
fact, the exploits of Lucullus did adorn the command 
of Pompey. However, their conference resulted in 
no equitable agreement, but they left it still more 
estranged from one another. Pompey also annulled 
the ordinances of Lucullus, and took away all but 
sixteen hundred of his soldiers. These he left to 
share his triumph, but even these did not follow him 
very cheerfully. To such a marvellous degree was 
Lucullus either unqualified or unfortunate as regards 
the first and highest of all requisites in a leader. 
Had this power of gaining the affection of his soldiers 
been added to his other gifts, which were so many 
and so great, courage, diligence, wisdom, and justice, 
the Roman empire would not have been bounded 
by the Euphrates, but by the outer confines of Asia, 
and the Hyrcanian sea ; for all the other nations had 
already been subdued by Tigranes, and in the time 
of Lucullus the Parthian power was not so great as 
it proved to be in the time of Crassus, nor was it so 
well united, nay rather, owing to intestine and 
neighbouring wars, it had not even strength enough 
to repel the wanton attacks of the Armenians. 

Now my own opinion is that the harm Lucullus did 
his country through his influence upon others, was 
greater than the good he did her himself. For his 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7 TO, yap ev 'Apaevia rpoTraia YLdpOwv 7T\r)criov 
/cal Tiypai oKepra Kal Nicriftis teal TT\OV- 



T09 K TOVTWV 7ToXu9 l>$ 'PtojLilJV KOAUjQels Kal TO 



Tiypdvov BidBijfjia 7T(j/jL7rev0ev 

Kpd<rcrov eirl rrjv 'A&iav, &>? \d(pvpa Kal \elav 

TOL/? ftapfBdpovs, a\\o 8' ovSev 6Wa?. 



cKeivov 8* aTTOvovro^ 7rl 



rbv A.OVKOV\\OV OVK a^poffvvrj Kal /JUiXaKia rwv 
nrdX-ejjLiwv, aurov Be To\[Ar) Kal SeivorrjTi Trepiyevo- 
pevov. a\\a ravra pev vcrrepov. 

XXXVII. 'O Be AOVKOV\\OS az/a/9a? et? 
Trpayrov fiev /careXaySe rbv dBe\(f)bv 
VTTO Vaiov Me/iyUtou Karrjyopov^evov e'(/)' 
ot? eTTpage ra/JLievwv 

7rl TOVTOV avTov o 
Trapco'gvve TOV Bfjfiov, Kal 
609 TroXXa vevoa-tyicr i^evw Kal /mTjKvvavTt TOV TroXe- 
2 /JLOV eTreicrev avTco /ir; Bovvai &pta/J,j3ov. e\6ovTos 
8' 6t9 dywva TOV AOVKOV\\OU /J.eyav ol TrpwToi 
Kal SwaTcoraroL KaTa/JiiZavTes eawrovs rat9 
^>f\at9 Tco\\f} Ber'/arei Kal cnrouSfj ^0X49 e 
TOV BfjfJLOV .TT LT pe-^rau Opiafiftevcrai, ov%, 

JJL1JKl T6 TTOfJLirfjS Kal 7T\?jdtl, T0)l> KOfJil- 



Kal 

rot? /utv ovrXot? TOJV Tro\^iwv overt 7ra/M- 



TOV 

Kal 0ea r^9 
3 rjv avTrj icaff eavrqv OVK 6VKara(pp6vijTO<i* ev Be 



592 



LUCULLUS, xxxvi. y-xxxvu. 3 

trophies in Armenia, standing on the borders of 
Parthia, and Tigranocerta, and Nisibis, and the vast 
wealth brought to Rome from these cities, and the 
display in his triumph of the captured diadem of 
Tigranes, incited Crassus to his attack upon Asia ; 
he thought that the Barbarians were spoil and booty, 
and nothing else. It was not long, however, before 
he encountered the Parthian arrows, and proved 
that Lucullus had won his victories, not through 
the folly and cowardice of his enemies, but through 
his own daring and ability. This, however, is later 
history. 

XXXVII. Now when Lucullus had returned to 
Rome, he found, in the first place, that his brother 
Marcus was under prosecution by Gaius Memmius 
for his acts as quaestor under the administration of 
Sulla. Marcus, indeed, was acquitted, but Memmius 
then turned his attack upon Lucullus, and strove 
to excite the people against him. He charged him 
with diverting much property to his own uses, and 
with needlessly protracting the war, and finally 
persuaded the people not to grant him a triumph. 
Lucullus strove mightily against this decision, and 
the foremost and most influential men mingled with 
the tribes, and by much entreaty and exertion at 
last persuaded the people to allow him to celebrate 
a triumph ; 1 not, however, like some, a triumph which 
was startling and tumultuous from the length of the 
procession and the multitude of objects displayed. 
Instead, he decorated the circus of Flaminius with 
the arms of the enemy, which were very numerous, 
and with the royal engines of war ; and this was a 
great spectacle in itself, and far from contemptible. 

1 06 B.C. 

593 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rfj rrofirrfj rwv re Kara<fypdKrwv irrnkwv o\iyoL 
Kal rwv Bpe7ravi](f)6p(av dp/jidrwv BeKa TraprfKOov, 
efy]Kovra Be (f)i\oi KOL (rrparrjyol r&v /3aori\iKa)v, 
/jLdKpal Be xa\K/A/3o\oi z/^e? e/carov Kal BeKa d/na 
7rapKojiLLcrdr)(rav, avrov re M-idpiBdrov xpvai-os 
A:oXocr<ro9, teal Ovpeos Ti? StaXt^o?, KOL 
elicoai [lev apyvp&v Gicevwv, ^pvawv S' 

e/CTTW/JLCLTCOV KOI 07T\(DV Kdl fO/jLLCTfiaTO^ SvO KOI 

4 TpidtcovTCi. ravra ^ev ovv avSpes TrapeKOfja^ov 

TjjJLiOVOL S' OKTGD KklVaS ^/OUCTtt? (f)pOV, % & KCil 

irevniKovra Ke^ayveu^evov dpyvpiov, aXXot 5' 
e/carov eina vo/Aio~/jtaTO<? dpyvpov, fJLiKpw TIVL 
Seoucra? eftBojATJ/covra KOI BiaKoaias fjivpi 
ev Se SeXrot? dvaypaffral rcov ifiri SeBojuevcov 



VTT avrov TIoyLtTT^iVo Trpbs rov Treipart/coi' 
7ro\/jiov Kdl rot? evrt TOV Brj/jLoaiov ra/jtetov, KOL 
OTL (TTaTicoTr)? eVacrro? eW/cocn'a? Kal 



e\a/3ev. eVl TOUTO^? TYJV re 
iro\iv elaTiaae XayLtTrpw? Kal ra? 

, a? OVLKOVS Ka\ovcri. 
XXXVIII. T?}9 Be KXcoSta? a7r 

Kal Trovrjpds, ^epov'Ckiav e 

ovBe TOVTOV evrv^'fj ya/j,ov. 
ev ydp ov Trpocrfjv avrw T&V KXcoSta? 
fjiovov, tj rwv dBe\(f)(oi' &ia/3o\rf' raXXa Be 
pav c/jioiws ovcrav /cal aKoXaarov 
tfrepeiv alBovfjievos Kdrcova, reXo? Be aT 

'EXTri'Sa? Be 6av/jiacrrd^ rfj /3ov\y 
Co? (f^oucTT; rov avBpa rovrov dvriray/Jia rrpos rr)v 
rov Tlo/jLTrrjtov rvpavi'iBa Kal r^9 dpicn -OK parlay 

594 



LUCULLUS, xxxvii. 3-xxxvin. 2 

But in the procession, a few of the mail-clad horse- 
men and ten of the scythe-bearing chariots moved 
along, together with sixty of the king's friends and 
generals. A hundred and ten bronze-beaked ships 
of war were also carried along, a golden statue 
of Mithridates himself, six feet in height, a 
wonderful shield adorned with precious stones, 
twenty litters of silver vessels, and thirty-two litters 
of gold beakers, armour, and money. All this was 
carried by men. Then there were eight mules 
which bore golden couches, fifty-six bearing ingots 
of silver, and a hundred and seven more bearing 
something less than two million seven hundred 
thousand pieces of silver coin. There were also 
tablets with records of the sums of money already 
paid by Lucullus to Pompey for the war against the 
pirates, and to the keepers of the public treasury, as 
well as of the fact that each of his soldiers had 
received nine hundred and fifty drachmas. To crown 
all, Lucullus gave a magnificent feast to the city, and 
to the surrounding villages called Fid. 

XXXVIII. After his divorce from Clodia, who was 
a licentious and base woman, he married Servilia, a 
sister of Cato, but this, too, was an unfortunate 
marriage. For it lacked none of the evils which 
Clodia had brought in her train except one, namely, 
the scandal about her brothers. In all other 
respects Servilia was equally vile and abandoned, 
and yet Lucullus forced himself to tolerate her, out 
of regard for Cato. At last, however, he put her 
away. 

The Senate had conceived wondrous hopes that in 
him it would find an opposer of the tyranny of 
Pompey and a champion of the aristocracy, with all 

595 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



TT po ua%ov rro o?79 KOI 
fjiyd\r)<;, eyKare\irre Kal Trpoij/caro rrjv 
ecre Sva-Kade/crov 77877 /cat vocrovaav opwv eW\ w 
evioi, /xetTTO? wv 80^77? Kal Trpo? TO pacrrov 
rov filov /ecu fJLa\aK(jora'Tov /c 7ro\\)V 
dycovwv Kal 'TTovwv oi'K evrv^ecrrarov reXo? 

3 \afBoVTWV. 01 /LlV jap CTTtUVOVO'lV aVTOV T7)l> 

Tocravrrjv fAeTa/3o\ijv, TO Maptou nrdOos yu?) 
, o? eVt Tat? K.ifj,/3pi/cais vlicais teal TOL? 
Kal peydXois e/eeivoiq KaropdcD/macriv ov/c 
aurov dvelvat, n/Jifj roaavrrj tyfkwrov, 
dX)C dTrXrjaria ^0^779 Kal dp%fj$ veoi? dv^pdai 
yepwv dvn'ndXirevofj.evo^ et? epja Betvd Kal 
Seivorepa TMV epycov e(K6i\e' (3&\Tiov 6' av 
KiKepcova yrjpacrat, fj,erd 
IJLevov Kal ^KrjTrLwva 

4 NojJLavriav, elra Travad^evov elvai yap Tiva Kal 
TroX-LTLKYi^ TrepioBov KaTa\V(Tiv TWV 'yap dO\rj- 
TIKWV dya>va>v TOU? TTO\.LTLKOV^ ovSev rjrrov aKfifjs 
Kal wpa? 7ri\t,7rovcn]s eXey^ecrOau. ol Be Trepl rov 
Kpaffaov Kal Tlo/ATrrjiov e^\6va^ov TOV A.OVKOV\- 
\ov et? ffiovrjv dfyziKora Kal 7ro\vre\,ei,av aurov, 

ov TOV rpvtyav p,a\\ov TO? Tt]\LKOVTOi<; 
rjKiKiav 6Wo? ?; Toy TroKireveaOai Kal 



XXXIX. "EcTTt 5' ovv rov AOVKOV\\OV @LOV, 
KaOdrrep dpy/aias KWfjiw^ias, dvayvwvai, ra fMev 
trpwra TroXtTeta? Kal crrparrjyias, ra S* vcrrepa 
VTOTOU? Kal Seirrva Kal povovovyl Ktouovs Kal 
Xa/XTraSa? Kal TraiSiav arraaav. ei<$ rrai&Lav yap 
eya)y rlOe^ai Kal oiKo$o/j,a<i TroXfTeXet? Kal 

596 



LUCULLUS, xxxvin. 2-xxxix. 2 

the advantage of great glory and influence ; but 
he quitted and abandoned public affairs, either 
because he saw that they were already beyond 
proper control and diseased, or, as some say, because 
he had his fill of glory, and felt that the unfortunate 
issue of his many struggles and toils entitled him to 
fall back upon a life of ease and luxury. Some 
commend him for making such a change, and 
thereby escaping the unhappy lot of Marius, who, 
after his Cimbrian victories and the large and 
fair successes which were so famous, was unwilling 
to relax his efforts and enjoy the honours won, but 
with an insatiate desire for glory and power, old man 
that he was, fought with young men in the conduct 
of the state, and so drove headlong into terrible 
deeds, and sufferings more terrible still. Cicero. 
say these, would have had a better old age if he had 
taken in sail after the affair of Catiline, and Scipio, 
too, if he had given himself pause after adding 
Numantia to Carthage ; for a political cycle, too, has 
a sort of natural termination, and political no less 
than athletic contests are absurd, after the full vigor 
of life has departed. Crassus and Pompey, on the 
other hand, ridiculed Lucullus for giving himself up 
to pleasure and extravagance, as if a luxurious life 
were not even more unsuitable to men of his years 
than political and military activities. 

XXXIX. And it is true that in the life of 
Lucullus, as in an ancient comedy, one reads in the 
first part of political measures and military commands, 
and in the latter part of drinking bouts, and 
banquets, and what might pass for revel-routs, and 
torch -races, and all manner of frivolity. For I must 
count as frivolity his costly edifices, his ambulatories 

597 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

tearaaKevds TrepiTrdrcov /ecu \ovrpwv KOI eri 
p,a\\ov >ypa(f)d<t /cal dvSpidvras teal ryv Trepl 
Tavras ra? re^m? (nrovBijv, a? eicelvos Gvvfjye 
fAeyaXois avaXoD/jLacnv, et? ravra rat TT\OVTM 
pvSrjv KaTa%pw/j,vos, bv rjOpoiKti TTO\VV KOL 
Xa/jiTrpov CLTTO rwv (TTpcneiwv, OTTOV KOL vvv, em- 
Boaiv TOiavr^v Tr)s rpvcfrrjs e^ot/criy?, ol AovKOvX- 
\iavol KrJTroi, TWV ftacrikLKwv ev rot? TroXfreXecrTa- 

3 rot? dpiQ/AOvvrai. ra & ev TO?? TrapaXtot? KCLI 
Trepl Neaz^ TTO\LV pya, \6 

avrov (jieydKois opvy/jiacrt KCU 
real &ia$po/j,a<; l^Ovorpo^ov^ T<H? 
7repieXi(rcroi>Tos Kal &iaiTa<$ eVaXtou? KTL^OVTOS, 6 
Srwi'/co? Tovftcpwv 6eaad[JLVo$ Hepgrjv avrov e/c 

4 rrjfievvov 7rpo(T^y6pvcrv. r)<rav 8' avrw irepl 
TOVCTK\OV e"(jL>LOL Siairai Kal Karacr/coTral 



KOI fcaraa/ceval 



/cal irepLTrdrwv, ev al? o 
efjiefi^x-ro rov AOVKOV\\OV, on 
apiara StaOel? T^V eirau\iv doiK^TOv ev 

e. ye\dcra<; ovv ei 

e(f>rj, " <rol SOKW e\drrova rwv yepdvcov vovv e 
Kal TWV TreXapy&v, cocrre rat? &pai<s arj crvf^fj.era- 
5 /3d\\iv ra? Scaura? ; arparrjyov $e irore 

Trepl 0ea<$ /cal XP$ ' Tlvl 



, av e^rj, Bcoaeiv, elra /neO* r)/j,epav 
avrov, oTroawv Beoiro. TOV 8e e/farov 
jo-avros etce\ev(7e \aftelv St? rocravraf' 
et? 6 Kal ^Aa/e/eo? o 



598 



LUCULLUS, xxxix. 2-5 

and baths, and still more his paintings and statues 
(not to speak of his devotion to these arts), which he 
collected at enormous outlays, pouring out into such 
channels the vast and splendid wealth which he 
accumulated from his campaigns. Even now, when 
luxury has increased so much, the gardens of Lu- 
cullus are counted among the most costly of the 
imperial gardens. As for his works on the sea- 
shore and in the vicinity of Neapolis, where he sus- 
pended hills over vast tunnels, girdled his residences 
with zones of sea and with streams for the breeding 
of fish, and built dwellings in the sea, when Tubero 
the Stoic saw them, he called him Xerxes in a toga. 
He had also country establishments near Tusculum, 
with observatories, and extensive open banqueting 
halls and cloisters. Pompey once visited these, and 
chided Lucullus because he had arranged his country 
seat in the best possible way for summer, but had 
made it uninhabitable in winter. Whereupon Lu- 
cullus burst out laughing and said : " Do you suppose, 
then, that I have less sense than cranes and storks, 
and do not change residences according to the 
seasons ? " A praetor was once making ambitious 
plans for a public spectacle, and asked of him some 
purple cloaks for the adornment of a chorus. Lucullus 
replied that he would investigate, and if he had any, 
would give them to him. The next day he asked the 
praetor how many he wanted, and on his replying that 
a hundred would suffice, bade him take twice that 
number. The poet Flaccus 1 alluded to this when 

1 Epist. i. 6, 45 f. 
VOL. IT 599 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ov vofjii^ei 7r\ovTov, ov yu?) ra 7rapopa)/jiva fcal 
\av6dvovTa 7r\eiova TWV <f)aivofievMv ecrfi, 

XL. NeoTrXofra 8' fjv TOV A.OVKOV\\OV ra 
SeiTTva ra KCL&* fj/j,epav, ov /JLOVOV 
d\ovpyecri KOI Sia\i0ois eKTTM/jLacri KCU 

TreiaoSiois, a\X' o^rwv re iravTO- 
Kal Tre/jifJidrwv Treptrrw? SiaTreTrovrj/jLevwv 
tyXwrbv dve\ev6epoL^ TTOLOVVTOS 
2 eavrov. 6 jovv IIo/xTr^to? evBoKifjiijae VOG&V 
TOV jap larpov /ci'^Xrjv avrov \aj3eiv K\t>cravTo<;, 



oiKerwv OVK av evpeiv 



wpa Kij(\r)v ?} Trapa AOVKOV\\W crnevo- 
, OVK el'acre XaySeti' eKeWev, aXX' CLTrwv 

TOV IdTpOV " QvKOVV, 1 firj A.OVKOV\\OS 

IIoyLtTr^to? OVK civ %r)(Tv; " a\\o TL Trapacricevdcrai 

3 TO)V eVTTOpicTTCOV K\VCT. }LaTWV 8' T)V CLVTW 5191 

<jbtXo? Kal otKeios, OVTCO 8e TOV {3iov avTOv Kal TTJV 
Siairav e^vcr^epaivev, wcrre, veov TWOS ev 
8ov\fj \6jov 7ra^n Kal paKpov 
eureXeta? Kal (raxfrpocrvvr)'? &i\66vTO<;, e 
6 Karwv " Ov TravcrT]" e<^rj, " (TV TT\OVTWV 
K/Jacro-o?, %wv 5' a>? Aou^ouXXo?, \eycov 
Karcoi/; ' evioi B TOVTO prjOfjvai /nev OL'TO)?, I'TTO 
Karcoz^o? Se ov \eyovaiv. 

XLI. 'O fJiVTOL AOVKOV\\0<$ OU% r)$6/uiVO<i 

fjiovov, aXXa Kal cre^vvvoiJLevo^ TW /3/w TOVTW 
BfjXos r}V K TWV aTro/jivrj^ovevo/jievwv. \eyeTai 
yap f/ EXX7;^a? dv6p(i)Trov<s avaftdv-ras et? 'Pw^rjv 
ecTTiav 7rl 7roXXa9 rj/Aepas, TOU? 5' oVrw? 'EX- 
\tjvLKov TL TraObvTas, alo~%vvO'0ai Kal 
600 



LUCULLUS, xxxix. S- 

lie said that he did not regard a house as wealthy in 
which the treasures that were overlooked and unob- 
served were not more than those which met the eye. 

XL. The daily repasts of Lucullus were such as 
the newly rich affect. Not only with his dyed 
coverlets, and beakers set with precious stones, and 
choruses and dramatic recitations, but also with his 
arrays of all sorts of meats and daintily prepared 
dishes, did he make himself the envy of the vulgar. 
A saying of Pompey's, when he was ill, was certainly 
very popular. His physicians had prescribed a thrush 
for him to eat, and his servants said that a thrush 
could not be found anywhere in the summer season 
except where Lucullus kept them fattening. Pompey, 
however, would not suffer them to get one from there, 
but bade them prepare something else that was easily 
to be had, remarking as he did so to his physician, 
"What ! must a Pompey have died if a Lucullus were 
not luxurious ? " And Cato, who was a friend of his, 
and a relation by marriage, was nevertheless much 
offended by his life and habits. Once when a 
youthful senator had delivered a tedious and lengthy 
discourse, all out of season, on frugality and tem- 
perance, Cato rose and said ; " Stop there ! you get 
wealth like Crassus, you live like Lucullus, but you 
talk like Cato." Some, however, while they say 
that these words were actually uttered, do not say 
that they were spoken by Cato. 

XLI. Moreover, that Lucullus took not only 
pleasure but pride in this way of living, is clear 
from the anecdotes recorded of him. It is said, for 
instance, that he entertained for many successive 
days some Greeks who had come up to Rome, and 
that they, with genuinely Greek scruples, were at 
last ashamed to accept his invitation, on the ground 

U2 6o1 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/eXfjcriv, o><? Si ai'TOU? Ka9' rjjmepav rocrovrwv 

2 dva\.icrKOfjLevQ)V rov ouv AOVKOV\\OV elrrelv fiei- 
Bidcravra rrpos aurou?- " Vive-rat fjiev TL rovrcov 

\ r > * >/ p> " 17 -\ -v ^ 

icai oi i/yLta?, a> avbpes LA, A,/? ye?* ra 
7r\el(TTa yiverai $ia AOVKOV\\OV." eirel Be fjib 
BeiTTVovvTos avTOv fjiia rpdire^a KOI /jLerpiov irape- 
<r/cevd(T0r) SelTrvov, rjyavaKTet Ka\eaas TOP ewl 
rovray reray/jievov olKerrjv. rov Se cfrija'avTOS, co? 
OVK yero [Jiri&evos KeK\t]fjLevov TroXureXou? 
avrbv Berja'eo'Oai " TL \eyeis; *'' elirev, " OVK y 
on cnj/jLpov irapa AOVKOV\\W Senrvel AOVKOV\- 

3 Xo?;' ovros Be Trepi TOVTOV, a>9 et/co?, ev Ty iroXct 
\6yov TTO\\OV, Trpoar)\6ov CLVTM KCLT dyopav 
(T^o\r)v ayovri Ki/cepcov KCU Ilo/xTr^o?, o fiev ev 
rot? /jLaXiG-ra (^tXo? wv tcai avvi]6r)s, Ylofjurrjiw 5' 
rjv [jiV e/c Trjs (rTparrjyias Biacfropa TTpo? avrov, 
ela)dei(Tav Be ^prjcrOai, /cal BtaXeyeaOai. 7ro\\aKi<; 

4 eTTieitccos aXXrJA-ot?. acrTracra/xe^o? ovv 6 Ki/cepcov 
avTov rfpwrrjcrev, OTTCO? e^et Trpbs evrev^iv rov Be 
<fjcravro<>, &>? apicrra, real Trapa/caXovvros evrvy- 

* C " " 



rrapa croi rr^fiepov ourco?, OTT&K ecrrt aoi rrape- 

Be rov AOVKOV\\OV 



Kal yueraXaySetf rj/jLepav d^iovvros OVK efyacrav 
emrpttyeiv, ovB* elcov BiaXeyeadat, rot? al/cerais, 
iva ixrj ri rr\eov Ke\evcrrj yevecrOai rwv avrm 
5 yivo/JLei>wv, rr\r)v rocrovro {JLOVOV alrov/nevro crvve- 
^ojprjcrav ei-nelv TT/OO? eva rwv oiKerwv evavriov 
eteeivwv, ort, rijfxepov ev rqi A7r6\\(t)vi Benrvtfcroi' 
rovro yap rt? ei%e rwv rro\vre\wv olicwv ovo/j,a. 

602 



LUCULLUS, XLI. 1-5 

that he was incurring so much expense every day on 
their account; whereupon Lucullus said to them 
with a smile, " Some of this expense, my Grecian 
friends, is indeed on your account ; most of it, how- 
ever, is on account of Lucullus." And once, when 
he was dining alone, and a modest repast of one 
course had been prepared for him, he was angry, and 
summoned the servant who had the matter in charge. 
The servant said that he did not suppose, since there 
were no guests, that he wanted anything very costly. 
" What sayest thou ? " said the master, " dost thou 
not know that to-day Lucullus dines with Lucullus ? " 
While this matter was much talked of in the city, as 
was natural, Cicero and Pompey came up to him as 
he was idling in the forum. Cicero was one of his 
most intimate friends, and although the matter of 
the command of the army had led to some coolness 
between him and Pompey, still they were accustomed 
to frequent and friendly intercourse and conversation 
with one another. Accordingly, Cicero saluted him, 
and asked how he was disposed towards receiving a 
petition. " Most excellently well," said Lucullus, 
and invited them to make their petition. " We 
desire," said Cicero, " to dine with you to-day just as 
you would have dined by yourself." Lucullus de- 
murred to this, and begged the privilege of selecting 
a later day, but they refused to allow it, nor would 
they suffer him to confer with his servants, that 
he might not order any thing more provided than 
what was provided for himself. Thus much, how- 
ever, and no more, they did allow him at his request, 
namely, to tell one of his servants in their presence 
that he would dine that day in the Apollo. Now 
this was the name of one of his costly apartments, 

603 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
teal TOVTO crecrcxfiicr^evos eXeX^et TOVS avBpa?. 



e/eacrT&> yap, &>? eoitce, 
Y]V ri/jLtj/jia Bei7rvov, KOI ^oprjyiav IB Lav KOI trapa- 
(r/cevrjv eicacFTOV flx ev > ware TOVS Bov\ov<; d/cov- 
ias, OTTOV /3ov\erai Benrvelv, eibivai, TTOCTOV 
/cat TTOLOV TI KocrfJiw /cal 



yevecrffat, Bel TO SeiTrvov eloodei Be ^eiirvelv ev TU> 

6 'A7r6\\Wl>C 7T6VT6 fJLVid&WV Kdl TOT6 TOCTOVTOV 



TOU? irepl rbv TlojjiTnJLOv ev 



rrjs &a7rdvr}<$ TO ra^o<? 



Tavra jjuev ovv vfipiaTiKcos e%pr)TO TO> TT\OVT(C> 



KaOdirep oVrco? at^aXwrft) KOL 

XLII. ^7rovor)(i 8' aia fcal \6yov TO, 

icov /caTaa-Kevijv. /cal yap TroXXa /cal 
/caXco? Gvvrjyev, r} re ^pijcn^ rjv 
<f)i\oT(,/j,oT6pa rr}? /cr^crea)?, dvei^evwv iraai 



KOi TCOV 7T6pl 



/cal (T)(p\acrTripiwv a/cwXura)? V 
''EXXr^^a? Mcnrep els Moi/frco^ TI /caTaycoyiov 
eicelo~e ^otrw^ra? real o~vi'o"ir}fji,pevovTas a 



a?ro 



2 7roXXa/c/9 Be /cal o~vveo"^o\a^ev auro? 

et? TGI/? TrepiTraTOVS rot? (f)i,\o\6yois /cal rot? 
avveTrpaTTev OTOV BeoivTO' /cal 0X0)9 



e<7T/a /cal TrpvTaveiov 'EXX^w/toi' o ot/co? TJV avrov 



rot? dfyitcvovfjievoi*; els 'PcoyLt?;!/. <$L\oao$>iav Be 



Trcrav {lev rjcnrd^eTO /cal Trpo? Traarav evjJievr]S 
ical oi/ceios, iSiov Be T^? 'A/caS^/zaa? ef 

604 



LUCULLUS, xu. 5~xLii. 2 

and he thus outwitted the men without their knowing 
it. For each of his dining-rooms, as it seems, had a 
fixed allowance for the dinner served there, as well 
as its own special apparatus and equipment, so that 
his slaves, on hearing where he wished to dine, 
knew just how much the dinner was to cost, and 
what were to be its decorations and arrangements. 
Now the usual cost of a dinner in the Apollo was 
fifty thousand drachmas, and that was the sum laid 
out on the present occasion. Pompey was amazed 
at the speed with which the banquet was prepared, 
notwithstanding it had cost so much. In these ways, 
then, Lucullus used his wealth wantonly, as though 
it were in very truth a Barbarian prisoner-of-war. 

XLII. But what he did in the establishment of 
a library deserves warm praise. He got together 
many books, and they were well written, and his 
use of them was more honourable to him than his 
acquisition of them. His libraries were thrown open 
to all, and the cloisters surrounding them, and the 
study-rooms, were accessible without restriction to 
the Greeks, who constantly repaired thither as to 
an hostelry of the Muses, and spent the day with 
one another, in glad escape from their other 
occupations. Lucullus himself also often spent his 
leisure hours there with them, walking about in 
the cloisters with their scholars, and he would assist 
their statesmen in whatever they desired. And in 
general his house was a home and prytaneium for 
the Greeks who came to Rome. He was fond of 
all philosophy, and well-disposed and friendly towards 
every school, but from the first he cherished a 
particular and zealous love for the Academy, not 

605 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 epcora teal %i}\ov ecr^ev, ov rfjs yea? 

Kalrrep dv0ovo"r)<f rore TO?? Kapvedbov \6yois 
Sia ^tXtoyo?, aXXa rfjs TraXeua?, mOavor avB/ a 52 1 
/ra! Beivbv el-netv Tore irpoardri-iv e^oucrr?? 
1 'Acr KaXwvLTtiv ' A.VT lo\pv , ov rraGr) 

(f)i\ov 6 AOVKOV\\O<? fcal 



dvTTCLTTe TO?? 4>/Xo>l/05 CLKOaTOL^, 0)V 



4 TfLticepwv fjv. teal crvyypa/*fj,d ye 7rdyfca\<>v eVou?- 
et? T^ aipecriv, ev c5 TOV i>7re/3 TT}? Kara\/]- 
\6yov Aovfcov\\<p irepireOeiKev, avrw Be 
rov evavriov. Aoy/couXXo? 8* dvayeypaTrrat TO 




cocnrep elprjTai, (>i\,oi &(f)6Spa real 
Koivwvol TT)? eV TToXtTem 7rpoaipe<rew ovSe yap 
av TrdfjLTrav a-TT^XXa^efc T?}? TroXtTeta? eavrov o 

5 Aou/cofXXo?, dXXa T/;V UTre/) TOI) /neyicrTos 
Kal TrXelarov SiivcurOat <^i\orifjLiav Kal 

a)? ovre aKiv&vvov our' dvvBpiGTOv ovaav, ei)6u<$ 
d(j) tee Kpdcrcra) teal KaTwi^f TOVTOVS yap oi rrjv 
Svvajuv. v<popd)/ji6voi 7rpoe/3d\\ovTO 
, dTro\eyofji,evov rov Aovtcov\\ov ra 
tcareftaive 5* et? T^ dyopdv 
T0i9 (j)L\ou<f, els Be rrjv <rvy><\rjTOV, el Tlo/jLT 

6 nva Beot aTruvBrjv rj <f>i\,Ti[jLLav eTnipedcrai,. 

Ta? re Biard^e^, a? eteelva*; eTroiijcraro rwv ftacri- 
\ewv tcparrjcras, e^e/cpova-e, Kal V6/j,7jrriv riva TO/"? 
avrov d<oi>To<; eKO)\vcre 



, COO'T6 



606 



LUCULLUS, XLM. 3-6 

the New Academy, so-called, although that school 
at the time had a vigorous representative of the 
doctrines of Carneades in Philo, but the Old Academy, 
which at that time was headed by a persuasive man 
and powerful speaker in the person of Antiochus of 
Ascalon. This man Lucullus hastened to make his 
friend and companion, and arrayed him against the 
disciples of Philo, of whom Cicero also was one. 
Indeed, Cicero wrote a noble treatise on the doctrines 
of this sect, in which he has put the argument in sup- 
port of " apprehension " into the mouth of Lucullus, 
and carried the opposing argument himself. The 
book is entitled " Lucullus." 1 

Lucullus and Cicero were, as I have said, ardent 
friends, and members of the same political party, 
for Lucullus had not withdrawn himself entirely 
from political life, although he lost no time in 
leaving to Crassus and Cato the ambitious struggle 
for the chief place and the greatest power, since 
he saw that it involved both peril and ignominy. 
For those who looked with suspicion upon the 
power of Pompey, made Crassus and Cato the 
champions of the senatorial party when Lucullus 
declined the leadership. But Lucullus would still 
go to the forum in support of his friends, and also 
to the Senate, whenever there was need of combating 
some ambitious scheme of Pompey's. Thus, the 
dispositions which Pompey made after his conquest 
of the kings, Lucullus made null and void, and his 
nroposal for a generous distribution of lands to his 
soldiers, Lucullus, with the co-operation of Cato, 
prevented from being granted. Pompey therefore 

1 Academicorum Priorum, Liber Secundus, qui inscribitur 
Lucullua. 

607 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kpacrcrou /cal Kat<ra/?o? (fctXiav, fj,a\\ov Be crvvw- 

/cal 



KOI crTpaTKDTtov ci Kvpaxrai TCL 
Tot/? irepl TOV KaTcova /cal \.OVKOV\\OV e/c/3a\6vTa 
TT}? a/yo/oa?. 

7 ' AyavaKTOvvTwv Be TWV ^e\rL(rrwv eVl roi? 
irporfjov ol YlofjLTnfiavol BerrfOf nva, 



ev ^v r crvyK\,iT(t) 
erepwv TIVWV, ev Be rut Bi'/fxw A.OV- 
KOV\\OV tovo/jLao'ev, a>? VTT exeivov rrapecriceva- 
airoKTelvat HO/JLTTIJIOV. ovBels Be TO> \oyw 
, d\\a KOI irapavriKa Bf)\o<i rjv 6 
67U GVKofyavTia fcal Bia(3o\fj 
VTT CLVT&V, Kal fjia\\ov (pa)pd6r) TO 
' o\iyas rjfjiepas pifyOevros etc TT}? 
vetcpov, \eyofMevov /JLCV auro/zara)? TeOvdvai, 
crrjfjLeia 5' 0,7^0^779 Kal Tr^ywv e%ovTOS' 
yap UTT' CLVTMV tivypr/aQat. TWV TrapeaicevaKO 
XLIII. Taura Brj Kal /md\\ov dirtjye r/}? 
reta? TOV AOVKOV\\OV. eVel Be Ki/cepwv e'^e 

T>}5 7TOX6O)? Kal KaTCOV 6fc? KuTT/OO^ 

TravTairacriv e^e\vdrj. Kal irpo ye r>)9 
\eyeTat, voarjcrat T>]V Btdvotav CLVTW KaTa 
dirofjLapaivofievrjv. NETTCO? Be Ko/J^^/A 
yijpws (frrjcrlv ouBe vbtrov TrapaXX-d^ai TOV Aou- 
KOV\\OV, aAXa t^apfJidKOL^ VTTO TIVOS TWV 
2 Oepwv KaXXtcr6't'i'OL'9 Bia<p0apevTa' TO, Be 
Bod^vai jjiev, &)? dyaTTMTO yu-aXXoi^ 6 Ka 
UTT' avTOV, TOiavTrjv e%eiv BuKovvra TTJV Bvvafj.iv, 
eKCTT^jaai, Be Kal KaTaK\vcraL TOV \oyi(r/.i6v, &CTT 

608 



LUCULLUS, XLII. 6-xLin. 2 

took refuge in an alliance, or rather a conspiracy, 
with Crassus and Caesar, and by filling the city with 
his armed soldiery and expelling from the forum 
the partisans of Cato and Lucullus, got his measures 
ratified. 

As these proceedings were resented by the nobles, 
the partisans of Pompey produced a certain Vettius, 
whom, as they declared, they had caught plotting 
against the life of Pompey. So the man was ex- 
amined in the Senate, where he accused sundry 
other persons, but before the people he named 
Lucullus as the man who had engaged him to kill 
Pompey. However, no one believed his story, nay, 
it was at once clear that the fellow had been put 
forward by the partisans of Pompey to make false 
and malicious charges, and the fraud was made all 
the plainer when, a few days afterwards, his dead 
body was cast out of the prison. It was said, indeed, 
that he had died a natural death, but he bore 
the marks of throttling and violence, and the opinion 
was that he had been taken off by the very men who 
had engaged his services. 

XLIII. Of course this induced Lucullus to with- 
draw even more from public life. And when Cicero 
was banished from the city, and Cato was sent out to 
Cyprus, he retired altogether. Even before his 
death, it is said that his understanding was affected 
and gradually faded away. But Cornelius Nepos 
says that Lucullus lost his mind not from old age, 
nor yet from disease, but that he was disabled by 
drugs administered to him by one of his freedmen, 
Callisthenes ; that the drugs were given him by 
Callisthenes in order to win more of his love, in the 
belief that they had such a power, but they drove 
him from his senses and overwhelmed his reason, 

609 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avrov rrjv ovalav &(,OIKIV rov d&e\(f)6v. 
ov f-irjv aXX* &>? drreOave, Ka6direp av l ev aKp.fi 
rrjs arparriyias Kal T>?9 TroXtreta? avrov reXevrij- 
y o Sfj/uos r]j(0e<j6r) KOI crvveSpa/j.6, KCU TO 
els dyopav VTTO TWV eifyei'earaTwv 
e^ta^ero Ocnrreiv ev TCO 7reSt&) rov 
OTTOV Kal *2,v\\av eOcityev. ovSevos 8e 
rovro Trpoa-SofcrjcravTOS, ovBe paSias ovarjs TT}? 
6 aSeX^o? avrov ^eo/iei'O? /<ral Trapau- 



CTreicrev 



ev TO) Trepl TovcrK\ov dypq> rov vetcpov 
jV(T0ai. 7ro\vv S' ouS' atTO? Trpocrefiico 



KOI 



yevo 



KIMQNO5 KAI AOYKOYAAOY 2YrKPISIS 



I. MaXfcrra S' a^ r? euSat/uiOViareie rov re\ovs 521 
AOVKOV\\OV, ort Trpb r/}? ^era/3oXf; 
rr}? TroXtreta? ereicraivero rot? 

TO rrerrpw^evov, e(f)dij rrpoarro9aviav 

ev vo<rovcrr) ^kv y en 8' e\ev6epa rfj 
TrarpiBt, rov (Biov. Kal rovro ye rrdvrwv avrtp 
2 Trpo? Kifji&va Koivorarov ecrri. Kal yap cxelvo? 
ovrrw crvvrerapayjjievwv rwv f EXX?;w/cw^, aXX* 
aKfjLi]v exovrwv ereXevrrjcrev, errl crrparoTreBov 
lievToi Kal (rrparrjywv, OVK drreip^KM^ 01)8' d\vwv, 
ovSe rcov orr\wv Kal rwv Grparrjyiwv Kal 

1 &i> supplied by Reiske. 
610 



LUCULLUS, XLIII. 2-1. 2 

so that even while he was still alive, his brother 
managed his property. However, when he died, 1 
the people grieved just as much as if his death had 
come at the culmination of his military and political 
services, and flocked together, and tried to compel 
the young nobles who had carried the body into the 
forum to bury it in the Campus Martius, where 
Sulla also had been buried. But no one had ex- 
pected this, and preparations for it were not easy, 
and so his brother, by prayers and supplications, 
succeeded in persuading them to suffer the burial to 
take place on the estate at Tusculum, where prepa- 
tions for it had been made. Nor did he himself long 
survive Lucullus, but, as in age and reputation he 
came a little behind him, so did he also in the 
time of his death, having been a most affectionate 
brother. 



COMPARISON OF LUCULLUS AND CIMON 

I. ONE might deem Lucullus especially happy in 
his end, from the fact that he died before that 
constitutional change had come, which fate was 
already contriving by means of the civil wars. His 
country was in a distempered state when he laid 
down his life, but still she was free. And in this 
respect, more than any other, he is like Cimon. For 
Cimon also died before Greece was confounded, and 
while she was at the acme of her power. He died, 
however, in the field, and at the head of an army, 
not exhausted or of a wandering mind, nor yet 



1 About 57 B.O. 

611 



VOL. II. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TpOTraiwv eiraOXov iroiovfjievos euor^ta? KOL TTOTOVS, 
waTrep H\dr(ov eVtovaoTrTet rou? Trepl TOV 'Op</>ea, 
Tot9 ev fteftiWKocrL fydo~KovTas airoKeladai 76/00.9 

3 ev aoov fJLeOrjv alajviov. tr^oX?) /JL&V ovv /cal 
r)(rv%ia teal Si,aTpi/3r) Trepl Xoyof? jfiovrjv TIVCL KOA, 
Oewpiav e^o^ra? evTrpeTrea-rarov av$pl Trpea/Svrrj 
/cal 7T67rav/jiev(0 iroKe^wv teal vroXtreta? irapa- 
fjivOiov TO 8' e<^)' r)<$oi'ijv, co? reXo?, 

ra? /taXa? Trpd^eis rjBt] \OITTOV ' 

AU crrparrjjLwv dyovra iraL^euv teal 
ov/c a^ia TT}? /caX?}? 'AxaSrifjLeias, ov&e 
TOV ^evoKpaTT] ^77X01)^x09, aXX' e 

4 7T/00? TOl' 'ETTlKOVpOV. KOI QaVfAaCTTOV e 

VTrevavTiws <yap rj veorrjs TOV fjiev eiri^royo^ real 
aKoXaaros ryeyovevat, SoiceZ, TOV 8e TTCTT aiftev pevr] 
KOL craMfipwv. /3e\TLO)v ovv w Trpo? TO j3e\Tiov r; 

%pricrTOTera <yap 
TO ^elpov, eVa/c/ia^ei Se TO 
Kal /U.T)I/ oyLto/'o)? 76 TrK 
5 SieOevTO TOV TT\OVTOV. ov >yap a^tov o/jLoiwcrai T> 






VOTiti) Tefyei, TTJS a:/J07ToXeC09, O TOt9 t'TTO 

KO/JLicr0Lcriv eVeXecr$?; xpyficuri, TOU? eV Nea 



\a<pvpa)v ov&e ye TTJ Ktyti&)^09 Tpcnrefyj Trjv Aou- 
KOV\\OV 7rapa/3a\LJ', rfj Srj/joKpaTiKrj Kal <pi\av- 

6 dptoTTW T1]V TToXfTeX/} tfO-l aaTpCLTTlK^V. T) /AV 

yap CLTTO fjiLKpa^ Sairain^ TroXXot'9 a^' rj/uepav 

&lTp<f)V t ?) 8' et9 0X170^9 TpV<pGOl>TaS ilTTO 



613 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, i. 3-6 

making feastings and revellings the crowning prize 
for arms and campaigns and trophies. Plato 1 ban- 
ters the followers of Orpheus for declaring that for 
those who have lived rightly, there is laid up in 
Hades a treasure of everlasting intoxication. Leisure, 
no doubt, and quiet, and the pursuit of pleasantly 
speculative learning, furnish a most fitting solace for 
a man of years who has retired from wars and 
politics. But to divert fair achievements to pleasure 
as their final end, and then to sport and wanton 
at the head of Aphrodite's train, as a sequel to wars 
and fightings, was not worthy of the noble Academy, 
nor yet of one who would follow Xenocrates, but 
rather of one who leaned towards Epicurus. And 
this is the more astonishing, because, contrariwise, 
Cimon seems to have been of ill repute and un- 
restrained in his youth, while Lucullus was dis- 
ciplined and sober. Better, surely, is the man in 
whom the change is for the better ; for it argues a 
more wholesome nature when its evil withers and 
its good ripens. 

And further, though both alike were wealthy, they 
did not make a like use of their wealth. There 
is no comparing the south wall of the Acropolis, 
which was completed with the moneys brought home 
by Cimon, with the palaces and sea-washed Bel- 
videres at Neapolis, which Lucullus built out of the 
spoils of the Barbarians. Nor can the table of 
Cimon be likened to that of Lucullus ; the one was 
democratic and charitable, the other sumptuous and 
oriental. The one, at slight outlay, gave daily sus- 
tenance to many ; the other, at large cost, was 
prepared for a few luxurious livers. It may be said, 

1 Republic, ii. p. 363. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



xprj/j-drcov. el fir) vrj Ata 

irpay/jidrwv eVotet Biatyopav o %p6vos' ciBrjXov 
yap, el Kal Kiuwv drro rwv irpd^ewv Kal arparrj- 
yiwv et9 diroXeaov fcal drroXirevrov yfjpas a$et? 
avrov eri /jid\\ov av e^p^craro aojBapa teal TT/OO? 
rjBovrjv dveLfJievr) Stairy KOI jap <j>t,\07roTr)<; Kal 
TravrjyvptKos Kal ra TT/JO? <yvvaiKa?, a>9 irpoeL- 
1 prjrcu, Sm/3e/3X77/-ta>o?. al Be Trepl ra? Tr/oa^et? 
rovs drywvas Karop0(0(rei,<; rj&ova? erepa? 
TWV ^eipovwv eTriOv/juwv dcr'^oX.iav TTOL- 

KOI \1J0)]V Tttfc? 7TO\lTlKal<> Kttl 

<f)V(Tcriv. el jovv Kal AOVKOV\\OS e 
dya)vi6/JLevo<; Kal crTparrjywv, ovK av 6 
raro? Kal (^tXo/Aeya^oraro? evpelv fjioi Soxd Sia- 
j3o\r)v 67T* avrov. Kal ravra fJLev Trepl 



II. 'Ez> Be rot? 7roXe/ifro4? OTL 
real Kara <yrjv Kal Kara OdX-acraav dyaOol jeyo- 
va(Tiv dya)vi(TTai $r/\ov wcnrep Be ra)i> d0\i]ra)V 
roi/? ^fxepa fjLia 7rd\r) Kal TrayKpariM are^avov- 
e6ei nvl TrapaBo^oviKas Ka\ovcnv, ovrco 
ev rjfjiepa fiua Tre^byLta^ta? Kal 
a/j,a rpOTraia) ar^^avcoaa^ r^v 'EXXa^a 
ICTTIV e%eiv TLVCL TrpoeBpiav ev rot? 
2 Kal IJLTJV AovKOv\\q) fjiev rj irarpi^, Kt/zcoi/ Be rfj 
TrarpiBi, rrjv rjyeuoi'iav TrepieQtjKe. Kal 6 
dp^ovar) TWV a-v/jL/jLa^wv irpocreKTrjvaTo ra 
7ro\/uLicL)v, 6 8' aXXoi? eirofjievriv 7rapa\a/3a)v 
Kal TWV a-va/JLa^Mv ap^eiv Kal TWV 7ro\efJii(ov 
Kparelv eiroirjare, Ilepcra? /j.ei> dvayKacras r)rrrj- 52! 

Be 



614 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, 1.6-11.2 

indeed, that the difference in state was due to the 
difference in time. For it is at least possible that 
Cimon also, if he had retired after his active cam- 
paigns to an old age which knew neither war nor 
politics, might have led an even more ostentatious 
and pleasure-loving life. He was fond of wine and 
given to display, and his relations with women, as I 
have said before, 1 were scandalous. But success in 
strenuous achievement, affording as it does a higher 
pleasure, gives public-spirited and ambitious natures 
no time to indulge the baser appetites, which are 
forgotten. At any rate, if Lucullus also had ended 
his days in active military command, not even the 
most carping and censorious spirit, I think, could 
have brought accusation against him. Thus much 
concerning their manner of life. 

II. In war, it is plain that both were good fighters, 
both on land and sea. But just as those athletes 
who win crowns in wrestling and the pancratium 
on a single day are called, by custom, " Victors- 
extraordinary," so Cimon, who in a single day 
crowned Greece with the trophies of a land and sea 
victory, may justly have a certain pre-eminence 
among generals. And further, it was his country 
which conferred imperial power upon Lucullus, 
whereas Cimon conferred it upon his. The one 
added his foreign conquests to a country which 
already ruled her allies ; the other found his country 
obeying others, and gave her command over her 
allies and victory over her foreign foes, by defeating 
the Persians and driving them from the sea, and 
by persuading the Lacedaemonians voluntarily to 

1 See Cimon, iv. 8. 

615 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 rreicras eKovras eKO-rrjvat. el roivvv fieyiarov 



epyov rjyeaovos evrrei6eiai> epydcraaQai SL 
AOVKOV\\OS fjiev vrro rwv crrpariwrwv fcare- 
, Kt/z&>v 8' vrro rwv (rvfji/jid^cov eOav- 
Trap 1 ov fjuev yap airiar^crav, TT/^O? ov Se 
o j,ev wv a<j)v er\.dv, VTTO 



rovTO)v air o\ei<j) dels Travri\6ev, o 
erepot? TTOL^CTCOV TO TTpoa-rarTo/jievov 
TOVTOIS auro? SiSou? TO 7rapdjye\/u.a 
rpLa ra TTCLVTWV Sfcr/coXcoraTa 

OfJLOV rfj TToXet, 7T/?0? fJLV TOf? 

Trapa be rwv <rv/jL/jid'%a)v rjye/jLOVi'av, TT^OO? Be 



4 MeyaXa? TOIVVV 

KaraXveiv rjye/Aovias KCU KaracrTpefpeo 
*Acriav traaav d-reXets eyevovro rwv irpd^ewv, o 
/j.ev Ka6cnTa% Sia rrjv rv^v ereXevT^a-e yap 
(rrpaniycov Kal evTjfiepcov rov 8* ov Tra^TeXw? di> 
Tt? ^e\otTO rijs Trap* avrbv airias, elV rjyvorjcrev 
etV OVK edepaTrevae Ta? eV T< 
Kal Ae/i-vret?, a< wv et? 



5 avre^eta? TrporfKOev. rf TOVTO ye Kal 

KQLVOV ecrri' Kal yap eKelvov VTnjyayov re 
OL TroXtTat Kal reXevrwvres 



Kicrav, iv avrov SeKa erwv, w? <^)?;cr/i' 6 \\\drwv, 
TT}? (frcovfjs fjM] aKoixjwcnv. al yap dpiGTO/cpaTiKal 
(f)vcrLS 6\iya TO?? TTO\\OL^ crvvcl&ovcri Kal vrpo? 
fj&ovrjv e^ovcrt, ra Be TroXXa rrpoa^La^o/JievaL rw 
Karevdvveiv ^tacrrpe^o/jbevovs din&a-iv, warrep ol 
rwv larpwv Bea/Jioi, Kairrep els ra Kara <f>vcnv 

1 tvfoias with S : tftvoiav, 

616 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, n. 3-5 

relinquish the command. Granted that it is the 
most important task of a leader to secure prompt 
obedience through good will, Lucullus was despised 
by his own soldiers, while Cimon was admired by 
the allies. His soldiers deserted the one ; the allies 
came over to the other. The one came back home 
abandoned by those whom he commanded when he 
set out ; the other was sent out with allies to do the 
commands of others, but before he sailed home 
he himself gave commands to those allies, having 
successfully secured for his city three of the most 
difficult objects at once, namely, peace with the 
enemy, leadership of the allies, and concord with 
the Lacedaemonians. 

Again, both attempted to subvert great empires 
and to subdue all Asia, and both left their work 
unfinished : Cimon through ill fortune pure and 
simple, for he died at the head of his army and at 
the height of his success ; but Lucullus one cannot 
altogether acquit of blame, whether he was ignorant 
of, or would not attend to the grievances and 
complaints among his soldiery, in consequence of 
which he became so bitterly hated. Or perhaps 
this has its counterpart in the life of Cimon, for he 
was brought to trial by his fellow citizens and finally 
ostracised, in order that for ten years, as Plato says, 1 
they might not hear his voice. For aristocratic 
natures are little in accord with the multitude, and 
seldom please it, but by so often using force to 
rectify its aberrations, they vex and annoy it, just as 
physicians' bandages vex and annoy, although they 
bring the dislocated members into their natural 

1 Goryias, p. 516. 

617 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ayovres ra? irapapOprja-eLS. ravrrjs JJLCV ovv u 
a7ra\\afcreov T?)? atTias e/cdrepov. 

III. IIoXi; 8' o AOVKOV\\OS 7rporj\de rq> TroXe- 
yu-ri) rov re Tavpov i>7rep(3a\a)v crrparoTreSy 
'Pw/uaicov 7T/3WTO9, KOI rbv Tiypiv $ia/3as KOL ra 
fta<rL\eia TT}? 'Acrta? eV otyei TWV ftacrLKewv, 
'Yiypavofcepra /ecu Kdfteipa KOI ^ivioTrTjv /cal 

2 Nt<rt/3ti', e\(ov /cal /carcupXe^as, KOL ra fxev ftopeia 

dcriSos, ra 8' ewa /J<e%pi M^S/a?, ra Be 
vorov real rrjv epvOpav 6d\acr(Tav 

Sta rwv 'Apa/BiKwv fSacn\ewv, 
Se ra? ^vvdjJLei^ rwv (Bavikitov, aTroXet^^et? Be 
rov rd cru>fjiara \a/3eiv, wcnrep Orfpiwv et? 
real #Xa? acrri/5et? teal dftdrovs aTroSi- 

3 Spaa-Kovrwv. rcKfMjpiov be /^eya* Tlepaai, (Jiev ydp 
a>9 ov&ev /neya TreTrovQores VTTO KtyLtw^ 
dvrerdrrovro T049 " EA,X?7crt, /ecu T^Z/ 76 
&vva/jiiv avrwv ev AlyvTrrw Kparrjaavres 

pav, Tiypdvov Be /cal ^liOpiBdrov /jLerd Aov/cov\- 
\ov ovSev aXXo epyov eyevero, dX)C 6 fiei> dff6evr)<$ 
real a-vy/ce/eo/jL/jLevos VTTO rwv 7rpa)ra)v dy&vwv 
' a7ra% eroXyu-^cre Bel^ai TlofiTrrjicp ri-jv Svva/jiiv 
> rov xdpaicos, a\Xa fyvywv et? ^ocnropov 

4 /careftrj /cdfcel Karecrrp\lre, Tiypdvr)? S' auro? eav- 
rov yvjjivov teal dvo7r\ov (fcepcov vTrepp^e lloyu,- 
TTTJLW, fcal TO 8t,d8r)fJ,a rtjs /ce<j)a\r)<; d<pe\6/jLvo<; 
eQrj/ce TT/OO r&v TroBwv, ov rot? eavrov KO\aKevwv 
Ylo/JLTTijiov, ciXXa rot? ^TTO AOUKOV\\OV reOpia/ju- 
fiev/J,evoi<}. rjydTrrjcre yovv diroKa^ftdvwv rd CTVJJ,- 
/3o\a T% ySacriXeta? a>5 d$>r]pi]iJLi>os irporepov. 



618 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, n. 5-111. 4 

position. Perhaps, then, both come off about alike 
on this count. 

III. But Lucullus was much the greater in war. 
He was the first Roman to cross the Taurus with an 
army ; he passed the Tigris and captured and burned 
the royal cities of Asia, Tigranocerta, Cabira, Sinope, 
and Nisibis, before the eyes of their kings ; he made 
his own the regions to the north as far as the Phasis, 
to the east as far as Media, and to the south as far as 
the Red Sea, through the assistance of the Arabian 
kings ; he annihilated the forces of the hostile 
kings, and failed only in the capture of their 
persons, since like wild beasts they fled away into 
deserts and trackless and impenetrable forests. 
Strong proof of his superiority is seen in this, that 
the Persians, since they had suffered no great harm 
at the hands of Cimon, straightway arrayed them- 
selves against the Greeks, and overwhelmed and 
destroyed that large force of theirs in Egypt ; 1 
whereas, after Lucullus, Tigranes and Mithridates 
availed nothing : the latter, already weak and 
disabled by his first struggles, did not once dare to 
show Pompey his forces outside their camp, but fled 
away to the Bosporus, and there put an end to his 
life ; as for Tigranes, he hastened to throw himself, 
while unrobed and unarmed, at the feet of Pompey, 
and taking the diadem from off his head, laid it there 
upon the ground, flattering Pompey thus not with 
his own exploits, but with those for which Lucullus 
had celebrated a triumph. At any rate, he was as 
much delighted to get back the insignia of his 
royalty as though he had been robbed of them 
before. Greater therefore is the general, as is the 

1 454 B.C. See Thucydides, i. 109 f. 

619 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovv a-TpaTrjyos, axrTrep d0\r)Tijs, 6 TW 
eavrov dcrOevea-Tepov irapaSovs rov avTiiraKov. 

"Ert Tolvvv Ktyao>z> fj,ev avvTGTpifjLiJievriv rrjv 
/SatrtXea)? Bvva/uuv KOL TO Hepa'cov fppovrjfjLa avve- 
GTCI\[JLVOV r/rrat? /jieyakais KOL diravcrroL^ 
VTTO jLLO"TOK\eovs KOI Tlavo-aviov KOL 



KOI 
KOTCOV tea TrorTTrevtoV rat? -vruat9 ra 



evi/crjo'e, A.OVKOV\\(I> Be Tiypavrj^ a?;TT7;T09 523 
e/c 7ro\\)v dyci)va)V Kal p,e<ya (fypovwv crvveTreae. 
6 7r\tj0i 8' ov& ci^iov 7rapa/3d\6iv roi? eirl Aov- 
KOV\\OV (Twe'X.Oovo'i TOLJ? VTTO K^/zw^o? KparrjOev- 



ra.9. cocrre 



elvai rrjv Kpiaw, eVet Kal TO SCLI/JLOVLOV d 
eoi/cev ev/jieves yevefrOcn, rw /Jiev a %/?>) KaropOovv, 
TW 8' a (frvXarrecrOai ^pyj Trpofjujvvov, wcrre 
rrjv Trapa TMV Oewv -^fj<po^ avrols 
Kal Oeiois rrjv vaiv 



620 



LUCULLUS AND CIMON, in. 4-6 

athlete, who hands over his antagonist to his 
successor in a weaker plight. 

Moreover, and still further, Cimon made his onsets 
when the power of the king had been broken, and 
the pride of the Persians humbled by great defeats 
and incessant routs at the hands of Themistocles, 
Pausanias, and Leotychides, and easily conquered the 
bodies of men whose spirits had been defeated 
beforehand and lay prone. But when Tigranes 
encountered Lucullus, he had known no defeat in 
many battles, and was in exultant mood. In point 
of numbers also, those who were overpowered by 
Cimon are not worthy of comparison with those who 
united against Lucullus. Therefore, one who takes 
everything into consideration finds it hard to reach a 
decision. Heaven seems to have been kindly 
disposed to both, directing the one as to what he 
must perform, and the other as to what he must 
avoid. Both, therefore, may be said to have received 
the vote of the gods as noble and god-like natures. 



621 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



Acestodorus, possibly the Acesto- 
dorus of Megalopolis, of un- 
known date, author of a work 
" On Cities." 

Achaia, a province in the north 
of Peloponnesus, seat of the 
Achaean League (280-146 B.C.). 
In 167 B.C., the Romans deported 
1000 Achaeans to Italy, where 
they were held for seventeen 
years. Among them was the 
historian Polybius. The name 
Achaia was afterwards given to 
the whole of southern Greece as 
a Roman province. 

Acharnae, the largest deme, or 
township, of Attica, some eight 
miles to the north of Athens. 

Adiabene, the western province of 
Assyria, lying along the Tigris 
river . 

Aeolian Isles, a group of islands 
lying between Sicily and Italy 
(Lucania). 

Aeschines the Socratic, a disciple 
of Socrates, and author of Socra- 
tic dialogues. 

Agesilaiis, king of Sparta 398-361 

B.C. 

Albania, a country lying between 
Armenia, the Caspian Sea, and 
the Caucasus mountains, to the 
east of Iberia. 

Allia, an "insignificant stream, 
joining the Tiber about eleven 
miles above Rome, from the 
east. 

Amisus, a city of Pontus (or Paph- 
lagonia), on the southern shore of 



the Euxine Sea, some one hundred 
miles east of Sinope. 

Ammon, a Libyan divinity, identi- 
fied with Zeus and Jupiter. His 
most famous oracle was in an 
oasis of the Libyan desert. 

Amphiaraiis, a mythical seer and 
prophet, king of Argos, who 
perished in the expedition of the 
Seven against Thebes. 

Anaxagoras, of Clazomenae, in 
Ionian Asia Minor, influential 
at Athens as an advanced thinker 
from about 460 to 432 B.C., when 
the enemies of Pericles secured 
his banishment. 

Andocides, an Athenian orator, 
prominent 415-^90 B.C. He 
betrayed the oligarchical party, 
incurring its hatred, and vainly 
tried to win the favour of the 
democratic party. 

Andros, the most northerly island 
of the Cyclades group, S.E. of 
Euboea. 

Anio, a large river of Latium, 
rising in the Apennines, and 
joining the Tiber about three 
miles above Rome, from the east. 

Antiochus the Great, king of 
Syria 223-187 B.C. 

Antiochus the philosopher, of 
Ascalon, pupil of Philo in the 
school of the Academy, a friend 
of Lucullus, and a teacher of 
Cicero. He died in 68 B.C. 

Antipater, regent of Macedonia 
after the death of Alexander 
(322 B.C.), victor over the con- 
federate Greeks at Crannon, in 
. 322 He died in 319. 

623 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Araxes, a large river rising in 
Armenia, and flowing east into 
the Caspian Sea. 

Arbela, an Assyrian town near 
which (at the village of Ganga- 
mela) Darius suffered final de- 
feat at the hands of Alexander, 
in 331 B.C. 

Archelaiis, of Miletus, the natural 
philosopher, said to have been 
a pupil of Anaxagoras, and a 
teacher of Socrates. 

Archidamus, king of Sparta from 
361 to 338 B.C., when he went 
to the aid of the Tarentines in 
Italy, and was killed in battle. 

Archon Eponymous, the first of 
the board of nine archons at 
Athens, so called, after the 
Roman conquest, because the 
year was registered in his name. 

Aristogeiton, slayer, with Har- 
modius, of Hipparchus, the 
brother of the Athenian tyrant 
Hippias, in 514 B.C. The two 
" tyrannicides " were afterwards 
honoured as patriots and martyrs. 

Arist9n of Ceos, head of the Peripa- 
tetic school of philosophy at 
Athens about 225 B.C. (pp. 9, 
217). 

Ariston the phi^sopher (p. 355), 
of Chios, a Stoic, pupil of Zeno. 
Jn his later life he taught 
doctrines of the Cynic school. 
He flourished about 260 B.C., 
and is often confounded with 
Ariston of Ceos. 

Aristoxenus the musician, a pupil 
of Aristotle, and a philosopher 
of the Peripatetic school. 

Armenia, a country lying north 
of Mesopotamia and Assyria, 
between the upper Euphrates 
and Media. 

Artaxata, the ancient capital of 
Armenia, on the river Araxes. 
See Tigranocerta. 

Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus, 
vassal of Xerxes, who distin- 
guished herself in the battle of 
Salamis. 

Asopis, a mythical personage, 
mother of Mentor by Heracles. 

624 



Atilius, M. Atilius Regulus, consul 
for the second time in 256 B.C., 
when he was defeated and taken 
prisoner by the Carthaginians. 

Atropatene, a province of Media, 
to the east of Armenia. 

Attains, the name of three kings 
of Pergamum, in Asia Minor. 

B 

Bithynia, a country of N.W. Asia 
Minor, lying east of the Pro- 
pontis, and along the coast of 
the Euxine Sea. 

Boedromipn, the third month in 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our September. 

Brundisium, an important city on 
the eastern coast of Italy (Cala- 
bria), with a fine harbour. It 
was the natural point of de- 
parture from Italy to the East, 
and was the chief naval station 
of the Romans in the Adriatic 
Sea. 



Cabeira (or Cabira),a city of Poiitus, 
in the northern part of Asia 
Minor. 

Caepio, Q. Servilius, consul in 
106 B.C., receiving the province 
of Gallia Narbonensis, where, in 
the following year, on the 6th of 
October, his army was utterly 
annihilated by the Cimbri. 

Callisthenes, of Olynthus, a relative 
and pupil of Aristotle, author of 
a Hellenica, or History of Greece, 
from 387 to 357 B.C. He accom- 
panied Alexander the Great as 
historian of the expedition, the 
end of which he did not live to see. 

Cappadocia, a district in eastern 
Asia Minor, south of Pontus, ami 
north of Cilicia. 

Carneades, of Cyren6, head of the 
Academy at Athens in 156 B.C. 
(when he was one of an embassy 
of philosophers to Rome) and until 
his death in 129 B.C. He was 
famous for the persuasive force 
of his eloquence. 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Chaeroneia, a town commanding 
the entrance from Phocis into 
Boeotia, celebrated for the 
battles fought in its neighbour- 
hood. Here Philip of Macedon 
defeated the allied Greeks in 
338 B.C. 

Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia, at 
the entrance of the Euxine Sea, 
opposite Byzantium. 

Chaldaeans, a general name for 
the inhabitants of Babylonia. 

Charon of Lampsacus, a " logo- 
grapher," a predecessor of Hero- 
dotus, who wrote a history of 
Persia in annalistic form. 

Chelidonian Isles, a group of 
islands off the coast of Pam- 
phylia, in southern Asia Minor. 

Chersonese (i.e. peninsula), here 
(p. 447) of the Thracian Cher- 
sonese, extending in a S.VV. 
direction into the Aegean Sea 
west of the Hellespont. 

Cilicia, a country in southern Asia 
Minor, extending along the 
Mediterranean between Pam- 
phylia and Syria. 

Cimbri, a northern tribe which, 
joining with the Teutones, in- 
vaded southern Europe. They 
were at last annihilated by 
Marius in 101 B.o. 

Citium, a town on the southern 
coast of Cyprus. 

Cleidemus, the oldest annalist of 
Athens, who flourished during 
the closing years of the fifth and 
the first half of the fourth 
century B.C. 

Cleisthenes, the Athenian aristocrat 
who introduced the democratic 
reforms which followed the 
expulsion of the tyrants in 510 B.C. 

Cleitarchus (Clitarchus), a historian 
who accompanied Alexander on 
his expedition to the East, and 
wrote a rhetorical history of it. 
He was the son of Deinon. 

Cleonae, a city nearly midway 
between Argos and Corinth in 
Peloponnesus. The Nemean 
games were celebrated In its 
territory. 



Cnldus, a Dorian city in the S.W. 
of Caria, in south-western Asia 
Minor. 

Colchis, a district at the eastern 
extremity of the Euxine Sea, 
north of Armenia. 

Colophon, one of the cities of 
Ionian Asia Minor. 

Corcyra, an island in the Ionian 
Sea, opposite Epeirus, the 
modern Corfu. 

Cos, an island off the S.W. coast of 
Caria, opposite Cnidus. 

Crannon, a town in central 
Thessaly, the seat of the wealthy 
family of the Scopadae. 

Craterus the Macedonian, a half- 
brother of Antigonus Gonatas, 
the king of Macedonia (pb. 239 
B.C.), who compiled historical 
documents, such as decrees and 
other published inscriptions, 
bearing on the history of 
Athens. 

Critias, one of the " thirty tyrants " 
(404-403 B.C.), like Alcibiadea a 
follower of Socrates, author of 
tragedies, and elegiac poems on 
political subjects. 

Cronus, the father of Zeus, identi- 
fied with the Roman Saturnus. 

Curius, Man ius Curius Dentatus, 
consul in 290 B.C., in which year 
he brought the long war with 
the Samnites to a close and 
reduced the revolted Sabines. 
In 275 B.C., he defeated Pyrrhus 
at Beneventum. He celebrated 
two triumphs in 290, and one in 
275. 

Cyanean Isles, two islands at the 
mouth of the Bosporus, at the 
entrance into the Euxine Sea, 
the clashing Lsles of mythology. 

Cyme, an Aeo ian city on the coast 
of Asia Minor, S.E. of Lesbos. 

Cyrene, a Greek city on the 
northern coast of Africa, in 
commercial relations with Carth- 
age, Greece, and Egypt. 

Cyzicus, a city on the southern 
shore of the Propontis, in Mysia, 
strongly situated on the neck of 
a peninsula. 



625 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



D 



Damastes, of Sigeium in the Troad, 
a historian contemporary with 
Herodotus, and author, besides 
many other works, of a genealogy 
of the Greeks who fought at 
Troy. 

Deceleia, a mountain citadel of 
Attica, about fourteen miles from 
Athens towards Boeotia. 

Deinon (Dinon), of Colophon, 
author of a History of Persia, 
father of Cleitarchus the his- 
torian of Alexander's expedition. 

Demetrius of Phalerum, regent at 
Athens for Cassander 317-307 
B.C., a voluminous writer on 
history, politics, poetry, and 
philosophy. 

Diodorus the Topographer (Perie- 
getes), of Athens (probably), a 
contemporary of Alexander the 
Great, wrote on the denies and 
monuments of Attica. 

Dion, of Syracuse, an ardent dis- 
ciple of Plato, master of Syracuse 
after the expulsion of Dionysiua 
II, assassinated in 353 B.C. 

Dodona, a town in Epeirus, seat of 
the most ancient oracle of Zeus. 



E 

Elaea, an Aeolic city of Asia Minor, 
the port for Pergamum. 

Epaminondas, Theban general and 
statesman, friend of Pelopidas, 
fell in the battle of Mantineia, 
362 B.C. 

Ephesus, one of the twelve Ionian 
cities, in Lydia, Asia Minor, at 
the mouth of the river Cayster. 

Ephors, five chief magistrates at 
Sparta elected annually. The 
first Ephor gave his name to the 
year, like the Athenian Archon 
Eponymous. 

Ephorus, of Cym6, pupil of Isq- 
crates, author of a highly rhetori- 
cal history of Greece from the 
" Dorian Invasion " down to 
340 B.C., in which year he died. 

Kpicurus, founder of the philo- 

626 



sophical school named from him, 
born in Samos, 342 B.C., died at 
Athens, 270 B.C. 

Eratosthenes, of Cyrene, librarian 
at Alexandria, most distin- 
guished as geographer and 
chronologist, a writer also on 
philosophy and ethics, 275-194 

B.C. 

Eumenes, king of Pergamum in 
Asia Minor from 197 to 159 B.C., 
and like his father (Attains I), a 
persistent friend of Eome. 

Eurymedon, a river flowing through 
Pamphylia, in southern Asia 
Minor, into the Mediterranean. 



Fabricius, C. Fabricius Luscinus, 
like Curius and Atilius a repre- 
sentative of the sterling virtues 
of the more ancient times, am- 
bassador to Pyrrhus at Tarentum 
after the disastrous battle of 
Heracleia, 280 B.C., consul in 
278 B.C., censor in 275, with the 
severity of a Cato. 

G 

Gabinian way, Via Gabina (earlier 
called Via Tiburtina), leading 
eastwards from Rome to Tibur 
(Tiyoli). 

Galatia, a district in central Asia 
Minor. 

Gordyene, a district of southern 
Armenia, lying east of the river 
Tigris. 

Gorgias, of Leontini in Sicily, 
famous for his eloquence, came 
on an embassy to Athens in 
427 B.C., when sixty years of 
age, and spent the rest of his 
life in that and neighbouring 
cities, amassing great wealth as 
a paid teacher of rhetoric. 

Granicus, a river of Troas, flowing 
north into the Propontis. 



Hamilcar, surnamed Barcas, im- 
placable enemy of the Romans, 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



father of Hannibal, and founder 
of the Carthaginian empire in 
Spain, died in '229 B.C. 

Hecatombaeon, the first month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our July. 

Helots, a name given to the 
original inhabitants of Laconia 
who had lost both land and free- 
dom. They were state slaves. 
See Perioeci. 

Heracleia (p. 423), called Pontica, 
to distinguish it from the many 
other cities of the same name, a 
city of Bithynia (or Phrygia 
Minor) on the southern shore of 
the Euxine Sea. 

Heracleides, called Ponticus from 
his birth n Heracleia Pontica, 
a pupil of Plato and Aristotle, 
and a learned and voluminous 
writer on almost all possible 
subjects. Cicero thought him 
superstitious and uncritical. 

Hieronymus the Rhodian, a disciple 
of Aristotle, flourishing about 
300 B.C. Little is known about 
him, though he is often quoted 
by Cicero. 

Hippocrates, the second of that 
name, and the most famous 
physician of ancient times, 460- 
357 B.C. 

Hyrcanian Sea, another name for 
the Caspian Sea, from the 
province of Hyrcania to the S.E. 
of it. 

I 

Iberia, a country east of Colchis, 
between the Euxine and Caspian 
Seas. 

Ides, the fifteenth day of the 
Roman month in March, May, 
July, and October; the thir- 
teenth in the other months. 

Idomeneus, of Lampsacus, a pupil 
and friend of Epicurus (342- 
270 B.C.), author of biographical 
works on " The Socratics," and 
" The Demagogues." 

Ino, daughter of Cadmus, and wife 
of Athamas, the king of Orcho- 
menus in Boeotia. After her 



death she waa worshipped as 
Leuqcthea, a sea goddess Ac- 
cording to one of the many 
myths connected with her name, 
she became mad with jealousy 
of a female slave, and slew her 
own son. See Plutarch, Roman 
Questions, 16. 

Ion, of Chios, a popular poet at 
Athens between 452 and 421 
B.C., also author of a prose work 
entitled " Sojourns," in which 
he recounted his experiences with 
famous men of his time. 

Isocrates, the celebrated Attic 
orator and rhetorician, 436-338 
B.C. 



Jason, the great hero of the 
Argonautic expedition, husband 
of Medeia. 



Lamptrae, name of two demes, or 
townships, in S.E. Attica. 

Lemnos, a large island in the 
northern part of the Aegean 
Sea. 

Leucothea. See Ino, 

Lycaonia, a district in central Asia 
Minor, between Galatia and 
Cilicia. 

Lycurgus, the semi-historical law- 
giver of Sparta, where he was 
honoured as a god. 

Lysias, the Attic orator, 458-378 

B.C. 

M 

Maeotis, Lake, the modern Sea of 
Azov, N.E. of the Euxine Sea. 

Maimacterion, the fifth month of 
the Attic year, corresponding 
nearly to our November. 

Mardians, a tribe on the southern 
shore of the Caspian Sea. 

Marsi, an ancient people of central 
Italy, akin to the Sabines. After 
their defeat in 89 B.C., they were 
admitted to the Roman citizen- 
ship, with the other Italians. 



627 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



llelanthius, an author of tragedies 
and elegiac poems, contemporary 
with Cimon at Athens. 

Melissus, of Samos, a famous 
natural philosopher, a disciple 
of Parmenides, who led the 
Samians successfully against 
Pericles. 

Mesopotamia, the region between 
the Tigris and Euphrates rivers 
above Babylonia. 

Metageitnion, the second month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our August. 

Metellus Pius, Q. Caecilius, ob- 
tained the surname of Pius for 
persuading the people to recall 
his father, Metellus Numidicus, 
from banishment. He was a 
successful general under Sulla, 
and consul with him in 80 B.C. 
He died about 63 B.C. 

Mithridates, the sixth king of 
Pontus bearing this name, com- 
monly known as Mithridates the 
Great, 120-63 B.C., the most 
formidable enemy of the Romans 
in the East. 

Mitylene the largest city of Lesbos, 
off the N.W. coast of Asia Minor. 

Mygdonia, a district in the N.E. of 
Mesopotamia. 



Nausicrates (or Naucrates), the 
rhetorician, a pupil of Isocrates. 
He composed models of funeral 
orations for men of note. 

Neanthes, of Cyzicus, a voluminous 
writer of history, who flourished 
about 240 B.C. He belonged to 
the school of Isocrates. 

Nepos, Cornelius, Roman bio- 
grapher and historian, a con- 
temporary and friend of Cicero. 

Nicomedeia, capital of Bithynia, 
at the N.E. corner of the Pro- 
ppntis. 

Nisibis, the chief city of Mygdonia 
(Q.v.). 

Nones, the ninth day before the 
Ides of the Roman month, falling 
therefore on the seventh day of 

628 



the month in March, May, July, 
and October, and on the fifth 
day of the other months. 
Numantia, a city in the northern 
part of Spain, taken after a 
memorable siege by Scipio Afri- 
canus, in 134 B.C. 

O 

Oropus, a town and district on the 
northern and eastern borders 
(respectively) of Attica and 
Boeotia, much in dispute be- 
tween Athenians and Thebans. 

Orpheus, the mythical singer of 
Thrace, and one of the Argonauts. 



Pagasae, a city in S.E. Thessaly, 
at the head of a gulf of the same 
name, famed in story as the port 
from which Jason set Bail with 
the Argonauts. 

Palatium, the Palatine hill of 
Rome. 

Pamphylia, a country on the south 
coast of Asia Minor, between 
Lycia and Cilicia. 

Panaetius, of Rhodes, the Stoic 
ph losopher, chief founder of the 
Stoic school at Rome, flourishing 
between 150 and 110 B.C. 

Parthia, in the time of Lucullus, a 
vast realm to the east of Armenia, 
Assyria, and Mesopotamia. 

Peisistratus, tyrant of Athens in 
560 B.C , and during seventeen of 
the thirty-three years thereafter. 

Pelopidas, Theban general and 
statesman, bosom friend of 
Epaminondas, killed in battle 
364 B.C. 

Pergamum (or Pergamus), an 
ancient city of Mysia, in Asia 
Minor, on the river Caicus. 
After 283 B.C., it was the seat of 
the Attalid dynasty. 

Perioeci, the name of those in- 
habitants of Sparta who kept 
their lands and personal liberty, 
unlike the Helots, but who did 
not exercise the rights of citizen- 
ship. 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Perseus (pp. 347, 363), the last king 
of Macedonia, son of Philip V. 
He graced the triumph of Aemi- 
lius Paulus in 167 B.C., and died 
at Rome several years later. 

Perseus (p. 411), the famous Argive 
hero, son of Zeus and Danae, 
slayer of the Gorgon Medusa. 

Phalerum, the ancient harbour of 
Athens, before Themistocles forti- 
fied the Peiraeus. 

Phanias, the Lesbian, of Eresos, 
the most distinguished pupil of 
Aristotle after Theophrastus, a 
prolific writer on philosophy and 
history, a historical romancer. 

Phanodemus, a writer of Attic 
annals, after the manner of 
Cleidemus (Q.V.). 

Pharnacia, a city of Pontus, on the 
southern shore of the Euxine. 
N.E. of Cabeira. 

Phasis, a river of Colchis, flowing 
into the Euxine at its eastern 
end. 

Philip (p. 139), of Macedon, father 
of Alexander the Great, secured 
the leadership of Greece in the 
battle at Chaeroneia, 338 B.C. 

Philip (p.335), Philip V of Macedon, 
father of Perseus, from 216 B.C. 
till his death in 179 a formidable 
enemy of Rome. 

Philo (p. 607), the Academic, of 
Larissa, removed from Athens 
to Rome about 88 B.C., where he 
was teacher of Cicero, and where 
he died about 80 B.C. 

Phlya, a deme, or township, some- 
where in the N.E. of Attica. 

Phrygia, a large province in western 
and north-western Asia Minor. 

Phylarchus, of Naucratis and 
Athens, a Greek historian who 
flourished about 220 B.C., to 
whom Plutarch is much in- 
debted in his Agis and Cleomcnet. 

Pitane, an ancient Aeolian city on 
the N.W. coast of Asia Minor. 

Polybius, the Greek historian of the 
Punic Wars, of Megalopolis, in 
Arcadia, born about 204 B.C., one 
of the Achaean exiles (see Acha (i) 
in 167. In Rome, he resided In 



the house of Aemlllus Paulus, and 
became the intimate friend of the 
younger Scipio, with whom he 
was present at the destruction of 
Carthage in 146 B.C. 

Pontus, a large district in N.E. 
Asia Minor, stretching along the 
southern shore of the Euxine. 

Potamus, the name of a deme, or 
township, in eastern Attica. 

Propontis, the intermediate sea 
between the Aegean and the 
Euxine. connected with the 
former by the Hellespont, with 
the latter by the Thracian 
Bosporus. 

Pydna, a town on the Thermaic 
gulf, S.E. of Macedonia. 

Pyrrhus, king of Epeirus from 295 
till his death in 272 B.C. From 
280 till 274 he was campaigning 
in Italy and Sicily. 



Sabines, a people occupying the 
western slopes of the central 
Apennines, in Italy. They were 
finally subdued by Curius Den- 
tatus in 290 B.C., and hi 268 
became Roman citizens. 

Sallust, C. Sallustius Crispua, 86- 
34 B.C. He was a partisan of 
Caesar, who made him governor 
of Numidia, where he amassed 
great wealth. He afterwards 
wrote histories of the conspiracy 
of Catiline and of the Jugurthine 
war. 

Samnites, inhabitants of Samnium, 
the mountainous district of 
central Italy lying between 
Latium and Apulia. In 290 B.C. 
Curius Dentatus won the honour 
of putting an end to the Samnite 
wars after they had lasted fifty 
years. 

Samothrace, an island in the 
northern part of the Aegean 
Sea. 

Scepsis, an ancient town east of 
the Troad, which in later times 
became subject to Pergamum, 
and a seat of learning. 



629 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Scopas, the Thessalian. See Cran- 
non. 

Seleucus, surnamed Nicator, 
founder of the Syrian monarchy, 
353-280 B.C. 

Seriphus, one of the Cyclades 
islands, S.E. of Attica, proverbial 
for poverty and insignificance. 

Sertorius, one of the greatest 
soldiers bred by the Roman civil 
wars, who successfully opposed 
the best generals of the aristo- 
cratic party in Spain from 82 
B.O. till his assassination in 
72. 

Sicyon, an important city in N.E. 
Peloponnesus, about two miles 
south of the Corinthian gulf. 

Simonides of Ceos, one of the 
greatest lyric poets of Greece, 
556-467 B.O. 

Sinope, an important Greek city 
on the southern shore of the 
Euxine Sea, in N.E. Paphlagonia. 

Sophene, a district of S.W. 
Armenia. 

Sophists, a general name for paid 
teachers of rhetoric and philo- 
sopy, like Gorgias. 

Stesimbrotus, of Thasos, a sophist 
and rhapsodist of note in Athens 
during the times of Cimon and 
Periclen. 

Sthenis, of Olynthus, a famous 
statuary at Athens, who flour- 
ished about 350 B.C. 

Strabo, the geographer (philoso- 
pher, p. 565), lived during the 
times of Augustus. 



Talaura, a stronghold in Pontus. 

Tanagra, a town and district in 
S.E. Boeotia. 

Tarentum, a Greek city in S.E. 
Italy. It surrendered to the 
Romans in 272 B.C., was be- 
trayed into the hands of Hanni- 
bal in 212, and recovered by 
Fabius in 209. 

Taurus, a general name for the 
lofty range of mountains ex- 
tending from Lycia in Asia 



Minor through Cilicia and south 
of Armenia into Media. 

Tegea, an ancient city in S.E. 
Arcadia, of Peloponnesus. 

Tempe, a famous valley in N.E. 
Thessaly. 

Tenedos, an island about five 
miles west of the Troad, in the 
N.E. Aegean. 

Tenos, one of the Cyclades islands, 
S.E. of Attica. 

Thargelion, the eleventh month of 
the Attic calendar, corresponding 
nearly to our May. 

Themiscyra, a plain and city in 
Pontus, near the mouth of the 
river Thermodon. 

Theophrastus, the most famous 
pupil of Aristotle, and his suc- 
cessor as head of the Peripatetic 
school at Athens. He was born 
at Eresos in Lesbos, and died at 
Athens in 287 B.C., at the age of 
eighty-five. 

Theoppmpus, of Chios, a fellow- 
pupil of Isocrates with Ephorus, 
historian of Greece from 411 to 
394 B.C., and of Philip of Macedon 
(360-336 B.C.). 

Tibareni, a tribe on the northern 
coast of Pontus. 

Tigranocerta, the city of Tigranes, 
later capital of Armenia, in Myg- 
donia, west of Nisibis, just south 
of the Taurus. 

Tigris, the great river rising in 
Armenia and flowing between 
Mesopotamia and Assyria. 

Timocreon, of Rhodes, a lyric poet, 
now known chiefly for his hatred 
of Themistocles and Simonides of 
Ceos. 

Timoleon, of Corinth, rescued 
Syracuse from its tyrant (Biony- 
sius II) and the Carthaginians in 
343 B.C., and became virtual 
master of Sicily, though without 
office. He died in Syracuse, 
337 B.C. 

Troezen, a city in S.E. Argolia, of 
Peloponnesus. 

Trophonius, received worship and 
had an oracle in a cave near 
Lebadeia in Boeotia. 



630 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Tuberp the Stoic p. 599), Q. 
Aelius, a pupil of Panaetius, 
flourished in the century before 
Lucullus, and could not have 
seen him playing Xerxes. The 
jest may have come from Lucius 
Tubero, the relative and intimate 
friend of Cicero, who cultivated 
literature and philosophy. 

Tusculum, an ancient city of 
Latium, fifteen miles S.E. of 
Rome, In the Alban mountains. 
It became a favourite resort of 
wealthy Romans. 

Tyrannic the Grammarian, of 
Amisus in Pontus. He was 
taken to Rome by Lucullus, 



where he became a teacher, was 
patronised and praised by Cicero, 
and amassed wealth. 



Vesta, an ancient Roman divinity, 
identical with the Greek Hestia 
as goddess of the hearth and fire- 
Bide. The Vestals were her 
virgin priestesses. 



Xenocrates, of Chalcedqn, 396- 
314 B.C., a pupil and disciple of 
Plato, became head of the 
Academy in 339 B.o. 



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